Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·

This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..

Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mind, mood, cognitive function or health.

Some essential oils such as tea tree[1] have demonstrated anti-microbial effects, but there is still a lack of clinical evidence demonstrating efficacy against bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. Evidence for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous methodology,[2] however some evidence exists that essential oils may have therapeutic potential.[3]


Aromatherapy may have origins in antiquity with the use of infused aromatic oils, made by macerating dried plant material in fatty oil, heating and then filtering. Many such oils are described by Dioscorides, along with beliefs of the time regarding their healing properties, in his De Materia Medica, written in the first century.[4] Distilled essential oils have been employed as medicines since the invention of distillation in the eleventh century,[5] when Avicenna isolated essential oils using steam distillation.[6]

The concept of aromatherapy was first mooted by a small number of European scientists and doctors, in aboutTemplate:Weasel-inline 1907. In 1937, the word first appeared in print in a French book on the subject: Aromathérapie: Les Huiles Essentielles, Hormones Végétales by René-Maurice Gattefossé, a chemist. An English version was published in 1993.[7] In 1910, Gattefossé burned a hand very badly in a laboratory explosion. The hand developed gas gangrene, which he successfully, and intentionally, treated with lavender oil.[8]

A French surgeon, Jean Valnet, pioneered the medicinal uses of essential oils, which he used as antiseptics in the treatment of wounded soldiers during World War II.[9]

Modes of application

The modes of application of aromatherapy include:

  • Aerial diffusion: for environmental fragrancing or aerial disinfection
  • Direct inhalation: for respiratory disinfection, decongestion, expectoration as well as psychological effects
  • Topical applications: for general massage, baths, compresses, therapeutic skin care[10]


Some of the materials employed include:

  • Absolutes: Fragrant oils extracted primarily from flowers or delicate plant tissues through solvent or supercritical fluid extraction (e.g., rose absolute). The term is also used to describe oils extracted from fragrant butters, concretes, and enfleurage pommades using ethanol.
  • Carrier oils: Typically oily plant base triacylglycerides that dilute essential oils for use on the skin (e.g., sweet almond oil).
  • Essential oils: Fragrant oils extracted from plants chiefly through steam distillation (e.g., eucalyptus oil) or expression (grapefruit oil). However, the term is also occasionally used to describe fragrant oils extracted from plant material by any solvent extraction.
  • Herbal distillates or hydrosols: The aqueous by-products of the distillation process (e.g., rosewater). There are many herbs that make herbal distillates and they have culinary uses, medicinal uses and skin care uses[citation needed]. Common herbal distillates are chamomile, rose, and lemon balm.
  • Infusions: Aqueous extracts of various plant material (e.g., infusion of chamomile).
  • Phytoncides: Various volatile organic compounds from plants that kill microbes[citation needed]. Many terpene-based fragrant oils and sulfuric compounds from plants in the genus "Allium" are phytoncides[citation needed], though the latter are likely less commonly used in aromatherapy due to their disagreeable odors.
  • Vaporizer (Volatized) Raw Herbs: Typically higher oil content plant based materials dried, crushed, and heated to extract and inhale the aromatic oil vapors in a direct inhalation modality.


Aromatherapy is the treatment or prevention of disease by use of essential oils. Other stated uses include pain and anxiety reduction, enhancement of energy and short-term memory, relaxation, hair loss prevention, and reduction of eczema-induced itching.[11][12]

Two basic mechanisms are offered to explain the purported effects. One is the influence of aroma on the brain, especially the limbic system through the olfactory system.[13] The other is the direct pharmacological effects of the essential oils.[14] While precise knowledge of the synergy between the body and aromatic oils is often claimed by aromatherapists, the efficacy of aromatherapy remains unproven. However, some preliminary clinical studies of aromatherapy in combination with other techniques show positive effects. Aromatherapy does not cure conditions, but helps the body to find a natural way to cure itself and improve immune response.[15][16]

