Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Animals · Animal ethology · Comparative psychology · Animal models · Outline · Index

This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..

Fossil range: Cretaceous - Recent
Meat eater ant feeding on honey
Meat eater ant feeding on honey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Vespoidea
Family: Formicidae
Latreille, 1809
  • Aenictogitoninae
  • Agroecomyrmecinae
  • Amblyoponinae (incl. "Apomyrminae")
  • Aneuretinae
  • Cerapachyinae
  • Dolichoderinae
  • Ecitoninae (incl. "Dorylinae" and "Aenictinae")
  • Ectatomminae
  • Formicinae
  • Heteroponerinae
  • Leptanillinae
  • Leptanilloidinae
  • Myrmeciinae (incl. "Nothomyrmeciinae")
  • Myrmicinae
  • Paraponerinae
  • Ponerinae
  • Proceratiinae
  • Pseudomyrmecinae

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related families of wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. They are a diverse group of more than 12,000 species, with a higher diversity in the tropics. They are known for their highly organized colonies and nests, which sometimes consist of millions of individuals. Individuals are divided into sub-fertile, and more commonly sterile, females ("workers", "soldiers", and other castes), fertile males ("drones"), and fertile females ("queens"). Colonies can occupy and use a wide area of land to support themselves. Ant colonies are sometimes described as superorganisms because the colony appears to operate as a unified entity.

Ants have colonized almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ant species are Antarctica, Greenland, Iceland, parts of Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, and other remote or inhospitable islands.[1][2] When all their individual contributions are added up, they may constitute up to 15 to 25% of the total terrestrial animal biomass.[3]

Termites, sometimes called white ants, are not closely related to ants, although they have similar social structures. Velvet ants, although resembling large ants, are wingless female wasps.


File:Ants in amber.jpg

A few ants in Baltic Amber

The Formicidae family belongs to the order Hymenoptera, which also includes sawflies, bees and wasps. Ants are a lineage derived from within the vespoid wasps. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ants evolved from vespoids in the mid-Cretaceous period about 120 to 170 million years ago. After the rise of angiosperm plants about 100 million years ago, they diversified and assumed ecological dominance about 60 million years ago.[4][5][6] Several fossils from the Cretaceous are intermediate in form between wasps and ants, adding further evidence for wasp ancestry. Like other Hymenoptera, the genetic system found in ants is haplodiploidy.

In 1966 E. O. Wilson, et al. obtained the first amber fossil remains of an ant (Sphecomyrma freyi) from the Cretaceous era. The specimen was trapped in amber from New Jersey and is more than 80 million years old. This species provides the clearest evidence of a link between modern ants and non-social wasps. Cretaceous ants shared both wasp-like and modern ant-like characteristics.[7]

During the Cretaceous era, only a few species of primitive ants ranged widely on the super-continent Laurasia (the northern hemisphere). They were scarce in comparison to other insects (about only 1%). Ants became dominant after adaptive radiation at the beginning of the Tertiary Period. Of the species extant in the Cretaceous and Eocene eras, only 1 of approximately 10 genera is now extinct. 56% of the genera represented on the Baltic amber fossils (early Oligocene), and 96% of the genera represented in the Dominican amber fossils (apparently early Miocene) still survive today.[4]











Phylogenetic position of the Formicidae.[8]


File:Bullant head detail.jpg

This close up shows the powerful mandibles of the Bull Ant, and the relatively large compound eyes which provide it with excellent vision

Ants are distinct in their morphology from other insects by having elbowed antennae, metapleural glands, and by having the second abdominal segment strongly constricted into a distinct node-like petiole, forming a narrow waist between their mesosoma (thorax plus the first abdominal segment, which is fused to it) and gaster (abdomen less the abdominal segments in the petiole). The petiole can be formed by one or two nodes (only the second, or the second and third abdominal segments can form it).

Ant bodies, like other insects, have an exoskeleton, an external covering that provides a protective casing around the body and a place to attach muscles, in contrast to the internal skeletal framework of humans and other vertebrates. Insects do not have lungs, but oxygen and other gases like carbon dioxide pass through their exoskeleton through tiny valves called spiracles. Insects also lack closed blood vessels but have a long, thin, perforated tube along the top of the body (called the "dorsal aorta") that functions like a heart in that it pumps hemolymph towards the head, thus creating some circulation of the internal fluids. Their nervous system consists of a ventral nerve cord running the length of the body, with several ganglia and branches along the way into each extremity.

File:Scheme ant worker anatomy-en.svg

Diagram of a worker ant (Pachycondyla verenae)

The three main divisions of the ant body are the head, mesosoma and metasoma or gaster.

The head of an ant has many sensory organs. Ants, like most insects, have compound eyes with numerous tiny lenses attached together enabling them to detect movement very well. They also have three small ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head, which detect light levels and polarization.[9] Most ants have poor to mediocre eyesight and others are blind altogether. Some ants have exceptional vision though, including Australia's bulldog ant. Also attached are two antennae ("feelers") which are special organs that help ants detect chemicals. The antennae are used in communication, detecting pheromones released by other ants. The antennae are also used as feelers, aiding in their sensory input about what is in front of them. The head also has two strong jaws, the mandibles, used to carry food, manipulate objects, construct nests, and for defense. In some species a small pocket inside the mouth holds food for passing to other ants or their developing larvae.

The thorax of the ant is where all six legs are attached. At the end of each leg is a hooked claw that helps ants climb and hang onto things. Most queens and male ants have wings; queens shed the wings after the nuptial flight leaving visible stubs, a distinguishing feature of queens. Wingless queens (ergatoids) and males can also occur.

The metasoma (the "abdomen") of the ant houses many important internal organs, including the reproductive organs. Many species of ants have stingers used for subduing prey and defending their nests.


File:Meat eater ant nest swarming02.jpg

Meat eater ant nest during swarming

File:Meat eater ant qeen excavating hole.jpg

Fertilized queen ant beginning to dig a new colony

The life of an ant starts with an egg. If the egg is fertilized, the ant will be female (diploid); if not, it will be male (haploid). Ants are holometabolous, and develop by complete metamorphosis, passing through larval and pupal stages (with the pupae being exarate) before they become adults. The larval stage is particularly helpless — for instance it lacks legs entirely – and cannot care for itself. The difference between queens and workers (which are both female), and between different castes of workers when they exist, is determined by the feeding in the larval stage. Food is given to the larvae by a process called trophallaxis in which an ant regurgitates food previously held in its crop for communal storage. This is also how adults distribute food amongst themselves. Larvae and pupae need to be kept at fairly constant temperatures to ensure proper development, and so are often moved around the various brood chambers within the colony.

A new worker spends the first few days of its adult life caring for the queen and young. After that it graduates to digging and other nest work, and then to foraging and defense of the nest. These changes are fairly abrupt and define what are called temporal castes. One theory of why this occurs is because foraging has a high death rate, so ants only participate in it when they are older and closer to death anyway. In a few ants there are also physical castes — workers come in a spectrum of sizes, called minor, median, and major workers, the latter beginning foraging sooner. Often the larger ants will have disproportionately larger heads, and correspondingly stronger mandibles. Such individuals are sometimes called "soldier" ants because their stronger mandibles make them more effective in fighting other creatures, although they are still in fact worker ants and their "duties" typically do not vary greatly from the minor or median workers. In a few species the median workers have disappeared, creating a sharp divide and clear physical difference between the minors and majors.

Most of the common ant species breed in the same way. Only the queen and breeding females have the ability to mate. Contrary to popular belief, some ant nests have multiple queens. The male ants, called drones, along with the breeding females emerge from pupation with wings (although some species, like army ants, do not produce winged queens), and do nothing throughout their life except eat and mate. At this time, all breeding ants, excluding the queen, are carried outside where other colonies of similar species are doing the same. Then, all the winged breeding ants take flight. Mating occurs in flight and the males die shortly afterward. The females that survive land and seek a suitable place to begin a colony. There, they break off their own wings and begin to lay eggs, which they care for. Sperm obtained during their nuptial flight is stored and used to fertilize all future eggs produced. The first workers to hatch are weak and smaller than later workers, but they begin to serve the colony immediately. They enlarge the nest, forage for food and care for the other eggs. This is how most new colonies start. A few species that have multiple queens can start a new colony as a queen from the old nest takes a number of workers to a new site and founds a colony there.

Ant colonies can be long-lived. The queens themselves can live for up to 30 years, while workers live from 1 to 3 years. Males, however, are more transitory, surviving only a few weeks.[10] Thus ants are more K-selected than most insects. Ant queens are estimated to live 100 times longer than solitary insects of a similar size.[11]

Ants survive the winter by going into a state of dormancy or inactivity. The forms of inactivity are varied and some temperate species have larvae that go into diapause while in others the adults alone pass the winter in a state of reduced activity. This does not happen in the tropics.[12]



Myrmecocystus (Honeypot) ants store food to prevent colony famine.

Ants show a wide range of morphological differences between the castes. While in some species, these differences are small, they are large in others. In some ant species there can be several size variants within the worker castes.[13] Workers cannot mate; however, because of the haplodiploid sex-determination system in ants, workers of a number of species are able to lay unfertilized eggs leading to fully functional haploid males. The role of workers may change with their age and in some species, young workers are fed until their gasters are distended, and play a role in food storage. These workers with a storage role are termed repletes.[14]

Behaviour and ecology[]


File:Ant mound.jpg

Ant mound holes prevent water from entering the nest during rain.

File:Ant hole activity.jpg

Ant hole in a flurry of activity during swarming

Ants communicate with each other through chemicals called pheromones, these signal messages are more developed in ant species than in other hymenopterans groups. Like other insects, ants smell with their long and thin antennae that are fairly mobile. The antennae have a distinct elbow joint after an elongated first segment; and since they come in pairs—rather like binocular vision or stereophonic sound equipment—they provide information about direction as well as intensity. Since ants spend their life in contact with the ground, the soil surface makes a good place to leave a pheromone trail that can be followed by other ants. In those species which forage in groups, when a forager finds food they mark a trail on the way back to the colony, and this is followed by other ants that reinforce the trail when they head back to the colony. When the food is exhausted, no new trails are marked by returning ants and the scent slowly dissipates. This behavior helps ants adapt to changes in their environment. When an established path to a food source is blocked by a new obstacle, the foragers leave the path to explore new routes. If successful, the returning ant leaves a new trail marking the shortest route. Successful trails are followed by more ants, and each reinforces the trail with more pheromone (ants will follow the heaviest marked trails). Home is often located by remembered landmarks in the area and by the position of the sun; ants' compound eyes have specialized cells that detect polarized light, used to determine direction. [15][16]

Ants use pheromones for other purposes as well. A crushed ant will emit an alarm pheromone which in high concentration sends nearby ants into an attack frenzy; and in lower concentration, merely attracts them. To confuse enemies, several ant species use "propaganda pheromones", which cause their enemies to fight amongst themselves.[17]

Pheromones are produced by a wide range of glandular structures including cloacal glands, Dufour's glands, the hindgut, poison glands, pygidial glands, rectal glands, sternal gland and tibial glands on the back legs.[11]

Pheromones are also exchanged mixed with food and passed in the trophallaxis, giving the ants information about one another's health and nutrition. Ants can detect what task group (e.g. foraging or nest maintenance) other ants belong to. When the queen stops producing a specific pheromone the workers raise new queens.

