Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Personality: Self concept · Personality testing · Theories · Mind-body problem

Conceptual tempo or cognitive tempo is an area of individual difference in the speed of information processing. It can be regarded as an element of cognitive style as some people have a quicker cognitive processing speed over a whole range of cognitive processes such decision making than others, varying as they do on a reflectivity-impulsivity continuum.


There are a number of methods that can be used to measure conceptual tempo. These include:

See also


  • Ancillotti, J.-P. (1985). Reflectionmpulsivity (conceptual tempo) and cognitive functioning: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 5(6) Dec 1985, 667-686.
  • Boyer, W. N., & Strachan, D. E. (1990). Conceptual tempo and resolution of social conflict by children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 70(1) Feb 1990, 225-226.
  • Cameron, R. (1984). Problem-solving inefficiency and conceptual tempo: A task analysis of underlying factors: Child Development Vol 55(6) Dec 1984, 2031-2041.
  • Carlson, C. L., & Mann, M. (2002). Sluggish cognitive tempo predicts a different pattern of impairment in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Vol 31(1) Feb 2002, 123-129.
  • Dackow, R. J. (1991). The relationship of children's assessment of self-efficacy to conceptual tempo and anxiety: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dormann, V. U., Pfeifer, T., & Kurella, B. (1990). Psychophysiological analysis of cognitive tempo by the method of evoked potentials: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 40(5) Sep-Oct 1990, 891-896.
  • Duryea, E. J. (1986). Introducing conceptual tempo: An attempt to refocus health decision making in youth: Adolescence Vol 21(83) Fal 1986, 737-741.
  • Erickson, L. G., Stahl, S. A., & Rinehart, S. D. (1985). Metacognitive abilities of above and below average readers: Effects of conceptual tempo, passage level, and error type on error detection: Journal of Reading Behavior Vol 17(3) 1985, 235-252.
  • Finch, A. J., Edwards, G. L., & Searcy, J. D. (1984). Reflection-impulsivity and short-term memory in emotionally disturbed children: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 116(2) Mar 1984, 263-267.
  • Forbach, G. B., Evans, R. G., & Bodine, S. M. (1986). Gender-based schematic processing of self-descriptive information: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 20(4) Dec 1986, 372-384.
  • Fuhrman, M. J., & Kendall, P. C. (1986). Cognitive tempo and behavioral adjustment in children: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 10(1) Feb 1986, 45-50.
  • Goldman, A. P., & Everett, F. (1985). Delay of gratification and time concept in reflective and impulsive children: Child Study Journal Vol 15(3) 1985, 167-180.
  • Hall, V. C., & Russell, W. J. C. (1974). Multitrait-multimethod analysis of conceptual tempo: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 66(6) Dec 1974, 932-939.
  • Halpern, H. G. (1984). An investigation of reading and conceptual tempo measures: Reading World Vol 24(1) Oct 1984, 90-96.
  • Heller, R. S. (1987). The effect of MECC and Papert teaching styles on the level of Logo learning and the conceptual tempo of fourth grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jacewicz, M. M., & Hartley, A. A. (1987). Age differences in the speed of cognitive operations: Resolution of inconsistent findings: Journal of Gerontology Vol 42(1) Jan 1987, 86-88.
  • Johnson, A. W. (1985). The potential of cognitive style constructs as a contributing factor in learning disability classification: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Johnson, N. V. (1986). Conceptual complexity and obsessionality in bulimic college women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kagan, J. (1966). Reflection-impulsivity: The generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 71(1) Feb 1966, 17-24.
  • Kail, R. (1986). Sources of age differences in speed of processing: Child Development Vol 57(4) Aug 1986, 969-987.
  • Kail, R. (1988). "Developmental changes in speed of processing: Central limiting mechanism or skill transfer?": Reply to Stigler, Nusbaum, and Chalip: Child Development Vol 59(4) Aug 1988, 1154-1157.
  • Kurtz, B. E., & Borkowski, J. G. (1987). Development of strategic skills in impulsive and reflective children: A longitudinal study of metacognition: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 43(1) Feb 1987, 129-148.
  • Lester, D. (1986). The rate of psychological functioning in theories of personality: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 23(4) 1986, 48-49.
  • Levine, G., Preddy, D., & Thorndike, R. L. (1987). Speed of information processing and level of cognitive ability: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 8(5) 1987, 599-607.
  • Magajna, L. (1984). The relations between cognitive tempo, various reading capabilities, and the social-cultural surroundings: Anthropos No 1-2 Sum 1984, 149-154.