In the English-speaking world, practitioners tend to emphasize the use of oils in massage [citation needed]. Aromatherapy tends to be regarded[by whom?] as a complementary modality at best and a pseudoscientific fraud at worst.[17]

Choice and purchase

Oils with standardized content of components (marked FCC, for Food Chemical Codex) are required to contain a specified amount of certain aroma chemicals that normally occur in the oil[citation needed]. But there is no law that the chemicals cannot be added in synthetic form in order to meet the criteria established by the FCC for that oil[citation needed]. For instance, lemongrass essential oil must contain 75% aldehyde[citation needed] to meet the FCC profile for that oil, but that aldehyde can come from a chemical refinery instead of from lemongrass. To say that FCC oils are "food grade", then, makes them seem natural when, in fact, they are not necessarily so.

Undiluted essential oils suitable for aromatherapy are termed therapeutic grade, but in countries where the industry is unregulated, therapeutic grade is based on industry consensus and is not a regulatory category[citation needed]. Some aromatherapists take advantage of this situation to make misleading claims about the origin and even content of the oils they use. Likewise, claims that an oil's purity is vetted by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography have limited value, since all such testing can do is show that various chemicals occur in the oil[citation needed]. ManyTemplate:Which? of the chemicals that occur naturally in essential oils are manufactured by the perfume industry and adulterate essential oils because they are cheaper. There is no way to distinguish between these synthetic additives and the naturally occurring chemicals.

The best instrument for determining whether or not an essential oil is adulterated is an educated nose. Many people can distinguish between natural and synthetic scents, but it takes experience[citation needed].

Popular uses

  • Lemon oil is uplifting and anti-stress/anti-depressant. In a Japanese study, lemon essential oil in vapour form has been found to reduce stress in mice.[18] Research at The Ohio State University indicates that Lemon oil aroma may enhance one's mood, and help with relaxation.[19]
  • Thyme oil[20]
  • Peppermint oil is often used to deter ants, by applying a few drops on their trail.[21]
  • Both lavender and tea tree oil are used as antiseptics, sometimes in lotions or soaps. Lavender oil is said to help heal wounds and burns.[22][23]


Some benefits that have been linked to aromatherapy, such as relaxation and clarity of mind, may arise from the placebo effect rather than from any actual physiological effect. The consensus among most medical professionals is that while some aromas have demonstrated effects on mood and relaxation and may have related benefits for patients, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the claims made for aromatherapy.[24] Scientific research on the cause and effects of aromatherapy is limited, although in vitro testing has revealed some antibacterial and antiviral effects.[25][26] There is no evidence of any long-term results from an aromatherapy massage other than the pleasure achieved from a pleasant-smelling massage.[27] A few double blind studies in the field of clinical psychology relating to the treatment of severe dementia have been published.[28][29] Essential oils have a demonstrated efficacy in dental mouthwash products.[30]

Skeptical literature suggests that aromatherapy is based on the anecdotal evidence of its benefits rather than proof that aromatherapy can cure diseases. Scientists and medical professionals acknowledge that aromatherapy has limited scientific support, but critics argue that the claims of most aromatherapy practitioners go beyond the data, and/or that the studies are neither adequately controlled nor peer reviewed.

Some proponents[attribution needed] of aromatherapy believe that the claimed effect of each type of oil is not caused by the chemicals in the oil interacting with the senses, but because the oil contains a distillation of the "life force" of the plant from which it is derived that will "balance the energies" of the body and promote healing or well-being by "purging negative vibrations" from the body's "energy field". Arguing that there is no scientific evidence that healing can be achieved, and that the claimed "energies" even exist, many skeptics reject this form of aromatherapy as pseudoscience.

