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Dentists are medical personnel practicing dentistry, providing dental treatment in [[dental surgeries. To practice they need to have been dental students receiving a dental education.

Dentist patient relationship

Patients attitudes towards dentists

Dentists attitudes towards patients

=Dentists and the AIDS patient

Stress amongst dentists

Dentists are known to exhibit high levels of occupational stress.

Suicide amongst dentists

Dentists are known to have a comparatively high suicide rate in relation to other occupational groups

See also

References & Bibliography

Key texts


  • Ambard, A., & Hazelton, L. R. (2005). Oral Considerations of Bulimia Nervosa. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Biomedical Books.
  • Bebeau, M. J., & Brabeck, M. M. (1989). Ethical sensitivity and moral reasoning among men and women in the professions. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Bochner, S. (1988). The psychology of the dentist-patient relationship. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag Publishing.
  • Gift, H. C., & White, B. A. (1997). Health behavior research and oral health. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Martin, J. N., Peltier, B., & Glassman, P. (2001). Mental health practitioners and dentists in collaboration: Smiling from the inside out. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.
  • Mostofsky, D. I., Forgione, A. G., & Giddon, D. B. (2006). Behavioral dentistry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.


  • Alacam, A., Yildirim, S., Cnar, C., Bal, C., & Gurbuz, F. (2004). The evaluation of the approach of Turkish dentists to oral health of disabled patients: A pilot study: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities Vol 50(98,Pt1) 2004, 47-57.
  • Albert, D., Ward, A., Ahluwalia, K., & Sadowsky, D. (2002). Addressing tobacco in managed care: A survey of dentists' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: American Journal of Public Health Vol 92(6) Jun 2002, 997-1001.
  • Albert, D. A., Severson, H., Gordon, J., Ward, A., Andrews, J., & Sadowsky, D. (2005). Tobacco attitudes, practices, and behaviors: A survey of dentists participating in managed care: Nicotine & Tobacco Research Vol 7(Suppl1) Spr 2005, S9-S18.
  • Ayer, W. A. (1981). Dental providers and oral health behavior: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 273-282.
  • Barnes, N. G. (1985). Open wide: An examination of how patients select and evaluate their dentist: Health Marketing Quarterly Vol 3(1) Fal 1985, 49-56.
  • Baron, R. S., Logan, H., & Kao, C. F. (1990). Some variables affecting dentists' assessment of patients' distress: Health Psychology Vol 9(2) 1990, 143-153.
  • Bolin, K. A., & Shulman, J. D. (2004). Nationwide Survey of Dentist Recruitment and Salaries in Community Health Centers: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Vol 15(2) May 2004, 161-169.
  • Brennan, D. S., & Spencer, A. J. (2006). Dentist preferences for patients: Dimensions and associations with provider, practice, and service characteristics: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 13(1) 2006, 69-78.
  • Brimlow, D. (1995). Training to prevent burnout: HIV/AIDS programmes for physicians and dentists. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.
  • Bullard, J. H. (1984). Professionals' attitudes toward advertising: A study of lawyers, dentists, and accountants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bullock, A., Firmstone, V., Frame, J., & Bedward, J. (2007). Enhancing the benefit of continuing professional development: A randomized controlled study of personal development plans for dentists: Learning in Health & Social Care Vol 6(1) Mar 2007, 14-26.
  • Burgard, M., Canevello, A., Mitchell, J., De Zwaan, M., Crosby, R., Wonderlich, S., et al. (2003). Dental practitioners and eating disorders: Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention Vol 11(1) Spr 2003, 9-13.
  • Catovic, A., Kosovel, Z., Catovic, E., & Muftic, O. (1989). A comparative investigation of the influence of certain arm positions on hand pinch grips in the standing and sitting positions of dentists: Applied Ergonomics Vol 20(2) Jun 1989, 109-114.
  • Cavallaro, C. J. (1984). Women in dentistry: A study of the factors that influence the utilization of the professional degree in dentistry: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chaffin, J., & Richter, P. (2002). Making prevention of abuse and neglect through dental awareness green: Military Medicine Vol 167(11) Nov 2002, 920-922.
  • Chalkley, M., & Tilley, C. (2006). Treatment intensity and provider remuneration: Dentists in the British national health service: Health Economics Vol 15(9) Sep 2006, 933-946.
  • Channon, L. D. (1983). Routine assessment of hypnotizability by Australian practitioners: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 11(2) Nov 1983, 101-105.
  • Charbonneau, A., Maheux, B., & Beland, F. (1999). Do people with HIV/AIDS disclose their HIV-positivity to dentists? : AIDS Care Vol 11(1) Feb 1999, 61-70.
