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Christopher Bollas (born 1943) is a British psychoanalyst and writer; and a leading figure in contemporary psychoanalytic theory.[1]

Early life and education

Bollas grew up in Laguna Beach, California and later graduated in history from UC Berkeley in 1967. As an undergraduate Bollas studied intellectual history with Carl Schorske, psychoanalytical anthropology with Alan Dundes, and psychoanalytic critical theory with Frederick Crews. From 1967-69 he trained in child counselling at the East Bay Activity Center in Oakland California and from 1969-73 he was the first graduate of the Program in Adult Psychotherapy at the University of Buffalo. At the University of Buffalo he earned a PhD in English Literature and studied with Norman Holland, Leslie Fiedler, Murray Schwartz, Michel Foucault, René Girard and with the Heideggerian psychoanalyst Heinz Lichtenstein. While at Smith College, to earn an MSW, he visited the Austen Riggs Center (where he was to become Director of Education a decade later) and met Erik Erikson who became a mentor early on in his career and was to be of singular influence for the next twenty years He qualified in psychoanalysis at the Institute of Psychoanalysis in London in 1977 and in Adult Psychotherapy from the Tavistock Clinic in 1978. Those teachers and figures whom he knew and who helped diversify his thinking were Arnold Modell, John Bowlby, Andre Green, Herbert Rosenfeld, Joseph J. Sandler, J.-B. Pontalis, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, Marion Milner, Nina Coltart and Paula Heimann.


Bollas was a Professor of English at the University of Massachusetts Amherst[2] in the middle 1980s. Concordant with his career in literary and cultural studies, Bollas has worked as a psychotherapist since 1967, launching his clinical career with autistic and schizophrenic children. He was the first Honorary Non Medical Consultant at the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis, Visiting Professor in Psychoanalysis at the Istituto di Neuropsychiatria Infantile of the University of Rome from 1978 to 1998, Director of Education at the Austen Riggs Center from 1985–1988 and one of the literary editors of the works of D.W. Winnicott. He became a British citizen in 2010.[3]


Bollas is most widely known for his psychoanalytical writings and some of his ideas have had a wide dissemination; indeed, he is one of the most widely-read authors in the field of psychoanalysis.[4] His theory of “the unthought known[5][6]—that as infants we are informed by many ideas conveyed through action rather than thinking that become part of our unconscious—has been of particular significance, although other concepts “the transformational object”, “violent innocence”, “extractive introjection”, “ psychic genera and the receptive unconscious” and “ human idiom” have been widely influential in the clinical field.

Free association

In the middle 1990s in Being A Character (1992) and Cracking UP (1995) Bollas turned back to Freud’s early writing—especially The Interpretation of Dreams—and argued that Freud’s writing implicitly assumed a theory of unconscious perception, organization, and creativity that Bollas integrated and used in his own radical return to Freud, arguing that psychoanalysis is primarily efficacious due to entirely unconscious processes of change. In the 21st century, in Free Association, The Evocative Object World, and The Infinite Question, Bollas revived Freud’s marginalized theory of free association providing evidence of how and in what ways all people think associatively, revealing—as Freud argued—through the “chain of ideas”, or simply how the way people move from one topic to another reveals unconscious processes of thought. In "The dream underlying all Dreams" El Haaretz writes in Apr.05, 2010 | 12:57 AM : "Some people see Christopher Bollas as one of the two most important living theoreticians in the world of psychoanalysis..."

Idiom needs

In Being a Character, Bollas also argued that everybody had their own idiom for life – a blend between the psychic organization which from birth forms the self's core, and the implied logic of the familial way of relating into which we are then raised.[7]

As adults, Bollas considered we spend our time looking for objects of interest – human or material – which can serve to enhance our particular idioms or styles of life – perpetually “meeting idiom needs by securing evocatively nourishing objects”.[8] Being willing to risk exposure to such transformational objects was for Bollas an essential part of a healthy life: the readiness to be metamorphosed by one's interaction with the object world.[9]

The contrast was a refusal of development and self-invention, of open-endedness: the state of psychic stagnation. Bollas saw in what he called the anti-narcissist a willed refusal to use objects for the development of his/her own idiom, and a consequent foreclosure of the true self.[10] The result can lead to what Adam Phillips called “the core catastrophe in many of Bollas's powerful clinical vignettes...being trapped in someone else's (usually the parents') dream or view of the world”.[11]

Bollas was however well aware of the converse danger of expecting too much from the role of the transformational object, especially as found within the transference.[12]

Cultural offshoots

Aside from his clinical writings Bollas is also a cultural critic and his writings have earned the interests of people outside the world of psychoanalysis,[13] He has also written three comic novels—Dark at the End of the Tunnel, I Have Heard the Mermaids Singing, and Mayhem—and five plays.

An American television sitcom Cracking Up derived its title from his book with that title and included a main character, Dr. Bollas, played by Henry Gibson.Template:Fox Network Episode 1, "Pilot" 2004 Bollas is also the only psychoanalyst mentioned in the first series of HBO's In Treatment[citation needed].



  • The Shadow of the Object (1987, Free Association Books: 1987 Columbia University Press)
  • Being a Character (1992, Routledge)
  • Forces of Destiny (1989, Free Association Books)
  • The New Informants (with David Sundelson, 1996, Jason Aronson)
  • The Mystery of Things (1999, Routledge)
  • Hysteria (1999, Routledge)
  • Free Association (2002, Ikon Books)
  • Cracking Up (1995, Routledge)
  • The Freudian Moment (2007, Karnac Books)
  • The Evocative Object World (2009, Routledge)
  • The Infinite Question (2009, Routledge)
  • The Christopher Bollas Reader (2011, Routledge)
  • China on the Mind (2013, Routledge)
  • Catch Them Before They Fall: Psychoanalysis of Breakdown (2013, Routledge)

Fiction and plays

  • Dark at the End of the Tunnel (2004 Free Association Books)
  • I Have Heard the Mermaids Singing (2005 Free Association Books)
  • Theraplay and Other Plays (2005 Free Association Books)
  • Mayhem (2005, Free Associations Books)

Works about Christopher Bollas

  • The Vitality of Objects ed. Joseph Scalia (2002, Continuum)
  • The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis Eric Rayner, (1991, Aronson)


  1. Anthony Elliott, Subject to Ourselves (1996) p. 103
  2. Caversham profile of Bollas. URL accessed on 2011-07-27.
  3. UK Public Record Archives (paysite). URL accessed on 2011-07-27.
  4. Lear, J, Sharing Secrets in London Review of Books Vol. 32 Is. 5
  5. Mogenson, G, The Dove in the Consulting Room: Hysteria and Anima in Bollas and Jung, Brunner-Routledge 2003, ISBN 978-1-58391-258-4, p.19
  6. Campbell, J & Harbord, J, Psycho-politics and cultural desires, Taylor & Francis 1998, ISBN 978-1-85728-807-0, p. 208
  7. Elliott, p. 104
  8. Bollas, quoted in Adam Phillips, On Flirtation (London 1996) p. 156
  9. Elliott, p. 149
  10. Neville Symington, Narcissism: A New Theory (1997) p. 113
  11. Phillips, p. 158
  12. Patrick Casement, Further Learning from the Patient (1997)p. 110
  13. Hunt, Ian, The Unthought Known, Frieze Magazine, Issue 68

External links

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