Some ants also produce sounds by stridulation using the gaster segments and also using their mandibles. They may serve to communicate among colony members as well as in interactions with other species.[18][19][20]



A weaver ant in fighting position, mandibles wide open


Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant (the two at the extremities are pulling the red ant, while the middle one cuts the red ant until she snaps)

Ants attack others and defend themselves by biting and in many species, stinging, often injecting chemicals like formic acid. Bullet ants (the genus Paraponera), located in Central and South America, are considered to have the most painful sting among insects, although these are usually non-fatal. They are given the highest rating on the Schmidt Sting Pain Index. Jack jumper ants, Myrmecia pilosula, located in Australia have stings that may kill the small proportion of susceptible people in the population, and cause hospitalizations each year.[21] A vaccine based on use of the venom extract to develop immunity has been developed.[22]

Fire ants, Solenopsis spp., are unique in having a poison sac containing piperidine alkaloids.[23]

Some ants of the genus Odontomachus are equipped with mandibles called trap-jaws. This snap-jaw mechanism, or catapult mechanism, is possible because energy is stored in the large closing muscles. The blow is incredibly fast, about 0.5 ms in the genus Mystrium. Before the strike, the mandibles open wide and are locked in the open position by the labrum, which functions as a latch. The attack is triggered by stimulation of sensory hairs at the side of the mandibles. The mandibles are also able to function as a tool for more finely adjusted tasks. Two similar groups are Odontomachus and Dacetini - examples of convergent evolution.

Apart from defense against larger threats, ants also need to defend their colonies against disease organisms. Some ant workers' role is to maintain the hygiene of the colony and their activities include undertaking or necrophory, the transport of dead nest-mates.[24] Oleic acid is identified as one compound released by dead ants that triggers undertaking behaviour in Atta mexicana.[25]

The nests are also protected from physical threats such as flooding by elaborate structures at the entrance or special chambers for escaping from flooding. Some arboreal species that live in plant hollows also have behavioural responses to flooding, where the workers drink the water and excrete it outside the nest.[26]


While many types of animals can learn behaviors by imitating other animals, ants may be the only group of animals besides primates and some other mammals in which interactive teaching behavior has been observed. Knowledgeable forager ants of the species Temnothorax albipennis directly lead naïve nest-mates to newly discovered food sources by the excruciatingly slow (and time-costly) process of tandem running. The follower thereby obtains knowledge that it would not have, had it not been tutored, and this is at the expense of its nest-mate teacher. Both leader and follower are acutely sensitive to the progress of their partner. For example, the leader slows down when the follower lags too far behind, and speeds up when the follower gets too close, while the follower does the opposite.[27]

Controlled experiments with colonies of Cerapachys biroi suggest that these ants can specialize based on their previous experience. An entire generation of identical workers was divided into two groups based on how the researchers controlled the outcome of food foraging. One group was continually rewarded with prey, while it was made certain that the other failed. As a result, members of the successful group intensified their foraging attempts while the unsuccessful group ventured out less and less. One month later, 'workers that previously found prey kept on exploring for food, whereas those who always failed specialized in brood care'[28]

Nest construction[]

Main article: Ant colony

Leaf nest of weaver ants, Pamalican, Philippines

While some ants form complex nests and galleries, other species are nomadic and do not build permanent structures. Various species may form subterranean nests or build them on trees. Nests can be found in the ground with craters or mounds around the entrance, under stones or logs, in logs, hollow stems, even acorns. The materials used for construction include soil and plant matter,[29] and they are highly selective of the nest site; Temnothorax albipennis will avoid sites with dead ants as these may be indicators of pests or disease. They are also quick to abandon established nest sites at the first sign of these threats.[30]

Some of the more advanced ants are the army ants and driver ants, from South America and Africa respectively. Unlike most species which have permanent nests, army and driver ants do not form permanent nests, but instead alternate between nomadic stages and stages where the workers form a temporary nest (bivouac) out of their own bodies. Colonies reproduce either through nuptial flights as described above, or by fission, where a group of workers simply dig a new hole and raise new queens. Colony members are distinguished by smell, and other intruders are usually attacked.

Weaver ants (Oecophylla) build nests in trees by attaching leaves together, first pulling them together with bridges of workers and then sewing them together by pressing silk-producing larvae against them in alternation.

Food cultivation[]

Main article: Ant-fungus mutualism

Leafcutter ants (Atta and Acromyrmex) feed exclusively on a special fungus that lives only within their colonies. They continually collect leaves which they cut into tiny pieces for the fungus to grow on. There are different sized castes specially suited to finer and finer tasks of cutting and chewing the leaves and tending to the garden. Leaf cutter ants are sensitive enough to adapt to the fungi's reaction to different plant material, apparently detecting chemical signals from the fungus. If a particular type of leaf is toxic to the fungus the colony will no longer collect it. The ants grow the fungus because it produces special structures called gongylidia which are fed on by the ants. They create antibiotics on their exterior surfaces with the aid of symbiotic bacteria, and subsist entirely on this farming of the fungus.[31]


Desert ants Cataglyphis fortis make use of visual landmarks in combination with other cues to navigate.[32]

In the absence of visual landmarks, Sahara desert ants have been shown to navigate by keeping track of direction as well as distance travelled, like an internal pedometer that keeps tracks of how many steps they take, and use this information to find the shortest routes back to their nests.[33]



Ants rafting in a pool

Worker ants generally do not grow wings and reproductive females remove theirs after their mating flights in order to begin their colonies. Therefore, unlike their wasp ancestors, most ants travel by walking.

The more cooperative species of ants sometimes form chains to bridge gaps, whether that be over water, underground, or through spaces in arboreal paths. Some species also form floating rafts that help them survive floods. They may also have a role in colonization of islands.[34]

File:Harpegnathos saltator.jpg

Harpegnathos saltator, a jumping ant

Some ants are even capable of leaping. A particularly notable species is Jerdon's jumping ant, Harpegnathos saltator. This is achieved by synchronized action of the mid and hind pair of legs.[35]

Polyrhachis sokolova, a species of ant found in Australian mangrove swamps, can swim and lives in nests that are submerged underwater. They make use of trapped pockets of air in the submerged nests.[36]

There are several species of gliding ant including Cephalotes atratus. In fact this may be a common trait among most arboreal ants. Ants with this ability are able to direct the direction of their descent while falling.[37]

Ant cooperation and competition[]

File:Meat eater ants feeding on honey.jpg

Meat eater ants feeding on honey - social ants cooperate and collectively gather food.

Not all ants have the same kind of societies. The Australian bulldog ants are among the biggest and most primitive of ants. The individual hunts alone, using its large eyes instead of its chemical senses to find prey. Like all ants they are social, but their social behavior is poorly developed compared to more advanced species. An Australian bulldog ant, Myrmecia pilosula, has only a single pair of chromosomes and males have just one chromosome as they are haploid.

Some species of ants are known for attacking and taking over the colonies of other ant species. Others are less expansionist but nonetheless just as aggressive; they attack colonies to steal eggs or larvae, which they either eat or raise as workers/slaves. Some ants, such as the Amazon ants, are incapable of feeding themselves, and must rely on captured worker ants to care for them. In some cases ant colonies may have other species of ants or termites within the same nest.[38]

Some ant species enter the colonies of others and establish themselves as social parasites. Some like Strumigenys xenos are parasitic to the extent that they do not have workers but instead rely on their Strumigenys perplexa hosts.[39][40]

The pavement ant is famous for its urge to increase its territory. In early spring, colonies attempt to conquer new areas and often attack the nearest enemy colony. These result in huge sidewalk battles, sometimes leaving thousands of ants dead. Because of their aggressive nature, they often invade and colonize seemingly impenetrable areas.

Ants identify kin and nestmates through their scents, a hydrocarbon-laced secretion that coats their exoskeletons. If an ant is separated from its original colony, it will eventually lose the colony scent. Any ant that enters a colony with a different scent than that of the colony will be attacked.[41] (See also Kin selection)


Region Number of
species [29]
Neotropics 2162
Nearctic 580
Europe 180
Africa 2500
Asia 2080
Melanesia 275
Australia 985
Polynesia 42

There is a great diversity among ants and their behaviors. They range in size from 2 to about 25 mm (about 0.08 to 1 inch). Their color may vary; most are red or black, but other colors can also be seen, including some tropical groups with a metallic luster. (See also ant genera). Numerous species of ant continue to be added in present times and taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and systematics of ants. Online databases of ant species include AntBase and the Hymenoptera Name Server.[42]

Ants have been used as indicator species in biodiversity studies.[43][44]

Relationships with other species[]

Ants associate with a wide range of species in many ways. They form mutualisms with other insects, plants, and fungi. They parasitize each other. They are preyed upon by many animals and even certain fungi. Because their nests are such hospitable places, many species of arthropods sneak in and integrate themselves in various ways to the ant's daily lives. These inquilines sometimes bear a close resemblance to ants. The adaptive significance of resemblance to ants, or myrmecomorphy, is not clear. The exact nature of mimicry varies with some cases involving Batesian mimicry, where the mimic reduces the risk of predation. Other forms include Wasmannian mimicry, that are associated with inquilinism.[45][46]

Aphids secrete a sweet liquid called honeydew which they exude in the process of feeding from plants. The sugars can provide a high-energy food source, which many ant species collect. In some cases the aphids secrete the honeydew specifically in response to the ants tapping them with their antennas. The ants in turn keep predators away and will move the aphids around to better feeding locations. Upon migrating to a new area, many colonies will take new aphids with them, to ensure that they have a supply of honeydew in the new area. Ants also tend mealybugs to harvest their honeydew. Mealybugs can become a serious pest of pineapple if ants are present to protect mealybugs from natural enemies.[47][48]

File:Common jassid nymph and ant.jpg

Meat ant tending a common jassid nymph

File:Lycaenid ant sec.jpg

A lycaenid larva and an ant

File:Ant Receives Honeydew from Aphid.jpg

An ant collects honeydew from an aphid.