Safety concerns

In addition, there are potential safety concerns. Because essential oils are highly concentrated they can irritate the skin when used in undiluted form.[31] Therefore, they are normally diluted with a carrier oil for topical application. Phototoxic reactions may occur with citrus peel oils such as lemon or lime.[32] Also, many essential oils have chemical components that are sensitisers (meaning that they will after a number of uses cause reactions on the skin, and more so in the rest of the body). Some of the chemical allergies could even be caused by pesticides, if the original plants are cultivated.[33][34] Some oils can be toxic to some domestic animals, with cats being particularly prone.[35][36]

Two common oils, lavender and tea tree, have been implicated in causing gynaecomastia, an abnormal breast tissue growth, in prepubescent boys, although the report which cites this potential issue is based on observations of only three boys (and so is not a scientific study), and two of those boys were significantly above average in weight for their age, thus already prone to gynaecomastia.[37] A child hormone specialist at the University of Cambridge claimed "... these oils can mimic estrogens" and "people should be a little bit careful about using these products."[38] The study has been criticised on many different levels by many authorities. The Aromatherapy Trade Council of the UK has issued a rebuttal[39] The Australian Tea Tree Association, a group that promotes the interests of Australian tea tree oil producers, exporters and manufacturers issued a letter that questioned the study and called on the New England Journal of Medicine for a retraction (ATTIA).[40] The New England Journal of Medicine has so far not replied and has not retracted the study.

As with any bioactive substance, an essential oil that may be safe for the general public could still pose hazards for pregnant and lactating women.

While some advocate the ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes, licensed aromatherapy professionals do not recommend self prescription due the highly toxic nature of some essential oil. Some very common oils like Eucalyptus are extremely toxic when taken internally. Doses as low as one teaspoon have been reported to cause clinically significant symptoms and severe poisoning can occur after ingestion of 4 to 5 ml.[41] A few reported cases of toxic reactions like liver damage and seizures have occurred after ingestion of sage, hyssop, thuja, and cedar.[42] Accidental ingestion may happen when oils are not kept out of reach of children.

Oils both ingested and applied to the skin can potentially have negative interaction with conventional medicine. For example, the topical use of methyl salicylate heavy oils like Sweet Birch and Wintergreen may cause hemorrhaging in users taking the anticoagulant Warfarin.

Adulterated oils may also pose problems depending on the type of substance used.

