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Adrenal cortex hormones
Gray1185.png
Layers of cortex.
Latin cortex glandulae suprarenalis
Gray's subject #277 1278
System
MeSH [1]
[[Image:|190px|center|]]

Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer).

Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.

Layers

The cortex can be divided into three distinct layers of tissue based on their organization.

Layer Name Primary product
Most superficial cortical layer zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoids (eg, aldosterone)
Middle cortical layer zona fasciculata glucocorticoids (eg, cortisol)
Deepest cortical layer zona reticularis weak androgens (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone)

Steps of hormone synthesis

  • All adrenocortical hormones are synthesised from cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol is converted into pregnenolone by the enzyme CYP11A1 after transportation into the inner mitochondrial membrane by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR). Accordingly, production of hormones in all three layers of the adrenal cortex is limited by the transportation of cholesterol into the mitochondria and by its conversion into pregnenolone.

The steps up to this point occur in many steroid-producing tissues. Subsequent steps, however, only occur in the adrenal cortex:

Production

The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones:

Mnemonics

The layers of the cortex can be remembered with the mnemonic GFR: G - glomerulosa, F - fasciculata, R - reticularis.

Another mnemonic that is used is Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex: G - glomerulosa, F - fasciculata, R - reticularis, M - mineralcorticoids, G - glucocorticoids, S - sex hormones. (This mnemonic simplifies the relationship between the locations of production of glucocorticoids and sex hormones.)

Another mnemonic is "Salt, Sugar, Sex: The deeper you go, the better it gets." As one moves layers into the adrenal cortex, compounds that control salt (mineralcorticoids), sugar (glucocorticoids), and sex (weak androgens) are produced.

Pathology

Main article: Adrenal gland disorders

See also

External links


eo:Surrena kortekso
pt:Córtex adrenal
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