Myrmecophilous (ant-loving) caterpillars of the family Lycaenidae (e.g., blues, coppers, or hairstreaks) are herded by the ants, led to feeding areas in the daytime, and brought inside the ants' nest at night. The caterpillars have a gland which secretes honeydew when the ants massage them. Some caterpillars are known to produce vibrations and sounds that are sensed by the ants.[49] Some caterpillars have evolved from being ant-loving to ant-eating and these myrmecophagous caterpillars secrete a pheromone which makes the ants think that the caterpillar is one of their own larvae. The caterpillar is then taken into the ants' nest where it feeds on the ant larvae.

Fungus-growing ants that make up the tribe attini, including leafcutter ants, actively cultivate certain species of fungus in the Leucoagaricus or Leucocoprinus genera of the Agaricaceae family. In this ant-fungus mutualism, both species depend on each other for survival. The ant Allomerus decemarticulatus has evolved a tripartite association with their host plant Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae), and a sticky fungus which is used to trap their insect prey.[50]

Lemon ants make devil's gardens by selectively killing surrounding plants and leaving a pure patch of lemon ant trees Duroia hirsuta.[51] Many trees have extrafloral nectaries that provide food for ants and the ants in turn protect the plant from herbivorous insects.[52] Some species like the bullhorn acacia, Acacia cornigera, in Central America have hollow thorns that serve to house colonies of stinging ants, Pseudomyrmex ferruginea, that defend the tree against insects, browsing mammals, and epiphytic vines. In return, the ants obtain food from protein-lipid Beltian bodies. Another example of this type of ectosymbiosis comes from the Macaranga tree which have stems adapted to house colonies of Crematogaster ants. Many tropical tree species have seeds that are dispersed by ants.[53] Seed dispersal by ants or myrmecochory is widespread particularly in Africa and Australia.[54]

Flies in the Old World genus Bengalia (Calliphoridae) are kleptoparasites and predators on ants and often snatch prey or brood from the adult ants.[55] Wingless and legless females of the Malaysian phorid fly Vestigipoda myrmolarvoidea live in the nests of ants of the genus Aenictus and are cared for by the ants.[55]

Many species of birds show a peculiar behaviour called anting that is as yet not fully understood. Here birds may rest on ant nests or pick and drop ants onto their wings and feathers, presumably to rid themselves of ectoparasites.

A fungus, Cordyceps, infects ants, causing them to climb up plants and sink their mandibles into the plant tissue. The fungus kills and engulfs the ant and produces its fruiting body. It appears that the fungus alters the behavior of the ant and uses the ant to help disperse its spores.[56]

Some South American frogs in the genus Dendrobates feed primarily on ants and the toxins on their skin may be derived from the ants.[57]

Brown bears (Ursus arctos) have been found to feed on ants, with as much as 12%, 16%, and 4% of their fecal volume in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively being made up of ants.[58]

Many species of mammals such as anteaters, pangolins and several marsupial species in Australia have special adaptations for living on a primary diet of ants. These adaptations include long sticky tongues to pick the ants and strong claws to break into the ant nests. Some South American birds such as the antpittas are also ant predators.

Humans and ants[]

File:DirkvdM ants on a leaf.jpg

Leaf-cutter ants


Ants in a Sumatran rainforest


Ants taking apart a larger insect.

Ants are useful for clearing out insect pests and aerating the soil. The use of weaver ants in citrus cultivation in southern China is one of the oldest known uses of biological control.[29] On the other hand, they can become annoyances when they invade homes, yards, gardens and fields. Carpenter ants damage wood by hollowing it out for nesting.

In some parts of the world large ants, especially army ants, are said to be used as sutures by pressing the wound together and applying ants along it. The ant in defensive attitude seizes the edges in its mandibles and locks in place. The body is then cut off and the head and mandibles can remain in place, closing the wound.[59]

Some species, called killer ants, have a tendency to attack much larger animals during foraging or in defending their nests. Attacks on humans are rare, but the stings and bites can be quite painful and in large enough numbers can be disabling.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

The Masai of Africa had an abiding respect for the Siafu ants, voracious predators that consume a large amount of insects and are welcomed for the benefit they bring to farmers, as they will eliminate all pests from a crop and quickly move on.

In South Africa, ants are used to help harvest rooibos, Aspalathus linearis, the small seeds of which are used to make a herbal tea.[60]

Ants as food[]

Main article: Entomophagy

Ants and their larvae are eaten in different parts of the world. The eggs of two species of ants are the basis for the dish in Mexico known as "escamoles". They are considered a form of insect caviar and can sell as high as $40 USD per pound because they are seasonal and hard to find. In the Colombian department of Santander, hormigas culonas (lit.: "fatass ants") Atta laevigata are toasted alive and eaten.[61] This tradition has come down from the native Guanes. In parts of Thailand, ants are prepared and eaten in various ways. Khorat ant eggs and diced flying ants are eaten as an appetizer. Weaver ant eggs and larvae as well as the ants themselves may be used in a Thai salad, yum (ยำ), in a dish called yum khai mod daeng (ยำไข่มดแดง) or red ant egg salad, a dish that comes from the Issan or north-eastern region of Thailand. Weaver ant queens may also be eaten live, at the time of nest initiation.

Charles Thomas Bingham notes that in parts of India, and throughout Burma and Siam, a paste of the green weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, is served as a condiment with curry. Saville Kent, in the Naturalist in Australia wrote "Beauty, in the case of the green ant, is more than skin-deep. Their attractive, almost sweetmeat-like translucency possibly invited the first essays at their consumption by the human species." Mashed up in water, after the manner of lemon squash, "these ants form a pleasant acid drink which is held in high favor by the natives of North Queensland, and is even appreciated by many European palates."[62]

John Muir, in his First Summer in the Sierra notes that the Digger Indians of California ate the tickly acid gasters of the large jet-black carpenter ants. The Mexican Indians eat the replete workers, or living honey-pots, of the honey ant (Myrmecocystus).[62]

In Brazil queen ants are considered a delicacy for part of the population. In the month of November they appear in great quantities, within a span of a few hours. People collect them, taking only their large abdomen and discarding the rest and they are eaten. If large numbers are collected the abdomens are then fried, sometimes mixed with manioc flour.[63]

Ants as pests[]

Modern society considers the ant a pest,[64] and because of the adaptive nature of ant colonies, eliminating them is nearly impossible. Pest control is a matter of controlling local populations, instead of eliminating an entire colony, most attempts at control are temporary solutions.

Typical ants that are classified as pests include pavement ants (otherwise known as the sugar ant), Pharaoh ants, carpenter ants, Argentine ants, and the red imported fire ant. Control of species populations are usually done with bait insecticides, which are either in the form of small granules, or as a sticky liquid that is gathered by the ants as food and then brought back to the nest where the poison is inadvertently spread to other members of the brood — a system that can severely reduce the numbers in a colony if used properly. Boric acid and borax are often used as insecticides that are relatively safe for humans. With the recent insurgence of the red imported fire ant, a tactic called broadcast baiting has been employed, by which the substance (usually a granule bait designed specifically for fire ants) is spread across a large area, such as a lawn, in order to control populations. Nests may be destroyed by tracing the ants' trails back to the nest, then pouring boiling water into it to kill the queen. This works in about 60% of the mounds and needs about 14 litres (3 gallons) per mound.[65]

Ants that tend other insects can indirectly cause pest infestations. Many homopteran insects that are considered as horticultural pests are controlled by the use of grease rings on the trunks of the trees. These rings cut off the routes for ants and make the pest species vulnerable to parasites and predators.

Studying ants[]

Myrmecologists study ants both in the laboratory and in their natural conditions using a number of tools and techniques. Ants are model organisms for the study of sociobiology and the testing of hypotheses such as those based on the theories of kin selection or evolutionarily stable strategies. Ant colonies can be reared or temporarily maintained in specially constructed glass frames for study purposes.[66] For certain kinds of studies it is necessary to identify specific individual ants through the study period and this is achieved by use of colour marking techniques.[67] The use of endoscopes to observe ants inside their nest tunnels is another technique that has been used in the field.

Ant inspired technology[]

The successful techniques used by ant colonies has been widely studied especially in computer science and robotics to produce distributed and fault-tolerant systems for solving problems. This area of biomimetics has led to studies of ant locomotion, search engines which make use of foraging trails and fault tolerant storage and networking algorithms.[68] (See also Langton's ant and ant colony optimization.)

See also[]

  • Ant-hill
  • Anteater
  • Antlion
  • Ant mimicry
  • British ants
  • Formicarium
  • Larvae
  • List of ants of India
  • Myrmecology

Notes and references[]

