Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·

Congenital muscular dystrophy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G712
ICD-9 359.0
OMIM 607855 254090 236670 253280 253800 604801 606612 608840 602771 613204
eMedicine neuro/549
GeneReviews Template:Citation/make link

Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is muscular dystrophy that is present at birth. CMD includes a number of autosomal recessive[1] diseases of muscle weakness and possible joint deformities, present at birth and slowly progressing. Life expectancies for affected individuals vary, although some forms of CMD do not affect life span at all.


Treatment is supportive.[2]

Physical and occupational therapy, surgery, wheelchairs and other assistive technology may be helpful.

Currently there is no cure.


All such known dystrophies are genetically recessive and result from mutations in a variety of different genes, including those encoding the laminin-α2 chain, fukutin-related protein, LARGE and fukutin, amongst others.

A classification for CMDs had been proposed in 2004 by Muntoni and Voit, based on genetic mutation.[3]

  • Genes encoding for structural proteins of the basal membrane or extracellular matrix of the skeletal muscle fibres.
  • Genes encoding for putative or demonstrated glycosyltransferases, that in turn affect the glycosylation of dystroglycan, an external membrane protein of the basal membrane.
  • Other
Name Abbreviation Group OMIM Gene and locus
Laminin-α2–deficient CMD MDC1A basal membrane/extracellular matrix 607855 LAMA2 at 6q22-q23
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy UCMDs 1, 2 and 3 basal membrane/extracellular matrix 254090 COL6A1 at 2q37, COL6A2 at 21q22.3, COL6A3 at 21q22.3
Walker-Warburg syndrome WWS glycosylation of dystroglycan 236670 POMT1 at 9q34.1 and POMT2 at 14q24.3
Muscle-eye-brain disease MEB glycosylation of dystroglycan 253280 POMGNT1 at 1p34-p33
Fukuyama CMD FCMD glycosylation of dystroglycan 253800 FKTN at 9q31
CMD plus secondary laminin deficiency 1 MDC1B glycosylation of dystroglycan 604801 ? at 1q42
CMD plus secondary laminin deficiency 2 MDC1C glycosylation of dystroglycan 606612 FKRP at 19q13.3
CMD with mental retardation and pachygyria MDC1D glycosylation of dystroglycan 608840 LARGE at 22q12.3-q13.1
Rigid spine with muscular dystrophy Type 1 RSMD1 other 602771 SEPN1 at 1p36-p35
613204 ITGA7 at 12q13

Related organizations

Cure CMD, a Congenital Muscular Dystrophy specific non-profit organization, incorporated in May 2008, and received tax exempt 501 (c)(3) status from the IRS in August 2008. Cure CMD’s mission is to bring research, treatments and in the future, a cure for Congenital Muscular Dystrophies. By focusing on this mission, Cure CMD will find and fund high potential research and clinical trials. You can find more information at

See also

  • Muscular Dystrophy Association (USA)
  • Muscular Dystrophy Campaign (UK)


  1. Reed UC (March 2009). Congenital muscular dystrophy. Part I: a review of phenotypical and diagnostic aspects. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 67 (1): 144–68.
  2. Collins J, Bönnemann CG (March 2010). Congenital muscular dystrophies: toward molecular therapeutic interventions. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 10 (2): 83–91.
  3. Muntoni F, Voit T (2004). The congenital muscular dystrophies in 2004: a century of exciting progress. Neuromuscul. Disord. 14 (10): 635–49.

External links


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).