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It has been observed following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
It can be difficult to identify using conventional imaging techniques.
Imaging by MRI demonstrates an area of high signal return on T2 weighted images.
Frequently observed symptoms in this disorder are sudden para or quadraparesis, dysphagia, dysarthria, diplopia and loss of consciousness. The patient may experience locked-in syndrome where cognitive function is intact, but all muscles are paralyzed with the exception of eye blinking.
Treatment is supportive only.
Correct hyponatremia at a rate of 10 µmol/L/24 h; diligently avoid hypernatremia. Details concerning the etiology and correction of electrolyte disorders are discussed extensively in general medicine texts. Alcoholic patients should receive vitamin supplementation. Formally evaluate their nutritional status. 
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- MedPix Images of Osmotic Myelinolysis
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