  2. Philip Thomas. Pest Ants in Hawaii. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).
  3. Ted R. Schultz (2000). In search of ant ancestors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (26): 14928–14029.
  4. 4.0 4.1 D. Grimaldi & D. Agosti (2001). A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 13678–13683.
  5. Corrie S. Moreau, Charles D. Bell, Roger Vila, S. Bruce Archibald & Naomi E. Pierce (2006). Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms. Science 312 (5770): 101–104.
  6. Wilson, E. O. Wilson and Bert Hölldobler. The rise of the ants: A phylogenetic and ecological explanation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102 (21): 7411–7414.
  7. E. O. Wilson, F. M. Carpenter, W. L. Brown (1967). The first Mesozoic ants. Science 157: 1038–1040. #REDIRECT Template:Doi.
  8. Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysisoidea, Vespoidea, and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28: 233–249.
  9. (1985). Ocelli: A Celestial Compass in the Desert Ant Cataglyphis. Science 228 (4696): 192-194.
  10. L. Keller (1998). Queen lifespan and colony characteristics in ants and termites. Insectes Sociaux 45: 235–246.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Franks, Nigel R. (2003). Ants (pp. 29-32) in Resh, V. H. & R. T. Cardé (Editors). Encyclopedia of Insects..
  12. Kipyatkov, V.E. (2001). Seasonal life cycles and the forms of dormancy in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicoidea). Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 65 (2): 198–217.
  13. E. O. Wilson (1953). The origin and evolution of polymorphism in ants. Quarterly Review of Biology 28 (2): 136–156.
  14. (2000). Nutritional function of replete workers in the pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.).. Insectes Sociaux 47 (2): 141-146. doi:10.1007/PL00001692.
  15. Tsukasa Fukushi (2001). Homing in wood ants, Formica japonica: use of the skyline panorama. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 2063–2072.
  16. Rüdiger Wehner & Randolf Menzel (1969). Homing in the ant Cataglyphis bicolor. Science 164 (3876): 192–194.
  17. Patrizia D'Ettorre & Jürgen Heinze (2001). Sociobiology of slave-making ants. Acta ethologica 3: 67–82.
  18. R. Hickling & R. L. Brown (2000). Analysis of acoustic communication by ants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 108 (4): 1920–1929.
  19. F. Roces & B. Hölldobler (1996). Use of stridulation in foraging leaf-cutting ants: Mechanical support during cutting or short-range recruitment signal?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39: 293.
  20. S. Milius (2000). When ants squeak. Science News 157 (6): 92.
  21. Clarke P.S. (1986). The natural history of sensitivity to jack jumper ants (hymenoptera:formicidae:Myrmecia pilosula) in Tasmania.. Med J Aust 145: 564–566.
  22. Brown, S.G.A., Robert J. Heddle, Michael D. Wiese and Konrad E. Blackman (2005). Efficacy of ant venom immunotherapy and whole body extracts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 116 (2): 464–465. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.04.025.
  23. M. S. Obin & R.K. Vander Meer (1985). Gaster flagging by fire ants (Solenopsis spp.): Functional significance of venom dispersal behavior. Journal of Chemical Ecology 11: 1757–1768.
  24. Julian G.E., Cahan S. (1999). Undertaking specialization in the desert leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex versicolor.. Anim. Behav. 58 (2): 437–442.
  25. Germán Octavio López-riquelme, Edi A. Malo, Leopoldo Cruz-lópez, María Luisa Fanjul-moles (2006). Antennal olfactory sensitivity in response to task-related odours of three castes of the ant Atta mexicana (hymenoptera: formicidae). Physiological Entomology 31 (4): 353–360.
  26. Maschwitz, U. (2000). Communal peeing: a new mode of flood control in ants.. Naturwissenschaften 87 (12): 563–565.
  27. N. R. Franks & T. Richardson (2006). Teaching in tandem-running ants. Nature 439 (7073): 153. PMID 16407943.
  28. .F. Ravary, Emmanuel Lecoutey, G. Kaminski, N. Châline & P. Jaisson (2007). Individual Experience Alone Can Generate Lasting Division of Labor in Ants. Current Biology 17 (15): 1308.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 B. Hölldobler & E. O. Wilson. The Ants, Harvard University Press.
  30. Franks, N.R. (2005). Tomb evaders: house-hunting hygiene in ants. Biol. Lett. 1 (2): 190–192.
  31. Schultz, Ted R. (1999). Ants, plants and antibiotics. Nature 398: 747-748.
  32. Susanne Åkesson & Rüdiger Wehner (2002). Visual navigation in desert ants Cataglyphis fortis: are snapshots coupled to a celestial system of reference?. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1971–1978.
  33. S. Sommer & R. Wehner (2004). The ant's estimation of distance travelled: experiments with desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis. J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 190 (1): 1–6.
  34. Morrison, L. W. (1998) A Review of Bahamian Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Biogeography. Journal of Biogeography. 25(3):561-571
  35. C. Baroni Urbani, G. S. Boyan, A. Blarer, J. Billen & T. M. Musthak Ali (1994). A novel mechanism for jumping in the Indian ant Harpegnathos saltator (Jerdon) (Formicidae, Ponerinae). Experientia 50: 63–71.
  36. R. E. Clay & A. N. Andersen (1996). Ant fauna of a mangrove community in the Australian seasonal tropics, with particular reference to zonation. Australian Journal of Zoology 44: 521–533.
  37. S. P. Yanoviak, R. Dudley & M. Kaspari (2005). Directed aerial descent in canopy ants. Nature 433: 624–626.
  38. E. Diehl, L. K. Junqueira & E. Berti-Filho (2005). Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 65 (3): 431–437.
  39. Ward, Philip S. (1996). A new workerless social parasite in the ant genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a discussion of the origin of social parasitism in ants.. Systematic Entomology 21: 253-263.
  40. Taylor, R. W. (1968). The Australian workerless inquiline ant, Strumigenys xenos Brown (Hymenoptera-Formicidae) recorded from New Zealand.. N.Z. Entomologist 4 (1): 47-49 url=
  41. Gregg Henderson, John F. Andersen, Joel K. Phillips & Robert L. Jeanne (2005). Internest aggression and identification of possible nestmate discrimination pheromones in polygynous ant Formica montana. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16 (7): 2217–2228.
  42. Donat Agosti & N. F. Johnson (eds.) (2005). Antbase.
  43. D. Agosti, J. D. Majer, L. E. Alonso & T. R. Schultz (eds.) (2000). Ants: Standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity, 280 pp, Smithsonian Institution Press.
  44. Hymenoptera name server. Ohio State University.
  45. Reiskind, Jonathan (1977). Ant-Mimicry in Panamanian Clubionid and Salticid Spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae, Salticidae).. Biotropica 9 (1): 1-8. doi:10.2307/2387854.
  46. Cushing, Paula E. (1997). Myrmecomorphy and Myrmecophily in Spiders: A Review.. The Florida Entomologist 80 (2): 165-193. doi:10.2307/3495552.
  47. G. C. Jahn & J. W. Beardsley (1994). "Big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala: interference with the biological control of gray pineapple mealybugs" D. F. Williams Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species, 199–205, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
  48. G. C. Jahn & J. W. Beardsley (1996). Effects of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on survival and dispersal of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 89: 1124–1129.
  49. Philip J. DeVries (1992). Singing caterpillars, ants and symbiosis. Scientific American 267: 76.
  50. Alain Dejean, Pascal Jean Solano, Julien Ayroles, Bruno Corbara & Jérôme Orivel (2005). Arboreal ants build traps to capture prey. Nature 434: 973.
  51. Frederickson, M. E. and Deborah M. Gordon (2007). The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil’s gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta trees. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 1117–1123.
  52. Katayama, Noboru & Nobuhiko Suzuki (2004). Role of extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba in attraction of ants and herbivore exclusion by ants. Entomological Science 7 (2): 119-124. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8298.2004.00057.x.
  53. Frances M. Hanzawa, Andrew J. Beattie & David C. Culver (1988). Directed dispersal: demographic analysis of an ant-seed mutualism. American Naturalist 131 (1): 1–13.
  54. Giladi, Itamar (2006). Choosing benefits or partners: a review of the evidence for the evolution of myrmecochory.. Oikos 112 (3): 481-492.
  55. 55.0 55.1 J. Sivinski, S. Marshall & Erik Petersson (1999). Kleptoparasitis and phoresy in the Diptera. Florida Entomologist 82 (2): 179–197.
  56. Elio Schaechter (2000). Some weird and wonderful fungi. Microbiology Today 27 (3): 116–117.
  57. J. P. Caldwell (1996). The evolution of myrmecophagy and its correlates in poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae). Journal of Zoology 240 (1): 75–101.
  58. Jon E. Swenson, Anna Jansson, Raili Riig & Finn Sandegren (1999). Bears and ants: myrmecophagy by brown bears in central Scandinavia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77 (4): 551–561.
  59. F. Gottrup & David Leaper (2004). Wound healing: historical aspects. EWMA Journal 4 (2).
  60. David R. Downes and Sarah A. Laird. Innovative Mechanisms for Sharing Benefits of Biodiversity and Related Knowledge.
  61. Hormigas culonas. URL accessed on 2007-03-14. (Spanish)
  62. 62.0 62.1 J. Bequaert (1921). Insects as Food. Natural History.
  64. Ants as pests
  65. Oklahoma State University. Two step method for Fire Ant control.
  66. Kennedy, C. H. Myrmecological technique. [1]
  67. Daniel P. Wojcik, Richard J. Burges, Chantal M. Blanton, Dana A. Focks (2000). An Improved and Quantified Technique for Marking Individual Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Florida Entomologist 83 (1): 74-78. doi:10.2307/3496231.
  68. E. Dicke, A. Byde, D. Cliff & P. Layzell (2004). Proceedings of Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology: First International Workshop, BioADIT 2004 LNCS 3141: 364–379.
  • Aleksiev, A. S., Longdon, B., Christmas, M. J., Sendova-Franks, A. B., & Franks, N. R. (2007). Individual choice of building material for nest construction by worker ants and the collective outcome for their colony: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(3) Sep 2007, 559-566.
  • Aleksiev, A. S., Sendova-Franks, A. B., & Franks, N. R. (2007). Nest 'moulting' in the ant Temnothorax albipennis: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(3) Sep 2007, 567-575.
  • Aleksiev, A. S., Sendova-Franks, A. B., & Franks, N. R. (2007). The selection of building material for wall construction by ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 73(5) May 2007, 779-788.
  • Aron, S., & Passera, L. (1999). Mode of colony foundation influences the primary sex ratio in ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 57(2) Feb 1999, 325-329.
  • Azcarate, F. M., Kovacs, E., & Peco, B. (2007). Microclimatic conditions regulate surface activity in harvester ants Messor barbarus: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 20(3) May 2007, 315-329.