  • Choi, Y., Dodd, V., Watson, J., Tomar, S. L., Logan, H. L., & Edwards, H. (2008). Perspectives of African Americans and dentists concerning dentist-patient communication on oral cancer screening: Patient Education and Counseling Vol 71(1) Apr 2008, 41-51.
  • Coleman, H., & Burton, J. (1985). Aspects of control in the dentist-patient relationship: International Journal of the Sociology of Language No 51 1985, 75-104.
  • Conrad, D. A., Milgrom, P., Whitney, C., O'Hara, D., & Fiset, L. (1998). The incentive effects of malpractice liability rules on dental practice behavior: Medical Care Vol 36(5) May 1998, 706-719.
  • Corah, N. L. (1974). The dental practitioner and preventive health behavior: Health Education Monographs Vol 2(3) Fal 1974, 226-235.
  • Crowther, B., Felkner, L., & McDaniel, O. (1977). Differences among medical professionals in their attitude toward drugs: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 12(1) Feb 1977, 43-52.
  • Dangott, L., Thornton, B. C., & Page, P. (1978). Communication and pain: Journal of Communication Vol 28(1) Win 1978, 30-35.
  • Daniel, N., Machado, P. F., Sala, M. A., & Komesu, M. C. (2004). Attitudes of Dental Students and Dental Professionals Caring for HIV-Positive Patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil: AIDS Patient Care and STDs Vol 18(2) Feb 2004, 63-65.
  • de' Fornari, M. A. C., Salviati, M., Maiello, L., del Casale, A., Rreli, A., & Piccione, M. (2006). The "fear of the dentist" in the dental experience of the children who attend primary school: Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 41(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 36-41.
  • de Moraes, A. B. A., Sanchez, K. A. S., de Fatima Possobon, R., & Junior, A. L. C. (2004). Psychology and Pediatric Dentistry: The Contribution of Behaviour Functional Analysis: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 17(1) 2004, 75-82.
  • Delattre, V. F. (2007). Antemortem dental records: Attitudes and practices of forensic dentists: Journal of Forensic Sciences Vol 52(2) Mar 2007, 420-422.
  • Dietz, C. A., Ablah, E., Reznik, D., & Robbins, D. K. (2008). Patients attitudes about rapid oral HIV screening in an urban, free dental clinic: AIDS Patient Care and STDs Vol 22(3) Mar 2008, 205-212.
  • DiMatteo, M. R., Shugars, D. A., McBride, C. A., & O'Neil, E. H. (1995). Americans' views of health professionals and the health-care system: Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education & Promotion Vol 19(5) Sep-Oct 1995, 23-29.
  • Droeze, E. H., & Jonsson, H. (2005). Evaluation of ergonomic interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorders of dentists in the Netherlands: Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation Vol 25(3) 2005, 211-220.
  • DuRant, R. H., Pierce, K. L., Powell, B. J., & Sanders, J. M. (1989). Dentists' professional satisfaction with adolescent dentistry and its association with adolescent dental health behavior: Journal of Adolescent Health Care Vol 10(1) Jan 1989, 46-50.
  • Echeverria, D., Heyer, N. J., Martin, M. D., Naleway, C. A., & et al. (1995). Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hg among dentists: Neurotoxicology and Teratology Vol 17(2) Mar-Apr 1995, 161-168.
  • Eli, I. (1984). Professional socialization in dentistry: A longitudinal analysis of changes in students' expected professional rewards: Social Science & Medicine Vol 18(4) 1984, 297-302.
  • Eli, I., Judes, H., & Allerhand-Alexander, Y. (1988). Dentists and dentistry: Attitude changes toward the chosen profession: Human Relations Vol 41(12) Dec 1988, 929-937.
  • Elliot, F. R. (1979). Professional and family conflicts in hospital medicine: Social Science & Medicine Vol 13A(1) Jan 1979, 57-64.
  • Finkelstein, S. (2003). Rapid hypnotic inductions and therapeutic suggestions in the dental setting: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 51(1) Jan 2003, 77-85.
  • Finsen, L., Christensen, H., & Bakke, M. (1998). Musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and variation in dental work: Applied Ergonomics Vol 29(2) Apr 1998, 119-125.
  • Ford, W. S. Z., & Snyder, O. J. (2000). Customer service in dental offices: Analyses of service orientations and waiting time in telephone interactions with a potential new customer: Health Communication Vol 12(2) 2000, 149-172.
  • Frame, P. S., Sawai, R., Bowen, W. H., & Meyerowitz, C. (2000). Preventive dentistry: Practitioner's recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines: American Journal of Preventive Medicine Vol 18(2) Feb 2000, 159-162.
  • Franco, J. N. (1976). Social and behavioral variables associated with dental anxiety: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gallagher, E. B., & Moody, P. M. (1981). Dentists and the oral health behavior of patients: A sociological perspective: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 283-295.
  • Gerbert, B., Badner, V., & Maguire, B. (1988). AIDS and dental practice: Journal of Public Health Dentistry Vol 48(2) Spr 1988, 68-73.