See also

  • Aromachologist


  1. Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV (January 2006). Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19 (1): 50–62.
  2. van der Watt G, Janca A (August 2008). Aromatherapy in nursing and mental health care. Contemporary Nurse 30 (1): 69–75.
  3. Edris AE (April 2007). Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytotherapy Research 21 (4): 308–23.
  4. Gunther, R.T. (ed.) (1959). The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides (translated by John Goodyer in 1655). New York: Hafner Publishing. OCLC 3570794
  5. Forbes R.J. (1970). A short history of the art of distillation. Leiden: E.J. Brill. OCLC 2559231
  6. Ericksen, Marlene (2000). Healing With Aromatherapy, New York: McGraw-Hill.
  7. Gattefossé, R.-M., & Tisserand, R. (1993). Gattefossé's aromatherapy. Saffron Walden: C.W. Daniel. ISBN 0-85207-236-8
  8. Aromatherapy. University of Maryland Medical Center. URL accessed on 24 October 2010.
  9. Valnet, J., & Tisserand, R. (1990). The practice of aromatherapy: A classic compendium of plant medicines & their healing properties. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0-89281-398-9
  10. Organic Bath Oil. Plaisirs. URL accessed on 11 October 2011.
  11. Jennifer A. Kingston. Nostrums: Aromatherapy Rarely Stands Up to Testing. The New York Times (Style). URL accessed on 29 December 2010.
  12. Eric Nagourney. Skin Deep: In Competition for your Nose. The New York Times (Health). URL accessed on 29 December 2010.
  13. The Power of Smell. Serendip. URL accessed on 24 October 2010. [dead link]
  14. Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S (2006). In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 6: 39.
  15. Kim HJ (June 2007). [Effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 37 (4): 603–12.
  16. Rho KH, Han SH, Kim KS, Lee MS (December 2006). Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study. The International Journal of Neuroscience 116 (12): 1447–55.
  17. Barrett, Stephen. "Aromatherapy: Making Dollars out of Scents", Science & Pseudoscience Review in Mental Health. Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice (SRMHP). Retrieved on 2009-08-10.
  18. Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice.. URL accessed on 2007-04-26.
  19. Ohio State University Research, March 3, 2008 Study is published in the March 2008 issue of the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology
  20. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.
  22. Tea tree oil
  23. Lavender
  24. - Aromatherapy and Essential Oils
  25. [[Kalemba D, Kunicka A.|]] (May 2003) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem. 10 (10): 813–29.
  26. [[Reichling J, Schnitzler P, Suschke U, Saller R.|]] (2009 Apr;16. Epub 3 April 2009.) Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties--an overview. Forsch Komplementmed. 2 (2): 79–90.
  27. A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting
  28. Ballard CG, O'Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK (July 2002). Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa. J Clin Psychiatry 63 (7): 553–8.
  29. Holmes C, Hopkins V, Hensford C, MacLaughlin V, Wilkinson D, Rosenvinge H. (April 2002). Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17 (4): 305–8..
  30. [[Stoeken JE, Paraskevas S, van der Weijden GA.|]] (2007 July) The long-term effect of a mouthrinse containing essential oils on dental plaque and gingivitis: a systematic review. Periodontol. 78 (7): 1218–28.
  31. J Grassman and E F Elstner, article "Essential Oils", in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition 2nd ed., edited by Benjamin Caballero, Luiz C Trugo, Paul M Finglas, Academic Press, 1973, ISBN 0-12-227055-X
  32. Hyperpigmented macules and streaks
  33. Edwards, J. (1999). Investigations into the use of flame and the herbicide, paraquat, to control peppermint rust in north-east Victoria, Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 28 (3): 212–224.
  34. Adamovic, D.S. et al. Variability of herbicide efficiency and their effect upon yield and quality of peppermint (Mentha X Piperital L.). URL accessed on 6 June 2009.
  35. The Lavender Cat - Cats and Essential Oil Safety
  36. K. Bischoff, F. Guale (1998). Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Oil Poisoning in three purebred cats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10 (108). [dead link]
  37. Henley, D. V. (2007). Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. New England Journal of Medicine 356 (5): 479–85.
  38. includeonly>"Oils make male breasts develop", BBC News Online, 1 February 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  40. 'ATTIA refutes gynecomastia link', Article Date: 21 February 2007
  41. Eucalyptus oil (PIM 031)
  42. Millet Y, Jouglard J, Steinmetz MD, Tognetti P, Joanny P, Arditti J. (December 1981). Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study. Clin Toxicol. 18 (12): 1485–98.

Further reading

  • Burke, L., & Chambers, P. (1995). The very essence: A guide to aromatherapy. Silver Link. OCLC 60274302
  • Lis-Balchin, Maria (2006). Aromatherapy science: A guide for healthcare professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-578-4
  • Schnaubelt, Kurt (1998). Advanced aromatherapy: The science of essential oil therapy. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0-89281-743-7
  • Schnaubelt, Kurt (1999). Medical aromatherapy: Healing with essential oils. Berkeley, CA: Frog. ISBN 1-883319-69-2
  • Valnet, Jean; & Tisserand, Robert (1990). The practice of aromatherapy: A classic compendium of plant medicines & their healing properties. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0-89281-398-9
  • National Research Council (2003). Food Chemicals Codex, Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad medicine: Misconceptions and misuses revealed, from distance healing to vitamin O. New York: J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-43499-X
  • Valnet, Jean; & Tisserand, Robert (1982). The practice of aromatherapy. Saffron Walden: Daniel. ISBN 0-85207-143-4

External links

Complete Guide to Essential Oils may have more about this subject.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).