  • Baer, B., & Boomsma, J. J. (2004). Male reproductive investment and queen mating-frequency in fungus-growing ants: Behavioral Ecology Vol 15(3) May 2004, 426-432.
  • Ballari, S., Farji-Brener, A. G., & Tadey, M. (2007). Waste management in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis: Division of labour, aggressive behaviour, and location of external refuse dumps: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 20(1) Jan 2007, 87-98.
  • Banks, A. N., & Srygley, R. B. (2003). Orientation by magnetic field in leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Ethology Vol 109(10) Oct 2003, 835-846.
  • Bargum, K., Boomsma, J. J., & Sundstrom, L. (2004). A genetic component to size in queens of the ant, Formica truncorum: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 57(1) Nov 2004, 9-16.
  • Berghoff, S. M. (2003). Army Ants: An Evolutionary Bestseller? : Current Biology Vol 13(17) Sep 2003, R676-R677.
  • Blanchard, G. B., Orledge, G. M., Reynolds, S. E., & Franks, N. R. (2000). Division of labour and seasonality in the ant Leptothorax albipennis: Worker corpulence and its influence on behaviour: Animal Behaviour Vol 59(4) Apr 2000, 723-738.
  • Bollazzi, M., & Roces, F. (2007). To build or not to build: Circulating dry air organizes collective building for climate control in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex ambiguus: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(5) Nov 2007, 1349-1355.
  • Bono, J. M., Gordon, E. R., Antolin, M. F., & Herbers, J. M. (2006). Raiding activity of an obligate (Polyergus breviceps) and two facultative (Formica puberula and F. gynocrates) slave-making ants: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 19(4) Jul 2006, 429-446.
  • Boulay, R., Cerda, X., Simon, T., Roldan, M., & Hefetz, A. (2007). Intraspecific competition in the ant Camponotus cruentatus: Should we expect the 'dear enemy' effect? : Animal Behaviour Vol 74(4) Oct 2007, 985-993.
  • Boulay, R., Hefetz, A., Cerda, X., Devers, S., Francke, W., Twele, R., et al. (2007). Production of sexuals in a fission-performing ant: Dual effects of queen pheromones and colony size: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(10) Aug 2007, 1531-1541.
  • Brower, M. (2006). Review of Ant: Anthrozoos Vol 19(2) 2006, 173-175.
  • Brown, J. J., & Traniello, J. F. A. (1998). Regulation of brood-care behavior in the dimorphic castes of the ant Pheidole morrisi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Effects of caste ratio, colony size and colony needs: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 11(2) Mar 1998, 209-219.
  • Brown, W. D., & Keller, L. (2006). Resource supplements cause a change in colony sex-ratio specialization in the mound-building ant, Formica exsecta: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 60(5) Sep 2006, 612-618.
  • Buczkowski, G., & Silverman, J. (2005). Context-dependent nestmate discrimination and the effect of action thresholds on exogenous cue recognition in the Argentine ant: Animal Behaviour Vol 69(3) Mar 2005, 741-749.
  • Buczkowski, G., & Silverman, J. (2006). Geographical variation in Argentine ant aggression behaviour mediated by environmentally derived nestmate recognition cues: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(2) Feb 2006, 327-335.
  • Buhl, J., Deneubourg, J. L., Grimal, A., & Theraulaz, G. (2005). Self-organized digging activity in ant colonies: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(1) May 2005, 9-17.
  • Burd, M., & Howard, J. J. (2005). Central-place foraging continues beyond the nest entrance: The underground performance of leaf-cutting ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 70(4) Oct 2005, 737-744.
  • Burd, M., & Howard, J. J. (2005). Global optimization from suboptimal parts: foraging sensu lato by leaf-cutting ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(2) Dec 2005, 234-242.
  • Cahan, S. H., & Fewell, J. H. (2004). Division of labor and the evolution of task sharing in queen associations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 56(1) May 2004, 9-17.
  • Cammaerts, M. C. (2004). Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti: Behavioural Processes Vol 67(3) Nov 2004, 417-425.
  • Castracani, C., Visicchio, R., Grasso, D. A., Mori, A., Le Moli, F., Di Tullio, A., et al. (2005). Behavioral Bioassays Testing the Methyl 6-Methylsalicylate as a Component of the Female Sex Pheromone in the Slave-Making Ant Polyergus rufescens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(5) Sep 2005, 685-692.
  • Chapuisat, M., Bernasconi, C., Hoehn, S., & Reuter, M. (2005). Nestmate recognition in the unicolonial ant Formica paralugubris: Behavioral Ecology Vol 16(1) Jan 2005, 15-19.
  • Chen, L., & Fadamiro, H. Y. (2007). Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of phorid fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) to red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta odor and trail pheromone: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 20(2) Mar 2007, 267-287.
  • Cogni, R., & Oliveira, P. S. (2004). Recruitment Behavior During Foraging in the Neotropical Ant Gnamptogenys moelleri (Formicidae: Ponerinae): Does the Type of Food Matter? : Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 17(4) Jul 2004, 443-458.
  • Collett, M., Collett, T. S., & Wehner, R. (1999). Calibration of vector navigation in desert ants: Current Biology Vol 9(18) Sep 1999, 1031-1034.
  • Collett, T. S., Graham, P., & Durier, V. (2003). Route learning by insects: Current Opinion in Neurobiology Vol 13(6) Dec 2003, 718-725.
  • Cuvillier-Hot, V., Lenoir, A., Crewe, R., Malosse, C., & Peeters, C. (2004). Fertility signalling and reproductive skew in queenless ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 68(5) Nov 2004, 1209-1219.
  • De Menten, L., Cremer, S., Heinze, J., & Aron, S. (2005). Primary sex ratio adjustment by ant queens in response to local mate competition: Animal Behaviour Vol 69(5) May 2005, 1031-1035.
  • de Menten, L., Fournier, D., Brent, C., Passera, L., Vargo, E. L., & Aron, S. (2005). Dual mechanism of queen influence over sex ratio in the ant Pheidole pallidula: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(6) Oct 2005, 527-533.
  • DeHeer, C. J. (2002). A comparison of the colony-founding potential of queens from single-and multiple queen colonies of the fire ant: Solenopsis invicta: Animal Behaviour Vol 64(4) Oct 2002, 655-661.
  • Dejean, A., & Feneron, R. (1999). Predatory behaviour in the ponerine ant, Centromyrmex bequaerti: A case of termitolesty: Behavioural Processes Vol 47(2) Sep 1999, 125-133.
  • Della Lucia, T. M. C., Peternelli, E. F. O., Lacerda, F. G., Peternelli, L. A., & Moreira, D. D. O. (2003). Colony behavior of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the absence of the queen under laboratory conditions: Behavioural Processes Vol 64(1) Aug 2003, 49-55.
  • Depickere, S., Fresneau, D., & Deneubourg, J.-L. (2004). A Basis for Spatial and Social Patterns in Ant Species: Dynamics and Mechanisms of Aggregation: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 17(1) Jan 2004, 81-97.
  • Devigne, C., Renon, A. J., & Detrain, C. (2004). Out of sight but not out of mind: Modulation of recruitment according to home range marking in ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(6) Jun 2004, 1023-1029.
  • Dietemann, V., Liebig, J., Holldobler, B., & Peeters, C. (2005). Changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of incipient reproductives correlate with triggering of worker policing in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(5) Sep 2005, 486-496.
  • Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., & Holldobler, B. (2005). Role of the queen in regulating reproduction in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa: Control or signalling? : Animal Behaviour Vol 69(4) Apr 2005, 777-784.
  • Dijkstra, M. B., & Boomsma, J. J. (2007). The economy of worker reproduction in Acromyrmex leafcutter ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(3) Sep 2007, 519-529.
  • Dornhaus, A., Franks, N. R., Hawkins, R. M., & Shere, H. N. S. (2004). Ants move to improve: Colonies of Leptothorax albipennis emigrate whenever they find a superior nest site: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(5) May 2004, 959-963.
  • Dupuy, F., Sandoz, J.-C., Giurfa, M., & Josens, R. (2006). Individual olfactory learning in Camponotus ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 72(5) Nov 2006, 1081-1091.
  • Durier, V., Graham, P., & Collett, T. S. (2003). Snapshot memories and landmark guidance in wood ants: Current Biology Vol 13(18) Sep 2003, 1614-1618.
  • Dussutour, A., Fourcassie, V., Helbing, D., & Deneubourg, J.-L. (2004). Optimal traffic organization in ants under crowded conditions: Nature Vol 428(6978) Mar 2004, 70-73.
  • Edwards, D. P., Arauco, R., Hassall, M., Sutherland, W. J., Chamberlain, K., Wadhams, L. J., et al. (2007). Protection in an ant-plant mutualism: An adaptation or a sensory trap? : Animal Behaviour Vol 74(3) Sep 2007, 377-385.
  • Elias, M., Rosengren, R., & Sundstrom, L. (2005). Seasonal polydomy and unicoloniality in a polygynous population of the red wood ant Formica truncorum: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 57(4) Feb 2005, 339-349.
  • Endler, A., Holldobler, B., & Liebig, J. (2007). Lack of physical policing and fertility cues in egg-laying workers of the ant Camponotus floridanus: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(5) Nov 2007, 1171-1180.
  • Endler, A., Liebig, J., & Holldobler, B. (2006). Queen fertility, egg marking and colony size in the ant Camponotus floridanus: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(4) Feb 2006, 490-499.
  • Errard, C., Hefetz, A., & Jaisson, P. (2006). Social discrimination tuning in ants: Template formation and chemical similarity: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(3) Jan 2006, 353-363.
  • Evans, S. (1932). An experiment in maze learning with ants: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 14(2) Oct 1932, 183-190.
  • Fjerdingstad, E. J. (2004). Multiple paternity and colony homeostasis in Lasius niger ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 56(1) May 2004, 50-58.
  • Foitzik, S., Backus, V. L., Trindl, A., & Herbers, J. M. (2004). Ecology of Leptothorax ants: Impact of food, nest sites, and social parasites: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 55(5) Mar 2004, 484-493.
  • Foitzik, S., Sturm, H., Pusch, K., D'Ettorre, P., & Heinze, J. (2007). Nestmate recognition and intraspecific chemical and genetic variation in Temnothorax ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 73(6) Jun 2007, 999-1007.
  • Fournier, D., Battaille, G., Timmermans, I., & Aron, S. (2008). Genetic diversity, worker size polymorphism and division of labour in the polyandrous ant Cataglyphis cursor: Animal Behaviour Vol 75(1) Jan 2008, 151-158.
  • Fournier, D., & Keller, L. (2001). Partitioning of reproduction among queens in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile: Animal Behaviour Vol 62(6) Dec 2001, 1039-1045.