  • Gershen, J. A., & McCreary, C. P. (1983). Personality comparisons of responders and nonresponders to a mailed personality inventory: Psychological Reports Vol 52(2) Apr 1983, 555-562.
  • Goldenberg, A. S. (1992). Referral patterns of dentists: Analysis and implications of a questionnaire: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 39(1-4) 1992, 76-80.
  • Graham, R. (2006). Lacking Compassion--Sociological Analyses of the Medical Profession: Social Theory & Health Vol 4(1) Feb 2006, 43-63.
  • Greene, B. F., & Neistat, M. D. (1983). Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Encouraging dental professionals to provide consumers with shielding from unnecessary X-ray exposure: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 16(1) Spr 1983, 13-27.
  • Gryll, S. L., & Katahn, M. (1978). Situational factors contributing to the placebo effect: Psychopharmacology Vol 57(3) 1978, 253-261.
  • Harwood, P., & Newton, T. (1995). Dental aspects of bulimia nervosa: Implications for the health care team: European Eating Disorders Review Vol 3(2) Jun 1995, 93-102.
  • Hazelkorn, H. M. (1990). The reaction of dentists to members of groups at great risk of AIDS: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hill, H. A., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1997). Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding smoking and smoking cessation among African-American physicians and dentists: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 89(11) Nov 1997, 745-751.
  • Jago, J. D. (1984). To protect the public: Professionalism vs competence in dentistry: Social Science & Medicine Vol 19(2) 1984, 117-122.
  • Jarrett, F. L., Johnson, R. A., & Darby, M. L. (1977). Creative thinking in dental hygiene students and professionals: Creative Child & Adult Quarterly Vol 2(4) Win 1977, 195-199.
  • Jones, G. L., & Keith, K. D. (1983). Computer clinical simulations in health sciences: Journal of Computer-Based Instruction Vol 9(3) Win 1983, 108-114.
  • Jones, J. E., & Preusz, G. C. (1993). Attitudinal factors associated with individual faculty research productivity in academic dentistry: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 76(3, Pt 2) Jun 1993, 1191-1198.
  • Judd, F. K., Burrows, G. D., & Dennerstein, L. (1986). Clinicians' perceptions of the adverse effects of hypnosis: A preliminary survey: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 14(1) May 1986, 49-60.
  • Kay, E. J., Murray, K., & Blinkhorn, A. S. (1990). AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus: A preliminary investigation into Edinburgh general dental practitioners' views and behaviors: Health Education Research Vol 5(3) Sep 1990, 321-325.
  • Krasner, L. (1976). Review of Psychological readings for the dental profession: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (3), Mar, 1976.
  • Kreyer, G. (1993). Occupational stress and physiopsychic strain of the dentist: Results of an Austrian study. D-93018 Regensburg, Germany: S Roderer Verlag.
  • Kunzel, C., & Sadowsky, D. (1993). Predicting dentists' perceived occupational risk for HIV infection: Social Science & Medicine Vol 36(12) Jun 1993, 1579-1586.
  • Laszlo, M. (2006). An outline of the sociology of dentistry: Mentalhigiene es Pszichoszomatika Vol 6(4) 2006, 245-273.
  • Leeners, B., Stiller, R., Block, E., Gorres, G., Imthurn, B., & Rath, W. (2007). Consequences of childhood sexual abuse experiences on dental care: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 62(5) May 2007, 581-588.
  • Leonard-Barton, D. (1985). Experts as negative opinion leaders in the diffusion of a technological innovation: Journal of Consumer Research Vol 11(4) Mar 1985, 914-926.
  • Levine, B. A., Moss, K. C., Ramsey, P. H., & Fleishman, R. A. (1978). Patient compliance with advice as a function of communicator expertise: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 104(2) Apr 1978, 309-310.
  • Liddell, A., & May, B. (1984). Patients' perception of dentists' positive and negative attributes: Social Science & Medicine Vol 19(8) 1984, 839-842.
  • Lindsay, S. J., & Woolgrove, J. (1982). Fear and pain in dentistry: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society Vol 35 Jun 1982, 225-228.
  • Lytle, W. R., Wong, M., & Rackcliffe, J. (1991). Perceptions of dentists' chairside behavior in a military dental care system: Military Medicine Vol 156(1) Jan 1991, 12-15.
  • Mecklenburg, R. E. (1994). Managing hard-core smokers: Oral health team challenges and opportunities: Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education & Promotion Vol 18(1) Jan-Feb 1994, 6-16.
  • Milgrom, P., Mancl, L., King, B., & Weinstein, P. (1995). Origins of childhood dental fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 33(3) Mar 1995, 313-319.
  • Miyachi, H., Wake, H., Tamaki, K., Mitsuhashi, A., Ikeda, T., Inoue, K., et al. (2007). Detecting mental disorders in dental patients with occlusion-related problems: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 61(3) Jun 2007, 313-319.
