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In the education and licensing of dentists The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the first dental school in the world, opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840, and in 1867, Harvard Dental School became the second dental school affiliated with a university.
Studies showed that dentists graduated from different countries[1], or even from different dental schools in one country[2], may have different clinical decisions for the same clinical condition. For example, dentists graduated from Israeli dental schools may recommend more often for the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molar (wisdom teeth) than dentists graduated from Latin-American or Eastern European dental schools.[3]

In England, the 1878 British Dentists Act and 1879 Dentists Register limited the title of "dentist" and "dental surgeon" to qualified and registered practitioners.[4][5] The practice of dentistry in the United Kingdom became fully regulated with the 1921 Dentists Act, which required the registration of anyone practicing dentistry.[6] The British Dental Association, formed in 1880 with Sir John Tomes as president, played a major role in prosecuting dentists practicing illegally.[4] A dentist is a healthcare professional qualified to practice dentistry after graduating with a degree of either Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD), Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent), Bachelor of Dental Science (BDSc), or Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Chirurgiae (BDS) or (BChD) or equivalent. In most western countries, to become a qualified dentist one must usually complete at least 4 years of postgraduate study[How to reference and link to summary or text]; within the European Union the education has to be at least 5 years. Dentists usually complete between 5–8 years of post secondary education before practicing. Though not mandatory, many dentists choose to complete an internship or residency focusing on specific aspects of dental care after they have received their dental degree.

The psychologists role in dental education

The selection of students

Levels of educational achievement

The stresses associated with dental education

See also

References & Bibliography

  1. Zadik Yehuda, Levin Liran (January 2008). Clinical decision making in restorative dentistry, endodontics, and antibiotic prescription. J Dent Educ 72 (1): 81–6.
  2. Zadik Yehuda, Levin Liran (April 2006). Decision making of Hebrew University and Tel Aviv University Dental Schools graduates in every day dentistry--is there a difference?. J Isr Dent Assoc 23 (2): 19–23.
  3. Zadik Yehuda, Levin Liran (April 2007). Decision making of Israeli, East European, and South American dental school graduates in third molar surgery: is there a difference?. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65 (4): 658–62.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gelbier, Stanley. 125 Years of Developments in Dentistry. British Dental Journal (2005); 199, 470-473. Page accessed 11 December 2007. The 1879 register is referred to as the "Dental Register". Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "125years" defined multiple times with different content
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bdatimeline
  6. History of Dental Surgery in Edinburgh, hosted on the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh website. Page accessed 11 December 2007.

Key texts


  • Bebeau, M. J. (1994). Influencing the moral dimensions of dental practice. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Papas, A. S., Rounds, M. C., Herman, J. S., & Vergo, T. J., Jr. (1987). A curriculum model in geriatric dentistry for the dental health team. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.