  • McBurnett, K., Pfiffner, L. J., & Frick, P. J. (2001). Symptom properties as a function of ADHD type: An argument for continued study of sluggish cognitive tempo: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 29(3) Jun 2001, 207-213.
  • McMillan, T. M., & Glucksman, E. E. (1987). The neuropsychology of moderate head injury: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 50(4) Apr 1987, 393-397.
  • Miyakawa, J. (2001). Performance on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, classroom behaviors, and school achievements of elementary school children in Japan: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 72(5) Dec 2001, 435-442.
  • Nicholson, L. R. (1989). The effects of conceptual tempo, perceptual set, and item difficulty on the rate and accuracy of solving anagrams: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Nickel, H., Petzold, M., Rettig, K., & Vetter, J. (1985). Conceptual styles and concept formation in childhood: Preferences and competences: German Journal of Psychology Vol 9(3) Aug 1985, 255-267.
  • Reeves, C. B., Palmer, S., Gross, A. M., Simonian, S. J., Taylor, L., Willingham, E., et al. (2007). Brief report: Sluggish cognitive tempo among pediatric survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 32(9) Oct 2007, 1050-1054.
  • Rinehart, S. D. (1988). Conceptual tempo, studying, and reading: Journal of Educational Research Vol 81(3) Jan-Feb 1988, 138-142.
  • Seger, C. A. (1995). Efficiency and conceptual fluency as independent mechanisms in implicit learning. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Solis-Camara R, P., Diaz R, M., & Solis-Camara V, P. (1990). Consistency of conceptual tempo in quick (impulsive) subjects or slow (reflexive) subjects between the ages of 10 and 12 years: Revista Intercontinental de Psicologia y Educacion Vol 3(1-2) 1990, 115-129
  • Solis-Camara R, P., & Solis-Camara V, P. (1986). Evidence concerning motor contamination of conceptual tempo: Salud Mental Vol 9(4) Dec 1986, 72-79.
  • Solis-Camara Resendiz, P., & Solis-Camara Valencia, P. (1987). Long-term (30 months) effects of attempts to modify impulsivity: Their relevance to an understanding of style: Revista Interamericana de Psicologia Vol 21(1-2) 1987, 41-55.
  • Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2002). Interval length and time-use by children with AD/HD: A comparison of four models: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 30(3) Jun 2002, 257-264.
  • Stevens, A. O. (1988). Social reinforcement and self-instruction: A comparison of treatment effects in modifying the conceptual tempo of seven and ten year-old mentally retarded children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stigler, J. W., Nusbaum, H. C., & Chalip, L. (1988). Developmental changes in speed of processing: Central limiting mechanism of skill transfer? : Child Development Vol 59(4) Aug 1988, 1144-1153.
  • Stober, S. F. (1986). The relationship between conceptual tempo and metacognition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Taylor, J., Hunt, E., & Coggan, P. (1987). Effect of diazepam on the speed of mental rotation: Psychopharmacology Vol 91(3) Mar 1987, 369-371.
  • Thomsen, M. A. (1985). Television viewing habits and conceptual tempo in third grade and seventh grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Todd, R. D., Rasmussen, E. R., Wood, C., Levy, F., & Hay, D. A. (2004). Should sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms be included in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? : Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 43(5) May 2004, 588-597.
  • Vickers, D., & McDowell, A. (1996). Accuracy in the (FAST), inspection time and psychometric intelligence in a sample of primary school children: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 20(4) Apr 1996, 463-469.
  • Walker, N. W. (1985). Interactional effects of socioeconomic status and cognitive tempo on WISC--R performance: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development Vol 18(2) Jul 1985, 58-63.
  • Walker, N. W. (1986). What ever happened to the norms for the Matching Familiar Figures Test? : Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 63(3) Dec 1986, 1235-1242.
  • Ward, T. B., Foley, C. M., & Cole, J. (1986). Classifying multidimensional stimuli: Stimulus, task, and observer factors: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 12(2) May 1986, 211-225.
  • Wernick, M. J. (1986). The ontogeny of conceptual tempo and object relations: A cybernetic analysis of response-produced feedback in family interaction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wilson, E. M. (1985). The effect of reward on cognitive tempo: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Yu, K. (1997). The effects of cognitive tempo and training in a hypermedia learning environment on navigation patterns, learning achievement, and self-efficacy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.