Individual differences |
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In studies of animal navigation, dead reckoning is more commonly (though not exclusively) known as path integration, and animals use it to estimate their current location based on the movements they made since their last known location. Animals such as ants, rodents, and geese have also been shown to continuously keep track of their locations relative to a starting point and return to it, an important skill to have for creatures that forage for food and then return to a fixed home.
Those animals displaying Animal hoarding behavior have the problem of navigating to their cache of food, often months later in entirely different environmental conditions. For example Clark's Nutcracker in the Yellowstone national park in the US which can lay down many caches of pinenut seeds in an area of 20km*20KM and then has to find them when the land is covered with deep snow in the winter.
- Gallistel. The Organization of Learning. 1990.