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Cardiology is the branch of medicine pertaining to the heart and the vascular system of the human body -- the cardiovascular system. Its a subspecialty (fellowship) of Internal Medicine.

The heart

Main article: heart


Cardiac pacemaker (Electrical system of the heart)


Basic cardiac physiology

Disorders of the heart

Main article: heart disease

Disorders of the coronary circulation

Sudden cardiac death (The abrupt cessation of blood flow, leading to death)

Treatment of sudden cardiac death

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Disorders of the myocardium (muscle of the heart)

  • Cardiomyopathy
    • Ischemic cardiomyopathy
    • Nonischemic cardiomyopathy
      • Amyloid cardiomyopathy
      • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
        • Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) (Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS))
        • Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
      • Dilated cardiomyopathy
        • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
        • Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy
        • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (Transient apical ballooning, stress-induced cardiomyopathy)
      • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy)
      • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Congestive heart failure
    • Cor pulmonale
  • Ventricular hypertrophy
    • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Primary tumors of the heart
    • Myxoma
  • Myocardial rupture

Disorders of the pericardium (outer lining of the heart)

  • Pericarditis
  • Pericardial tamponade
  • Constrictive pericarditis

Disorders of the heart valves

  • Aortic valve disorders
    • Aortic insufficiency
    • Aortic stenosis
    • Aortic valve replacement
    • Aortic valve repair
    • Aortic valvuloplasty
  • Mitral valve disorders
    • Mitral valve prolapse
    • Mitral regurgitation
    • Mitral stenosis
    • Mitral valve replacement
    • Mitral valve repair
    • Mitral valvuloplasty
  • Pulmonary valve disorders
    • Congenital pulmonic stenosis
  • Tricuspid valve disorders

Disorders of the electrical system of the heart (Cardiac electrophysiology)

Inflammation and infection of the heart

Congenital heart disease

  • Atrial septal defect
  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Bicuspid aortic valve
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Transposition of the great vessels (TGV)
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Diseases of blood vessels (Vascular diseases)

  • Vasculitis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aneurysm
  • Varicose veins
  • Economy class syndrome
  • Diseases of the aorta
    • Coarctation of the aorta
    • Aortic dissection
    • Aortic aneurysm
  • Diseases of the carotid arteries
    • Carotid artery disease
    • Carotid artery dissection

Procedures done for coronary artery disease

  • Percutaneous coronary intervention
    • Atherectomy
    • Angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Stenting
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
  • Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP)

Devices used in cardiology

  • Stethoscope
  • Devices used to maintain normal electrical rhythm
    • Pacemaker
    • Defibrillator
      • Automated external defibrillator
      • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • Devices used to maintain blood pressure
    • Artificial heart
    • Heart-lung machine
    • Intra-aortic balloon pump
    • Ventricular assist device

Diagnostic tests and procedures

  • Blood tests
  • Echocardiogram
  • CMR
  • Cardiac stress test
  • Auscultation (Listening with the Stethoscope)

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

  • Ambulatory Holter monitor
  • Electrophysiologic study
    • Programmed electrical stimulation
  • Sphygmomanometer (Blood pressure cuff)
  • Cardiac enzymes
  • Coronary catheterization
    • Myocardial Fractional Flow Reserve (FFRmyo)
    • IVUS (IntraVascular UltraSound)

Cardiac pharmaceutical agents

The followings are medications commonly prescribed in cardiology:

See also

External links

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