  • Franks, N. R., Britton, N. F., Sendova-Franks, A. B., Denny, A. J., Soans, E. L., Brown, A. P., et al. (2004). Centrifugal waste disposal and the optimization of ant nest craters: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(5) May 2004, 965-973.
  • Franks, N. R., Dornhaus, A., Hitchcock, G., Guillem, R., Hooper, J., & Webb, C. (2007). Avoidance of conspecific colonies during nest choice by ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 73(3) Mar 2007, 525-534.
  • Glaze, J. A. (1936). "Instinct and intelligence" in ants: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 21(1) Feb 1936, 9-18.
  • Godzinska, E. J. (2004). Novelty responses of harvesting ants: Facts, hypotheses and open questions: Polish Psychological Bulletin Vol 35(2) 2004, 77-90.
  • Gomez, J. F. (2008). Mathematical neuroethology of appendages: From ants to vertebrates and robots. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gordon, D. M., Holmes, S., & Nacu, S. (2008). The short-term regulation of foraging in harvester ants: Behavioral Ecology Vol 19(1) Jan-Feb 2008, 217-222.
  • Grangier, J., Le Breton, J., Dejean, A., & Orivel, J. (2007). Coexistence between Cyphomyrmex ants and dominant populations of Wasmannia auropunctata: Behavioural Processes Vol 74(1) Jan 2007, 93-96.
  • Greene, M. J., & Gordon, D. M. (2003). Cuticular hydrocarbons inform task decisions: Nature Vol 423(6935) May 2003, 32.
  • Greene, M. J., & Gordon, D. M. (2007). Interaction rate informs harvester ant task decisions: Behavioral Ecology Vol 18(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 451-455.
  • Guerin, S., & Kunkle, D. (2004). Emergence of Constraint in Self-organizing Systems: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences Vol 8(2) Apr 2004, 131-146.
  • Hammond, R. L., Bruford, M. W., & Bourke, A. F. G. (2006). A test of reproductive skew models in a field population of a multiple-queen ant: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(2) Dec 2006, 265-275.
  • Hannonen, M., Sledge, M. F., Turillazzi, S., & Sundstrom, L. (2002). Queen reproduction, chemical signalling and worker behaviour in polygyne colonies of the ant Formica fusca: Animal Behaviour Vol 64(3) Sep 2002, 477-485.
  • Hannonen, M., & Sundstrom, L. (2003). Reproductive sharing among queens in the ant Formica fusca: Behavioral Ecology Vol 14(6) Nov-Dec 2003, 870-875.
  • Harris, R. A., de Ibarra, N. H., Graham, P., & Collett, T. S. (2005). Priming of visual route memories: Nature Vol 438(7066) Nov 2005, 302.
  • Hart, A. G., & Ratnieks, F. L. W. (2001). Leaf caching in the leafcutting ant Atta colombica: Organizational shift, task partitioning and making the best of a bad job: Animal Behaviour Vol 62(2) Aug 2001, 227-234.
  • Heinze, J., Hartmann, A., & Ruppell, O. (2001). Sex allocation ratios in the facultatively polygynous ant, Leptothorax acervorum: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 50(3) 2001, 270-274.
  • Heithaus, E. R., Heithaus, P. A., & Liu, S. Y. (2005). Satiation in collection of myrmecochorous diaspores by colonies of Aphaenogaster rudis (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Central Ohio, USA: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(6) Nov 2005, 827-846.
  • Helantera, H., Martin, S. J., & Ratnieks, F. L. W. (2007). Prior experience with eggs laid by non-nestmate queens induces egg acceptance errors in ant workers: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(2) Dec 2007, 223-228.
  • Helantera, H., & Sundstrom, L. (2007). Worker policing and nest mate recognition in the ant Formica fusca: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(8) Jun 2007, 1143-1149.
  • Heredia, A., & Detrain, C. (2005). Influence of seed size and seed nature on recruitment in the polymorphic harvester ant Messor barbarus: Behavioural Processes Vol 70(3) Nov 2005, 289-300.
  • Hernandez, J. V., Goitia, W., Osio, A., Cabrera, A., Lopez, H., Sainz, C., et al. (2006). Leaf-cutter ant species (Hymenoptera: Atta) differ in the types of cues used to differentiate between self and others: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(4) Apr 2006, 945-952.
  • Hickling, R., & Brown, R. L. (2000). Analysis of acoustic communication by ants: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol 108(4) Oct 2000, 1920-1929.
  • Holbrook, C. T., Strehl, C.-P., Johnson, R. A., & Gadau, J. (2007). Low queen mating frequency in the seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex (Ephebomyrmex) pima: Implications for the evolution of polyandry: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(2) Dec 2007, 229-236.
  • Holldobler, B., & Wilson, E. O. (2001). The evolution of communal nest-weaving in ants. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  • Holldobler, B., & Wilson, E. O. (2005). The Evolution of Communal Nest-Weaving in Ants. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  • Hora, R. R., Doums, C., Poteaux, C., Feneron, R., Valenzuela, J., Heinze, J., et al. (2005). Small queens in the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum: A new case of social parasitism: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(2) Dec 2005, 285-292.
  • Hora, R. R., Poteaux, C., Doums, C., Fresneau, D., & Feneron, R. (2007). Egg cannibalism in a facultative polygynous ant: Conflict for reproduction or strategy to survive? : Ethology Vol 113(9) Sep 2007, 909-916.
  • Ichinose, K., Cerda, X., Jean-Philippe, C., & Lenoir, A. (2005). Detecting Nestmate Recognition Patterns in the Fission-Performing Ant Aphaenogaster senilis: A Comparison of Different Indices: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(5) Sep 2005, 633-650.
  • Ito, F. (1999). Male behavior and regulation of worker mating in a ponerine ant, Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 12(2) Mar 1999, 193-198.
  • Iwanishi, S., Hasegawa, E., & Ohkawara, K. (2003). Worker oviposition and policing behaviour in the myrmicine ant Aphaenogaster smythiesi japonica Forel: Animal Behaviour Vol 66(3) Sep 2003, 513-519.
  • Jackson, D. E., & Chaline, N. (2007). Modulation of pheromone trail strength with food quality in Pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(3) Sep 2007, 463-470.
  • Jackson, D. E., Martin, S. J., Holcombe, M., & Ratnieks, F. L. W. (2006). Longevity and detection of persistent foraging trails in pharaoh's ants, Monomorium pharaonis (L.): Animal Behaviour Vol 71(2) Feb 2006, 351-359.
  • Jackson, D. E., Martin, S. J., Ratnieks, F. L. W., & Holcombe, M. (2007). Spatial and temporal variation in pheromone composition of ant foraging trails: Behavioral Ecology Vol 18(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 444-450.
  • Jeanson, R., Deneubourg, J.-L., Grimal, A., & Theraulaz, G. (2004). Modulation of individual behavior and collective decision-making during aggregation site selection by the ant Messor barbarus: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 55(4) Feb 2004, 388-394.
  • Johnson, C. A. (2000). Mechanisms of dependent colony founding in the slave-maker ant, polyergus breviceps emery (hymenoptera: Formicidae). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Johnson, C. A., Topoff, H., Meer, R. K. V., & Lavine, B. (2005). Do these eggs smell funny to you?: An experimental study of egg discrimination by hosts of the social parasite Polyergus breviceps (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 57(3) Jan 2005, 245-255.
  • Johnson, R. A. (2004). Colony founding by pleometrosis in the semiclaustral seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Animal Behaviour Vol 68(5) Nov 2004, 1189-1200.
  • Judd, T. M. (2005). The effects of water, season, and colony composition on foraging preferences of Pheidole ceres: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(6) Nov 2005, 781-803.
  • Kaptein, N., Billen, J., & Gobin, B. (2005). Larval begging for food enhances reproductive options in the ponerine ant Gnamptogenys striatula: Animal Behaviour Vol 69(2) Feb 2005, 293-299.
  • Kay, A. (2004). The relative availabilities of complementary resources affect the feeding preferences of ant colonies: Behavioral Ecology Vol 15(1) Jan 2004, 63-70.
  • Kay, A., & Kissing, S. W. (2005). Division of foraging labor in ants can mediate demands for food and safety: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(2) Jun 2005, 165-174.
  • Kikuchi, T., Tsuji, K., Ohnishi, H., & Le Breton, J. (2007). Caste-biased acceptance of non-nestmates in a polygynous ponerine ant: Animal Behaviour Vol 73(4) Apr 2007, 559-565.
  • Kikuta, N., & Tsuji, K. (1999). Queen and worker policing in the monogynous and monandrous ant, Diacamma sp: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 46(3) Aug 1999, 180-189.
  • Knaden, M., & Wehner, R. (2004). Path Integration in Desert Ants Controls Aggressiveness: Science Vol 305(5680) Jul 2004, 60.
  • Knaden, M., & Wehner, R. (2005). Nest mark orientation in desert ants Cataglyphis: What does it do to the path integrator? : Animal Behaviour Vol 70(6) Dec 2005, 1349-1354.
  • Kohler, M., & Wehner, R. (2005). Idiosyncratic route-based memories in desert ants, Melophorus bagoti: How do they interact with path-integration vectors? : Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 83(1) Jan 2005, 1-12.
  • Kummerli, R., & Keller, L. (2007). Extreme reproductive specialization within ant colonies: Some queens produce males whereas others produce workers: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(5) Nov 2007, 1535-1543.
  • Kummerli, R., & Keller, L. (2007). Reproductive specialization in multiple-queen colonies of the ant Formica exsecta: Behavioral Ecology Vol 18(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 375-383.
  • Lafleur, L. J. (1940). Helpfulness in ants: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 30(1) Aug 1940, 23-29.
  • Lafleur, L. J. (1940). Punitive behavior of ants: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 29(3) Jun 1940, 327-335.
  • Lafleur, L. J. (1942). Anti-social behavior among ants: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 33(1) Feb 1942, 33-39.
  • Lafleur, L. J. (1943). A reply: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 35(1) Feb 1943, 97-99.
  • Lafleur, L. J. (1944). Ants and hypotheses: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 37(1) Feb 1944, 17-22.
  • Lahav, S., Soroker, V., Vander Meer, R. K., & Hefetz, A. (1998). Nestmate recognition in the ant Cataglyphis niger: Do queens matter? : Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 43(3) Sep 1998, 203-212.
  • Lambardi, D., Dani, F. R., Turillazzi, S., & Boomsma, J. J. (2007). Chemical mimicry in an incipient leaf-cutting ant social parasite: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(6) Apr 2007, 843-851.
  • Langridge, E. A., Franks, N. R., & Sendova-Franks, A. B. (2004). Improvement in collective performance with experience in ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 56(6) Oct 2004, 523-529.
  • Langridge, E. A., Sendova-Franks, A. B., & Franks, N. R. (2008). How experienced individuals contribute to an improvement in collective performance in ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(3) Jan 2008, 447-456.
