Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Butorphanol chemical structure
|ATC code |
|Metabolism||Hepatic hydroxylated & glucuronidated|
|Elimination half-life||4-7 hours|
|Pregnancy category||C/D (U.S.)|
|Routes of administration||IV, intranasal|
Butorphanol (INN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Stadol. It is most closely structurally related to dextromethorphan. Butorphanol is available only as butorphanol tartrate in injectable and intranasal spray formulations.
Mechanism of action
Butorphanol exhibits partial agonist and antagonist activity at the μ opioid receptor and agonist activity at the κ opioid receptor. Stimulation of these receptors on central nervous system neurons causes an intracellular inhibition of adenylate cyclase, closing of influx membrane calcium channels, and opening of membrane potassium channels. This leads to hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential and suppression of action potential transmission of ascending pain pathways. Because of its κ-agonist activity, at analgesic doses butorphanol increases pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac work. Additionally, κ-agonism can cause dysphoria at therapeutic or supertherapeutic doses; this gives butorphanol a lower potential for abuse than other opioid drugs.
Place in therapy
The most common indication for butorphanol is management of migraine using the intranasal spray formulation. It may also be used parenterally for management of moderate-to-severe pain, as a supplement for balanced general anesthesia, and management of pain during labor. Butorphanol is more effective in reducing pain in women than in men.
In veterinary use, butorphanol ("Torbugesic") is widely used as a sedative and analgesic in dogs, cats and horses. For sedation, it may be combined with tranquilizers such as alpha-2 agonists (medetomidine(Domitor)), benzodiazepines, or phenothiazines (acepromazine) in dogs, cats and exotic animals. It is frequently combined with xylazine or detomidine (Domosedan etc) in horses.
As with other opioid analgesics, central nervous system effects (such as sedation, confusion, and dizziness) are considerations with butorphanol. Nausea and vomiting are common. Less common are the gastrointestinal effects of other opioids (mostly constipation).
Butorphanol is available in the U.S. as a generic drug; it is available in various nations under one of any number of trade names, including Moradol, Beforal, Stadol, and Stadol NS; veterinary trade names include Butorphic, Dolorex, Morphasol, Torbugesic, and Torbutrol.
Use in horses
Butorphanol is a commonly used narcotic for pain relief in horses. It is administered either IM or IV, with its analgestic properties beginning to take effect about 15 minutes after injection and lasting 4 hours. It is also commonly paired with sedatives, such as xylazine and detomidine, to make the horse easier to handle during veterinary proceedures.
Side effects, overdose, and precautions
Side effects specific to horses include sedation, CNS excitement (displayed by head pressing or tossing). Overdosing may result in seizures, falling, salivation, consitipation, and muscle twitching. If an overdose occurs, a narcotic antagonist, such as naloxone, may be given. Caution should be used if Butorphanol is administered in addition to other narcotics, sedatives, depressants, or antihistamines as it will cause an additive effect.
Butorphanol can cross the placenta, and it will be present in the milk of lactating mares who are given the drug.
The drug is also prohibited for use in competition by most equestrian organizations, including the FEI, which considers it a class A drug.
In addition to horses, butorphanol with or without acepromazine in frequently used in vetrinary settings for post-operative and accident-related pain in small mammals such as dogs, cats, ferrets, coatis, raccoons, mongooses, various marsupials, some rodents and perhaps some larger birds both in the operating suite and as a regular prescripton medication for home use for management of moderate to severe pain. The efficacy of opioids (as well as other drugs that slow down the system like anaesthetics) in treating reptiles is a question about which there is not a lot of data yet.
- Katzung, Bertam G. (Ed.) (2001) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-0598-8.
- DiPiro, Joseph T. et al. (2005) Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-141613-7.
- Stadol NS - monograph
- Forney, Barbara C, MS, VMD. Equine Medications, Revised Edition.' Blood Horse Publications. Lexington, KY. Copyright 2007.
- The Merck Manual of Vetrinary Medicine, 2004 edition (English)
- The Merck Manual, 2004 Edition (German)
- Mosby's Drug Guide 2004
- Various Usenet (alt.drugs.hard, alt.drugs.valium and rec.pets.cats) discussions about surgery on cats and a cat who was injured by being hit by am automobile.
- Surgery-related episode from c.a. June 2004 of "The Crocodile Hunter" television programme, section on doing surgery on a crocodile and shortly thereafter a Fierce Snake -- specifically commentary by Steve Irwin on the dangers that most or all general anaesthetics pose to reptiles and amphibians.
- Gear, RW, Miaskowski C, Gordon NC, Paul SM, Heller PH, Levine JD (November 1999). The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain. Pain 83 (2): 339-45. PMID 10534607.
- NOAH Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines 2005
Analgesics (N02A, N02B)
Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Codeine, Dextropropoxyphene, Diamorphine, Dihydrocodeine, Fentanyl, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Ketobemidone, Levorphanol, Methadone, Morphine, Nicomorphine, Opium, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Pethidine, Tramadol, Tapentadol
|Salicylic acid and derivatives|
Aminophenazone, Metamizole, Phenazone
Paracetamol (acetaminophen), Phenacetin
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|