  • Moretti, R. J. (1982). Nonverbal communication skills of dentists, patient anxiety, and patient satisfaction with treatment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Morton, J. C. (1991). The effect of assigned goals and team performance feedback on the performance of health care teams over time: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Murry, J. M., & Butler, J. R. (1988). Neuropsychological dysfunctioning associated with the dental office environment: International Journal of Biosocial Research Vol 10(1) 1988, 45-68.
  • Murtomaa, H. (1983). Conceptions of dentists and dental nurses about ergonomics: Ergonomics Vol 26(9) Sep 1983, 879-886.
  • Nakajima, K., Sumi, Y., & Tamura, T. (2003). An oral care training system for caregivers: Gerontechnology Vol 2(3) Mar 2003, 263-266.
  • Newton, J. T., Davenport-Jones, L., Idle, M., Patel, M., Setchell, A., & Turpin, C. (2001). Patients' perceptions of general dental practitioners: The influence of ethnicity and sex of dentist: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 29(6) 2001, 601-606.
  • No authorship, i. (1989). Review of The Psychology of the Dentist-Patient Relationship: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 34 (5), May, 1989.
  • Palliser, C. R., Firth, H. M., Feyer, A. M., & Paulin, S. M. (2005). Musculoskeletal discomfort and work-related stress in New Zealand dentists: Work & Stress Vol 19(4) Oct-Dec 2005, 351-359.
  • Pleva, J. (1994). Are promoters of dental amalgam poisoned by mercury? : Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 9(2) 1994, 75-78.
  • Porter, S. R., El-Maaytah, M., Scully, C., Afonso, W., & et al. (1995). Willingness of dentists to treat an HIV-infected patient: AIDS Vol 9(4) Apr 1995, 402-403.
  • Powell, M. (1972). Occupational problems of professional men: Dentists and pharmacists: Occupational Psychology Vol 46(2) 1972, 53-67.
  • Raab, F., Schaffer, E., Cornelissen, G., & Halberg, F. (1993). More on the dentist's role in the prevention of high blood pressure: Chronobiologia Vol 20(3-4) Jul-Dec 1993, 245-250.
  • Rabiner, D. J., Shugars, D. A., & Hays, R. D. (1994). A short-form measure of dentists' job satisfaction: Evaluation and Program Planning Vol 17(3) Jul-Sep 1994, 271-275.
  • Render, J. D. (1985). Providers reaction to dental patient's pain: Military Medicine Vol 150(3) Mar 1985, 160-164.
  • Rolander, B., Karsznia, A., Jonker, D., Oberg, T., & Bellner, A.-L. (2005). Perceived contra observed physical work load in Swedish dentists: Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation Vol 25(3) 2005, 253-262.
  • Rouse, R. A. (1989). A paradigm of intervention: Emotional communication in dentistry: Health Communication Vol 1(4) 1989, 239-252.
  • Rouse, R. A. (1994). The dentist-patient relationship: A dyadic analysis of patients' intention to utilize dental services. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rouse, R. A., & Hamilton, M. A. (1990). Dentists' technical competence, communication, and personality as predictors of dental patient anxiety: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 13(3) Jun 1990, 307-319.
  • Rouse, R. A., & Hamilton, M. A. (1991). Dentists evaluate their patients: An empirical investigation of preferences: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 14(6) Dec 1991, 637-648.
  • Rule, W. R., & Comer, A. T. (1979). Family constellation and birth order variables related to vocational choice of dentistry: Psychological Reports Vol 45(3) Dec 1979, 883-890.
  • Rule, W. R., & Comer, A. T. (1981). Parental strictness-permissiveness and long-term memory: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 52(2) Apr 1981, 574.
  • Rule, W. R., & Comer, A. T. (1982). Childhood memory of parental authority as related to family constellation variables: Psychological Reports Vol 50(3, Pt 2) Jun 1982, 1175-1178.
  • Sadowsky, D. (1977). Other voices in a profession: Role modification in process: Becoming dentists without patients: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sandell, R., Camner, L. G., & Sarhed, G. (1994). The dentist's attitudes and their interaction with patient involvement in oral hygiene compliance: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 33(4) Nov 1994, 549-558.
  • Schwartz, A. J., Black, E. R., Goldstein, M. G., Jozefowicz, R. F., & et al. (1987). Levels and causes of stress among residents: Journal of Medical Education Vol 62(9) Sep 1987, 744-753.
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  • Smith, R. C. (1981). Perceptions of dentistry and dentists: A survey sample of selected students who are eighty-seven percent Black: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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  • Street, R. L. (1989). Patients' satisfaction with dentists' communicative style: Health Communication Vol 1(3) 1989, 137-154.
  • Street, R. L., Jr. (1990). Dentist-patient communication: A review and commentary. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
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Additional material