  • Le Breton, J., Delabie, J. H. C., Chazeau, J., Dejean, A., & Jourdan, H. (2004). Experimental evidence of large-scale unicoloniality in the tramp ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 17(2) Mar 2004, 263-271.
  • Le Breton, J., & Fourcassie, V. (2004). Information transfer during recruitment in the ant Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 55(3) Jan 2004, 242-250.
  • Lopes, J. F. S., Forti, L. C., & Camargo, R. S. (2004). The influence of the scout upon the decision-making process of recruited workers in three Acromyrmex species (Formicidae: Attini): Behavioural Processes Vol 67(3) Nov 2004, 471-476.
  • Lordon-Djieto, C., & Dejean, A. (1999). Innate attraction supplants experience during host plant selection in an obligate plant-ant: Behavioural Processes Vol 46(3) Jul 1999, 181-187.
  • Mann, W. M. (1912). Literature for 1911 on the behavior of ants and myrmecophiles: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 2(6) Nov-Dec 1912, 400-420.
  • Mann, W. M. (1913). Literature for 1912 on the behavior of ants and Myrmecophiles: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 3(6) Nov-Dec 1913, 429-445.
  • Marlier, J. F., Quinet, Y., & de Biseau, J. C. (2004). Defensive behaviour and biological activities of the abdominal secretion in the ant Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae): Behavioural Processes Vol 67(3) Nov 2004, 427-440.
  • McCluskey, E. S. (1965). Circadian rhythms in male ants of five diverse species: Science 150(3699) 1965, 1037-1038.
  • Mehdiabadi, N. J., Hughes, B., & Mueller, U. G. (2006). Cooperation, conflict, and coevolution in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis: Behavioral Ecology Vol 17(2) Mar-Apr 2006, 291-296.
  • Miller, D. F., & Gans, M. (1925). Some observations on the reactions of the ant Cremastogaster lineolata (Say) to heat: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 5(6) Dec 1925, 465-473.
  • Molet, M., Peeters, C., Follin, I., & Fisher, B. L. (2007). Reproductive caste performs intranidal tasks instead of workers in the ant Mystrium oberthueri: Ethology Vol 113(7) Jul 2007, 721-729.
  • Monnin, T., Ratnieks, F. L. W., & Brandao, C. R. F. (2003). Reproductive conflict in animal societies: Hierarchy length increases with colony size in queenless ponerine ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 54(1) Jun 2003, 71-79.
  • Morales, M. A. (2000). The role of space and behavior in an ant-membracid mutualism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mori, A., & Le Moli, F. (1998). Mating behavior and colony founding of the slave-making ant Formica sanguinea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 11(2) Mar 1998, 235-245.
  • Moron, D., Witek, M., & Woyciechowski, M. (2008). Division of labour among workers with different life expectancy in the ant Myrmica scabrinodis: Animal Behaviour Vol 75(2) Feb 2008, 345-350.
  • Morrison, L. W., & King, J. R. (2004). Host Location Behavior in a Parasitoid of Imported Fire Ants: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 17(3) May 2004, 367-383.
  • Mueller, U. G., Poulin, J., & Adams, R. M. M. (2004). Symbiont choice in a fungus-growing ant (Attini, Formicidae): Behavioral Ecology Vol 15(2) Mar 2004, 357-364.
  • Musche, M., Anton, C., Worgan, A., & Settele, J. (2006). No experimental evidence for host ant related oviposition in a parasitic butterfly: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 19(5) Sep 2006, 631-643.
  • Narendra, A., Si, A., Sulikowski, D., & Cheng, K. (2007). Learning, retention and coding of nest-associated visual cues by the Australian desert ant, Melophorus bagoti: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(10) Aug 2007, 1543-1553.
  • Nelson, X. J., & Jackson, R. R. (2006). Vision-based innate aversion to ants and ant mimics: Behavioral Ecology Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 676-681.
  • Nelson, X. J., Li, D., & Jackson, R. R. (2006). Out of the Frying Pan and into the Fire: a Novel Trade-Off for Batesian Mimics: Ethology Vol 112(3) Mar 2006, 270-277.
  • Nicolis, S. C., Theraulaz, G., & Deneubourg, J. L. (2005). The effect of aggregates on interaction rate in ant colonies: Animal Behaviour Vol 69(3) Mar 2005, 535-540.
  • No authorship, i. (1907). Review of A Preliminary Note on Ant Behavior: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(9) Sep 1907, 300-301.
  • Orr, M. R., De Camargo, R. X., & Benson, W. W. (2003). Interactions between ant species increase arrival rates of an ant parasitoid: Animal Behaviour Vol 65(6) Jun 2003, 1187-1193.
  • Parker, C. A. C., & Zhang, H. (2006). Collective Robotic Site Preparation: Adaptive Behavior Vol 14(1) Mar 2006, 5-19.
  • Pearcy, M., & Aron, S. (2006). Local resource competition and sex ratio in the ant Cataglyphis cursor: Behavioral Ecology Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 569-574.
  • Phillips, I. D., & Willis, C. K. R. (2005). Defensive behavior of ants in a mutualistic relationship with aphids: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(2) Dec 2005, 321-325.
  • Planque, R., Dornhaus, A., Franks, N. R., Kovacs, T., & Marshall, J. A. R. (2007). Weighting waiting in collective decision-making: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(3) Jan 2007, 347-356.
  • Pol, R., & de Casenave, J. L. (2004). Activity patterns of harvester ants pogonomyrmex pronotalis and pogonomyrmex rastratus in the central monte desert, Argentina: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 17(5) Sep 2004, 647-661.
  • Portha, S., Deneubourg, J.-L., & Detrain, C. (2002). Self-organized asymmetries in ant foraging: A functional response to food type and colony needs: Behavioral Ecology Vol 13(6) Nov-Dec 2002, 776-781.
  • Portha, S., Deneubourg, J.-L., & Detrain, C. (2004). How food type and brood influence foraging decisions of Lasius niger scouts: Animal Behaviour Vol 68(1) Jul 2004, 115-122.
  • Powell, S., & Franks, N. R. (2007). How a few help all: Living pothole plugs speed prey delivery in the army ant Eciton burchellii: Animal Behaviour Vol 73(6) Jun 2007, 1067-1076.
  • Pratt, K. C. (1925). Thermokinetics of crematogaster lineolata (Say): Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 5(3) Jun 1925, 265-269.
  • Pratt, S. C. (2005). Quorum sensing by encounter rates in the ant Temnothorax albipennis: Behavioral Ecology Vol 16(2) Mar 2005, 488-496.
  • Pratt, S. C., Mallon, E. B., Sumpter, D. J. T., & Franks, N. R. (2002). Quorum sensing, recruitment, and collective decision-making during colony emigration by the ant Leptothorax albipennis: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 52(2) Jul 2002, 117-127.
  • Pratt, S. C., & Pierce, N. E. (2001). The cavity-dwelling ant Leptothorax curvispinosus uses nest geometry to discriminate between potential homes: Animal Behaviour Vol 62(2) Aug 2001, 281-287.
  • Pratt, S. C., Sumpter, D. J. T., & Levin, S. A. (2006). A tunable algorithm for collective decision-making: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 103(43) Oct 2006, 15906-15910.
  • Pratt, S. C., Sumpter, D. J. T., Mallon, E. B., & Franks, N. R. (2005). An agent-based model of collective nest choice by the ant temnothorax albipennis: Animal Behaviour Vol 70(5) Nov 2005, 1023-1036.
  • Pratt, S. C., Sumpter, D. J. T., Mallon, E. B., & Franks, N. R. (2006). "An agent-based model of collective nest choice by the ant Temnothorax albipennis": Erratum: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(2) Feb 2006, 478.
  • Rheindt, F. E., Gadau, J., Strehl, C.-P., & Holldobler, B. (2004). Extremely high mating frequency in the Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 56(5) Sep 2004, 472-481.
  • Ribeiro, P. L., & Navas, C. A. (2007). The leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa, FOREL, 1908 prefers drier chambers for garbage disposal: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 20(1) Jan 2007, 19-24.
  • Richard, F.-J., Poulsen, M., Hefetz, A., Errard, C., Nash, D. R., & Boomsma, J. J. (2007). The origin of the chemical profiles of fungal symbionts and their significance for nestmate recognition in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(11) Sep 2007, 1637-1649.
  • Ross, K. G., & Keller, L. (2002). Experimental conversion of colony social organization by manipulation of worker genotype composition in fire ants (Solenopsis invicta): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 51(3) Feb 2002, 287-295.
  • Rosset, H., Keller, L., & Chapuisat, M. (2005). Experimental manipulation of colony genetic diversity had no effect on short-term task efficiency in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(1) May 2005, 87-98.
  • Rosset, H., Schwander, T., & Chapuisat, M. (2007). Nestmate recognition and levels of aggression are not altered by changes in genetic diversity in a socially polymorphic ant: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(4) Oct 2007, 951-956.
  • Ruppell, O., Schaffler, L., & Holldobler, B. (2002). Lack of plasticity in the behavior of queens of the ant Leptothorax rugatulus Emery (Formicidae: Hymenoptera): Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 15(3) May 2002, 447-454.
  • Sanada-Morimura, S., Minai, M., Yokoyama, M., Hirota, T., Satoh, T., & Obara, Y. (2003). Encounter-induced hostility to neighbors in the ant Pristomyrmex pungens: Behavioral Ecology Vol 14(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 713-718.
  • Schafer, R. J., Holmes, S., & Gordon, D. M. (2006). Forager activation and food availability in harvester ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(4) Apr 2006, 815-822.
  • Schatz, B., Chameron, S., Beugnon, G., & Collett, T. S. (1999). The use of path integration to guide route learning in ants: Nature Vol 399(6738) Jun 1999, 769-772.
  • Scherba, G. (1964). Analysis of inter-nest movement by workers of the ant: Animal Behaviour 12(4) 1964, 508-512.
  • Schilman, P. E., & Roces, F. (2003). Assessment of nectar flow rate and memory for patch quality in the ant Camponotus rufipes: Animal Behaviour Vol 66(4) Oct 2003, 687-693.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1933). Studies on army ants in Panama: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 15(2) Apr 1933, 267-299.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1934). The process and mechanism of ant learning. The combination-problem and the successive-presentation problem: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 17(2) Apr 1934, 303-328.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1938). A theory of army-ant behavior based upon the analysis of activities in a representative species: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 25(1) Feb 1938, 51-90.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1940). Further studies of the army-ant behavior pattern. Mass organization in the swarm-raiders: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 29(3) Jun 1940, 401-460.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1941). Studies on the nature of ant learning. I. The characteristics of a distinctive initial period of generalized learning: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 32(1) Aug 1941, 41-82.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1942). "Cruel" ants--and Occam's razor: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 34(1) Aug 1942, 79-83.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1943). The nature of ant learning. II. The intermediate stage of segmental maze adjustment: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 35(2) Apr 1943, 149-176.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1943). Postscript to "cruel ants." Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 35(2) Apr 1943, 233-235.