  • Adams, T. L. (1998). Gender and women's employment in the male-dominated profession of dentistry: 1867-1917: Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology Vol 35(1) Feb 1998, 21-42.
  • Ardenghi, D. M., Roth, W.-M., & Pozzer-Ardenghi, L. (2007). Responsibility in dental praxis: An activity theoretical perspective: Journal of Workplace Learning Vol 19(4) 2007, 240-255.
  • Ashe, T. E., Elter, J. R., Southerland, J. H., Strauss, R. P., & Patton, L. L. (2006). North Carolina Dental Hygienists' Oral Cancer Knowledge and Opinions: Implications for Education: Journal of Cancer Education Vol 21(3) Fal 2006, 151-156.
  • Boreham, N. C., Russell, C., & Wastell, D. G. (1988). Can past academic criteria predict students at risk of future failure? : Medical Education Vol 22(2) Mar 1988, 94-98.
  • Boyd, L. D., Fun, K., & Madden, T. E. (2006). Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education: A Descriptive Report: Substance Abuse Vol 27(1-2) 2006, 53-60.
  • Brickley, M. R., Prytherch, I. M., Kay, E. F., & Shepherd, J. P. (1995). A new method of assessment of clinical teaching: ROC analysis: Medical Education Vol 29(2) Mar 1995, 150-153.
  • Brown, R. S., Schwartz, J. L., Coleman-Bennett, M., & Sanders, C. F., Jr. (2000). The black and white of dental education in the United States: Enrollment and graduation trends: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 92(11) Nov 2000, 536-543.
  • Cecchini, J. J., & Friedman, N. (1986). Investigative study of dental hygiene students' and dental students' anxiety and dental stressors: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 33(2) 1986, 43-47.
  • Chang, C.-H. S., & Shih, Y.-H. (2004). Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness Vol 98(5) May 2004, 289-303.
  • Chng, C. L., Biernat, K. H., & Fridinger, F. (1990). A national study of the knowledge and attitudes of dental hygiene students on smokeless tobacco: Health Values: Health Behavior, Education & Promotion Vol 14(3) May-Jun 1990, 38-43.
  • Dennison, D. (1974). A motivational model to modify actual health behavior: Journal of School Health Vol 44(1) Jan 1974, 16-20.
  • Dickinson, G. E., & Sumner, E. D. (1991). Death education: A survey of American dental schools: Death Studies Vol 15(5) Sep-Oct 1991, 499-502.
  • Dixon, S., Dunn, W. J., & Fancher, J. P. (2002). Perceived initial clinical competencies of dentists at the start and completion of U.S. Air Force advanced education in general dentistry residency programs: Military Medicine Vol 167(6) Jun 2002, 470-473.
  • Ebersohn, L., & Maree, J. G. (2003). Determining selection criteria for South African dentistry students: South African Journal of Psychology Vol 33(1) Mar 2003, 61-65.
  • Ganikos, M. L., & Espin, O. M. (1975). Behavioral sciences and dentistry: A working marriage: Canadian Counsellor Vol 9(1) Jan 1975, 56-62.
  • Gift, H. C., Gerbert, B., Kress, G. C., & Reisine, S. T. (1990). Social, economic, and professional dimensions of the oral health care delivery system: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 12(4) 1990, 161-169.
  • Gift, H. C., & White, B. A. (1997). Health behavior research and oral health. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Gilbert, G. H., Shewchuk, R. M., & Litaker, M. S. (2006). Effect of Dental Practice Characteristics on Racial Disparities in Patient-Specific Tooth Loss: Medical Care Vol 44(5) May 2006, 414-420.
  • Hamby, C. L., & Shapiro, S. B. (1988). The reliability and validity of clinical grading in dental education: Psychological Reports Vol 63(1) Aug 1988, 299-304.
  • Hitpass, J. (1978). University admission: A special test for the selection of dental students: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 25(1) 1978, 75-94.
  • Hottel, T. L., & Hiler, C. L. (2001). The effects of patient management training on the interpersonal communication and clinical skills of third-year dental students: Journal of Psychotherapy in Independent Practice Vol 2(4) 2001, 73-79.
  • Hoyle, J. D. (1980). Psychosocial sources of stress in dental education: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jackson, E. (1986). The role of behavioral science in dental education: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 8(4) 1986, 23-26.
  • Jarrett, F. L., Johnson, R. A., & Darby, M. L. (1977). Creative thinking in dental hygiene students and professionals: Creative Child & Adult Quarterly Vol 2(4) Win 1977, 195-199.
  • Johnston, B. T., & Boohan, M. (2000). Basic clinical skills: Don't leave teaching to the teaching hospitals: Medical Education Vol 34(9) Sep 2000, 692-699.
  • Jones, J. E., & Preusz, G. C. (1988). Evaluating dental faculty performance: Perceptions of departmental chairpersons: Psychological Reports Vol 62(3) Jun 1988, 883-890.
  • Kao, E. C., Ngan, P. W., Wilson, S., & Kunovich, R. (1990). Wire-bending test as a predictor of preclinical performance by dental students: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 71(2) Oct 1990, 667-673.
  • Kent, G. (1987). Behavioural sciences teaching in UK dental schools: Medical Education Vol 21(2) Mar 1987, 105-108.
  • Lievens, F., & Buyse, T. (2004). The predictive validity of cognitive and non-cognitive predictors of the admission exam "Medical and Dental Studies" in Flanders: Pedagogische Studien Vol 81(6) 2004, 444-456.
  • Longenbecker, S., & Wood, P. H. (1984). The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program tests as predictors of scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 44(2) Sum 1984, 491-495.
  • Lusk, E. J., & et al. (1983). The Work Environment Scale: Baseline data for dental schools: Psychological Reports Vol 53(3, Pt 2) Dec 1983, 1160-1162.
  • Oliveira, E. R., Narendran, S., & Falcao, A. (2002). Brazilian dental students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV infection: AIDS Care Vol 14(4) Aug 2002, 569-576.
  • Oliver, R., & Sanz, M. (2007). The Bologna Process and health science education: Times are changing: Medical Education Vol 41(3) Mar 2007, 309-317.
  • Prescott, L. E., Norcini, J. J., McKinlay, P., & Rennie, J. S. (2002). Facing the challenges of competency-based assessment of postgraduate dental training: Longitudinal Evaluation of Performance (LEP): Medical Education Vol 36(1) Jan 2002, 92-97.
  • Ried, A. E. (1979). The development of work-related attitudes and behavior of professional recruits: A test of the functionalist argument: Journal of Health and Social Behavior Vol 20(4) Dec 1979, 338-351.
  • Ruff, J. C., & Mendez, J. C. (1988). An integrated geriatric dentistry program: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education Vol 8(3-4) 1988, 59-68.
  • Sachs, R. H., Eigenbrode, C. R., & Kruper, D. C. (1979). Psychology and dentistry: Professional Psychology Vol 10(4) Aug 1979, 521-528.
  • Schmitter, M., Liedl, M., Beck, J., & Rammelsberg, P. (2008). Chronic stress in medical and dental education: Medical Teacher Vol 30(1) Jan 2008, 97-99.
  • Taskaya-Yilmaz, N., Ceylan, G., Guler, A. U., Ergun, G., Cankaya, B., & Bek, Y. (2004). The level of burnout in a group of dental research assistants: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 20(3) Aug 2004, 105-111.
  • Thornton, L. J., Stuart-Buttle, C., Wyszynski, T. C., & Wilson, E. R. (2004). Physical and psychosocial stress exposures in US dental schools: The need for expanded ergonomics training: Applied Ergonomics Vol 35(2) Mar 2004, 153-157.
  • Van Stewart, A., Harness, B. G., & Hurley-Young, C. (1994). Using a summer research program as a mechanism for nurturing professional students' interest in gerontology: Educational Gerontology Vol 20(3) Apr-May 1994, 277-289.
  • Vann, W. F. (1980). Teaching the acquisition of psychomotor skills in dentistry: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Waldman, H. B. (1981). The turmoil of the dental practitioner: Professional Psychology Vol 12(4) Aug 1981, 461-469.
  • Walker, J. D., Killip, D. E., & Fuller, J. L. (1985). The significance of the admission interview in predicting students' performance in dental school: Journal of Medical Education Vol 60(7) Jul 1985, 569-571.
  • Watt, M. E. (1987). Retention of preclinical knowledge by clinical students: Medical Education Vol 21(2) Mar 1987, 119-124.
  • Whittle, J. G., Pitkethly, D., & Wilson, M. C. (1994). A dental health promotion campaign in a shopping centre: Health Education Research Vol 9(2) Jun 1994, 261-265.