  • Glynn, T. J., Manley, M. W., Mills, S., Gerlach, K., & Epps, R. (1999). Challenges and techniques for the treatment of nicotine dependence by physicians and dentists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Magri, F., Thoma, M., & Marthaler, T. M. (1993). Female dental preventive workers in Swiss communal schools: Who are they? How are they employed? How do they perform? D-93018 Regensburg, Germany: S Roderer Verlag.



  • Adams, R. A. (1990). Comparative effects of videotransmission vs seminars in continuing education of dentists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Angello, M. L. (1990). The dentist-patient relationship: Perceptions of patient needs: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brand, A. A. (1980). Change of attitude towards dentistry shown by dental students after graduation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chapman, A. D. (1984). Influence of interpersonal and managerial styles on quality of dental care: A comparison of male and female dentists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gryll, S. L. (1976). Situational factors contributing to the placebo effect: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jepsen, C. H. (1983). Relationship between dental team and dental patient inclusion, control, and affection behaviors and dental patient compliance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kenna, G. A. (2004). Prevalence and risk factors associated with substance use and abuse by Rhode Island health care professionals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • McBride, C. A. (1995). The impact of psychosocial factors on dentists' attitudes toward HIV positive patients: Implications for willingness to treat. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Murrell, L. M. (2004). An exploratory study of regular patients' and dentists' rating of anxiety using two widely known dental anxiety questionnaires. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Nakamura, R. M. (1975). Factors determining the hierarchical rankings of occupations within the health care field: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Naughton, M. J. (1980). The determinants of successful self-directed professional development strategies of exemplary professional nurses and dentists: Dissertation Abstracts International.

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