  • Schneirla, T. C. (1963). The behaviour and biology of certain nearctic army ants: Springtime resurgence of cycle function - southeastern Arizona: Animal Behaviour 11(4) 1963, 583-595.
  • Scholes, S., Wilson, M., Sendova-Franks, A. B., & Melhuish, C. (2004). Comparisons in Evolution and Engineering: The Collective Intelligence of Sorting: Adaptive Behavior Vol 12(3-4) Sum 2004, 147-159.
  • Scholes, S. R., Sendova-Franks, A. B., Swift, S. T., & Melhuish, C. (2006). Ants can sort their brood without a gaseous template: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(4) Feb 2006, 531-540.
  • Schwander, T., Rosset, H., & Chapuisat, M. (2005). Division of labour and worker size polymorphism in ant colonies: The impact of social and genetic factors: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 59(2) Dec 2005, 215-221.
  • Seal, J. N., & Tschinkel, W. R. (2007). Complexity in an obligate mutualism: Do fungus-gardening ants know what makes their garden grow? : Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(8) Jun 2007, 1151-1160.
  • Seid, M. A., & Traniello, J. F. A. (2006). Age-related repertoire expansion and division of labor in Pheidole dentata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A new perspective on temporal polyethism and behavioral plasticity in ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 60(5) Sep 2006, 631-644.
  • Sempo, G., Depickere, S., & Detrain, C. (2006). Spatial organization in a dimorphic ant: Caste specificity of clustering patterns and area marking: Behavioral Ecology Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 642-650.
  • Sendova-Franks, A. B., Scholes, S. R., Franks, N. R., & Melhuish, C. (2004). Brood sorting by ants: Two phases and differential diffusion: Animal Behaviour Vol 68(5) Nov 2004, 1095-1106.
  • Seppa, P., Fernandez-Escudero, I., Gyllenstrand, N., & Pamilo, P. (2008). Colony fission affects kinship in a social insect: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(4) Feb 2008, 589-597.
  • Sharma, V. K., Lone, S. R., Mathew, D., Goel, A., & Chandrashekaran, M. K. (2004). Possible evidence for shift work schedules in the media workers of the ant species Camponotus compressus: Chronobiology International Vol 21(2) 2004, 297-308.
  • Sledge, M. F., Peeters, C., & Crewe, R. M. (1999). Fecundity and the behavioral profile of reproductive workers in the queenless ant, Pachycondyla (= Ophthalmopone) berthoudi: Ethology Vol 105(4) Apr 1999, 303-316.
  • Sloggett, J. J., Wood, R. A., & Majerus, M. E. N. (1998). Adaptations of Coccinella magnifica redtenbacher, a myrmecophilous coccinellid, to aggression by wood ants ( Formica rufa group). I. Adult behavioral adaptation, its ecological context and evolution: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 11(6) Nov 1998, 889-904.
  • Smith, A. R., Wcislo, W. T., & O'Donnell, S. (2003). Assured fitness returns favor sociality in a mass-provisioning sweat bee, Megalopta genalis (Hymenoptera: Halictidae): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 54(1) Jun 2003, 14-21.
  • Smith, C. R. (2007). Energy use and allocation in the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius: Are stored seeds a buffer? : Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(9) Jul 2007, 1479-1487.
  • Smith, C. R., & Tschinkel, W. R. (2005). Object depots in the genus Pogonomyrmex: Exploring the "who," what, when, and where: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(6) Nov 2005, 859-879.
  • Sommer, S., von Beeren, C., & Wehner, R. (2008). Multiroute memories in desert ants: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 105(1) Jan 2008, 317-322.
  • Sorvari, J., & Hakkarainen, H. (2004). Habitat-related aggressive behaviour between neighbouring colonies of the polydomous wood ant Formica aquilonia: Animal Behaviour Vol 67(1) Jan 2004, 151-153.
  • Starks, P. T., Watson, R. E., Dipaola, M. J., & Dipaola, C. P. (1998). The effect of queen number on nestmate discrimination in the facultatively polygynous ant Pseudomyrmex pallidus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Ethology Vol 104(7) Jul 1998, 573-584.
  • Stroeymeyt, N., Brunner, E., & Heinze, J. (2007). "Selfish worker policing" controls reproduction in a Temnothorax ant: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 61(9) Jul 2007, 1449-1457.
  • Sudd, J. H. (1965). The transport of prey by ants: Behaviour 25(3-4) 1965, 234-271.
  • Sumner, S., Hughes, W. O. H., Pedersen, J. S., & Boomsma, J. J. (2004). Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly: Nature Vol 428(6978) Mar 2004, 35-36.
  • Sumpter, D. J. T., & Beekman, M. (2003). From nonlinearity to optimality: Pheromone trail foraging by ants: Animal Behaviour Vol 66(2) Aug 2003, 273-280.
  • Talbot, M. (1964). Nest structure and flights of the ant Formica obscuriventris Mayr: Animal Behaviour 19(1) 1964, 154-158.
  • Thomas, J. A., Knapp, J. J., Akino, T., Gerty, S., Wakamura, S., Simcox, D. J., et al. (2002). Parasitoid secretions provoke ant warfare: Subtefuge used by a rare wasp may be the key to an alternative type of pest control: Nature Vol 417(6888) May 2002, 505-506.
  • Thomas, M. L., Tsutsui, N. D., & Holway, D. A. (2005). Intraspecific competition influences the symmetry and intensity of aggression in the Argentine ant: Behavioral Ecology Vol 16(2) Mar 2005, 472-481.
  • Tinti, J.-M., & Nofre, C. (2001). Responses of the ant Lasius niger to various compounds perceived as sweet in humans: A structure-activity relationship study: Chemical Senses Vol 26(3) Apr 2001, 231-237.
  • Tofilski, A., & Ratnieks, F. L. W. (2005). Sand Pile Formation in Dorymyrmex Ants: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 18(4) Jul 2005, 505-512.
  • Tripet, F., & Nonacs, P. (2004). Foraging for Work and Age-Based Polyethism: The Roles of Age and Previous Experience on Task Choice in Ants: Ethology Vol 110(11) Nov 2004, 863-877.
  • Trontti, K., Thurin, N., Sundstrom, L., & Aron, S. (2007). Mating for convenience of genetic diversity? Mating patterns in the polygynous ant Plagiolepis pygmaea: Behavioral Ecology Vol 18(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 298-303.
  • Turner, C. H. (1907). Du Role du Sens Musculaire dans l'Orientation de Quelques Especes de Fourmis: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(9) Sep 1907, 296-297.
  • Turner, C. H. (1907). Review of On the Founding of Colonies by Queen Ants, with Special Reference to the Parasitic and Slave-Making Species: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(9) Sep 1907, 299-300.
  • Turner, C. H. (1907). Review of The Habits of the Tent-Building Ant (Cremastogaster lineolata Say): Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(9) Sep 1907, 298-299.
  • Turner, C. H. (1907). Review of The Queen Ant as a Psychological Study: Psychological Bulletin Vol 4(9) Sep 1907, 300.
  • Turner, C. H. (1913). Literature for 1912 on the behavior of spiders and insects other than ants: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 3(6) Nov-Dec 1913, 401-428.
  • Turner, C. H. (1915). Literature for 1914 on the behavior of spiders and insects other than ants: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 5(6) Nov-Dec 1915, 415-445.
  • Turner, C. H. (1915). The mating of Lasius Niger L: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 5(4) Jul-Aug 1915, 337-340.
  • van Wilgenburg, E., van Lieshout, E., & Elgar, M. A. (2005). Conflict resolution strategies in meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus): Ritualised displays versus lethal fighting: Behaviour Vol 142(6) Jun 2005, 701-716.
  • Vasquez, G. M., & Silverman, J. (2008). Intraspecific aggression and colony fusion in the Argentine ant: Animal Behaviour Vol 75(2) Feb 2008, 583-593.
  • Vasquez, G. M., & Silverman, J. (2008). Queen acceptance and the complexity of nestmate discrimination in the Argentine ant: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(4) Feb 2008, 537-548.
  • Velasquez, N., Gomez, M., Gonzalez, J., & Vasquez, R. A. (2006). Nest-mate recognition and the effect of distance from the nest on the aggressive behaviour of Camponotus chilensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Behaviour Vol 143(7) Jul 2006, 811-824.
  • Villesen, P., & Boomsma, J. J. (2003). Patterns of male parentage in the fungus-growing ants: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 53(4) Mar 2003, 246-253.
  • Vowles, D. M. (1964). Olfactory learning and brain lesions in the wood ant (formica Rufa): Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 58(1) Aug 1964, 105-111.
  • Vowles, D. M. (1965). Maze learning and visual discrimination in the wood ant (formica rufa): British Journal of Psychology 56(1) 1965, 15-31.
  • Wallis, D. I. (1963). A comparison of the response to aggressive behaviour in two species of ants, Formica fusca and Formica sanguinea: Animal Behaviour 11(1) 1963, 164-171.
  • Wallis, D. I. (1964). The foraging behaviour of the ant, Formica fusca: Behaviour, Leiden 23(1-2) 1964, 149-176.
  • Watson, M. I. (1906). Review of Contribution a l'etude du probleme de la reconnaissance chez les Fourmis: Psychological Bulletin Vol 3(5) May 1906, 174-175.
  • Wehner, R. (1997). Insect navigation: Low-level solutions to high-level tasks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Wehner, R., Fukushi, T., & Isler, K. (2007). On being small: Brain allometry in ants: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 69(3) 2007, 220-228.
  • Weislo, W. T., & Schatz, B. (2003). Predator recognition and evasive behavior by sweat bees, Lasioglossum umbripenne (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), in response to predation by ants, Ectatomma ruidum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 53(3) Feb 2003, 182-189.
  • Wells, M. M. (1916). Literature for 1915 on ants and myrmecophils: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 6(6) Nov-Dec 1916, 400-406.
  • Wheeler, W. M. (1911). Literature for 1910 on the behavior of ants, their guests and parasites: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 1(6) Nov-Dec 1911, 413-429.
  • Wheeler, W. M. (1916). The marriage-flight of a bull-dog ant (Myrmecia sanguinea F. Smith): Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 6(1) Jan-Feb 1916, 70-73.
  • Wolf, H. (2008). Desert ants adjust their approach to a foraging site according to experience: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 62(3) Jan 2008, 415-425.
  • Yang, A. S., Martin, C. H., & Nijhout, H. F. (2004). Geographic Variation of Caste Structure among Ant Populations: Current Biology Vol 14(6) Mar 2004, 514-519.
  • Yerkes, R. M. (1911). Wheeler on ants: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 1(1) Jan-Feb 1911, 74-77.

External links[]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).