  • Wu, S.-J., Miao, D.-M., & Luo, Z.-X. (2006). The differences of personality styles between the Chinese and English dental school applicants: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 20(11) Nov 2006, 720-722.
  • Yang, C.-L., & Kramer, G. A. (2007). Using Rasch analysis to construct a clinical problem-solving inventory in the dental clinic: A case study: Journal of Applied Measurement Vol 8(2) 2007, 161-174.
  • Yoshida, T., & Fujisaki, K. (2006). Interpersonal Communication Training in Dental Education. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Additional material


  • Widmer, C. G. (2001). Current beliefs and educational guidelines. Carol Stream, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co.



  • Abou-Rass, M. (1973). Effects of method of sequencing and amount of training on the acquisition and performance of psychomotor skills in preclinical endodontics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Allman, D. M. (1983). A comparison of the performance of Navy dental technicians trained with and without a clinical phase of instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Amos, L. W. (1987). Professionally and personally inviting teacher practices as related to affective course outcomes reported by dental hygiene students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brand, A. A. (1980). Change of attitude towards dentistry shown by dental students after graduation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Branson, B. S. (1993). The development of moral reasoning capacity in dental hygiene students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brock, E. J. (1995). The effect of video education and role play on aids-related anxiety in dental assisting students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cooper, R. W. (2007). Crises in dental education: An instrumental case study examination. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Domer, L. R. (1975). Dentist leader behavior and dental team effectiveness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dowling, C. (1986). Mandatory vs. voluntary continuing education for quality assurance and recredentialing: Impact on the professional performance of dental hygienists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Galaif, T. N. (1980). A cross-sectional developmental study of empathy levels of dental students as they progress through the four year dental school program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gershen, J. A. (1977). An evaluation of two small group instructional methods for teaching behavioral sciences in the dental curriculum: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gluch-Scranton, J. (1992). Collaboration and empowerment in educational activities during dental hygiene care: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Grimaudo, N. J. (2008). Students' and patients' perspectives of clinical teaching at a dental school. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gross, A. J. (1996). Dental education: Through the students' eyes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Lee, M. M. (1980). The development and testing of self-instructional programs in nutrition for dental students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Little, N. L. (1977). Characteristics and role perceptions of graduates of baccalaureate dental hygiene programs in the United States: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Machen, J. B. (1975). Simulation technique for the measurement of diagnostic skill in pedodontics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Monson, A. L. (2008). Predictors of dental hygienists' career settings, patterns, and satisfaction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • O'Reilly, M. T. (1987). Physical attractiveness of professors in dental education: Its relationship to students' ratings of teaching effectiveness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peebles, J. N. (1980). An investigation of the relationship between the needs satisfaction of dental educators and participative group management in dental schools: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rinchuse, D. J. (1986). Physical attractiveness, person perception, and teacher expectancy in a dental school model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Semler, S. J. (2002). The relationship between admission criteria and student success in dental hygiene education. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Shub, J. L. (1978). The influence of social structure on behavior: A study of the dental student-patient relationship: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shugars, D. A. (1979). Predictor variables for dental school admissions decisions: A discriminant analysis study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Soble, R. K. (1977). Student value change and congruency with faculty values in professional education related to reference group theory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wallace, D. W. (1977). The effects of a systematic training program in responding skills on dental hygiene students at Texas Women's University: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Watkins, F. S. (1972). An assessment of continuing dental education utilizing educational television as the dissemination medium: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Williams, T. J. (2008). An analysis of the comparative promotions and career processes of men and women: Pre-, during, and Post-U.S. dental school deanships. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

External links