Psychology Wiki
 
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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
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{{Infobox Symptom
 
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| Image =
{{SignSymptom infobox |
 
Name = Dizziness |
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| Caption =
ICD10 = R42 |
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| DiseasesDB = 17771
ICD9 = 780.4 |
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| ICD10 = {{ICD10|R|42||r|40}}
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| ICD9 = {{ICD9|780.4}}
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| ICDO =
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| OMIM =
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| MedlinePlus =
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| eMedicineSubj = neuro
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| eMedicineTopic = 693
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| MeshName = Dizziness
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| MeshNumber = C10.597.751.237
 
}}
 
}}
'''Dizziness''' ([[Latin]]: "[[Vertigo (medical)|Vertigo]]") is the sensation of instability. The term is fairly vague, and can include a number of more specific conditions, ranging from harmless to life-threatening. One of the most common causes of dizziness is rapid spinning; this cause lent its name to the [[baseball]] pitcher [[Dizzy Dean]], whose windup while throwing the ball caused him to spin completely around.
 
   
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'''Dizziness''' describes a number of subjective symptoms, which the patient may describe as feelings of lightheadedness, floating, wooziness, giddiness, confusion, disorientation or loss of balance. Medical terms include ''vertigo, disequilibrium, pre-syncope or syncoptic episode''. Causes may stem from a variety of failures of [[equilibrioception]], [[hypotension]], cerebral [[hypoxia]] or a reaction to environmental chemicals or drugs.
''Vertigo'' refers to dizziness with a sensation of motion. The cerebellum takes input about the location and motion of the head from the inner ears, the visual system, and position sensors in the neck. If these signals disagree with one another, or if the processing is not working right, vertigo is experienced. Vertigo is more likely than other types of dizziness to be associated with nausea, vomiting, or double vision, to occur even when lying down, and to feel better with the eyes closed. Pilots experiencing vertigo conditions become spatially detached from their aircraft's flight attitude and it can result in loss of control.
 
   
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==Vertigo==
''Instability'' is not necessarily dizziness; uneasiness during walking or standing is often due to musculoskeletal pain, [[Parkinson's disease]] or various other conditions.
 
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{{main|Vertigo (medical)}}
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[[Vertigo (medical)|Vertigo]] is a specific medical term used to describe the sensation of spinning or having the room spin about you. Many people find vertigo very disturbing and often report associated nausea and vomiting.
   
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[[Otology|Otologic]] causes of vertigo:
'''Neurological dizziness''' is not due to spinning around, standing upside-down or motion sickness. It is a light-headed sensation in which there is a head-ache and reduced consciousness. This can be accompanied by seeing stars, blacking out, convulsions, fainting, paralysis and other neurological symptoms.
 
Take note that the dizziness caused by fainting is different from that of dizziness caused by spinning too fast. It is a different sensation.
 
The stars (white spots that appear to move infront of the eyes), convulsions and confusion are often the result of excessive neuronal discharges often caused by the chemical [[glutamate]]. Oxygen deprivation can result in excessive neurological discharge leading to brain damage or/and convulsions due to glutamate after prolonged periods or about minute.
 
   
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If the vertigo arises from the inner ear, it is severe and has associated [[nausea]] and vomiting. One common cause of otologic vertigo is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo ([[BPPV]]). Alternate causes of vertigo originating from the inner ear include [[Ménière's disease]], [[superior canal dehiscence syndrome]], and [[labyrinthitis]].
==Causes==
 
===[[Inner ear]]===
 
* [[benign paroxysmal postural vertigo]]
 
* [[labyrinthitis]]
 
* [[Ménière's disease]]
 
* [[perilymphatic fistula]]
 
* [[neurinoma]] of the [[Vestibulocochlear nerve|acoustic nerve]]
 
* [[vestibular neuronitis]]
 
   
 
Central nervous system causes of vertigo:
===[[Eye]]===
 
* new [[glasses]]
 
* [[optical illusion]]s
 
   
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If vertigo arises from the balance centers of the brain, it is milder, and has accompanying neurologic deficits, such as slurred speech, [[double vision]] or [[Pathologic nystagmus|nystagmus]]. Alternately, brain pathology can cause a sensation of disequilibrium which is an off-balance sensation.
===[[Neck]]===
 
* [[arthritis]]
 
* [[cervical vertigo]]
 
* [[Whiplash (medicine)|Whiplash]] and other strains
 
   
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Often vertigo can be treated by the [[Epley maneuver]].
===[[Central nervous system]]===
 
* [[arteria basilaris syndrome]]
 
* [[concussion]]
 
* [[migraine]]
 
* [[multiple sclerosis]]
 
* [[orthostatic hypotension]]
 
* [[stroke]]
 
   
===Breathing===
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==Disequilibrium==
*Extreme intake of [[helium]]
 
*[[Hyperventilation]]
 
   
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[[Equilibrioception|Disequilibrium]] is the sensation of being off balance, and is most often characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction. This condition is not often associated with nausea or vomiting.
===Other causes===
 
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Low blood pressure and /or hyperventilation (often situational), such as emotionally-induced "fainting". Some persons may have deliberately or subconsciously "learnt" to induce such "dizziness" symptoms or complaints. Further medical tests may be needed to determine whether there is indeed a true medical cause. If the "dizziness" is psychosomatically linked, then cognitive and "play" therapies may introduce other ways of coping with strange, stressful and unusual situations.
 
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==Pre-syncope==
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''Pre-syncope'', or a ''syncoptic episode'', is [[lightheadedness]], muscular weakness and feeling faint as opposed to a [[Syncope (medicine)|syncope]], which is actually fainting. Pre-syncope does not result from primary central nervous system pathology, nor does it originate in the inner ear but is most often cardiovascular in etiology. In many patients, lightheadedness is a symptom of [[orthostatic hypotension]]. Orthostatic hypotension occurs when the blood pressure drops significantly when the patient stands from a supine or seated position. If loss of consciousness occurs in this situation, it is termed syncope.
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==External links==
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* [http://www.dizzytimes.com/ Dizzytimes.com] Online Community for Sufferers of Vertigo and Dizziness
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
* [[motion sickness]]
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* [[Motion sickness]]
* [[balance disorder]]
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* [[Balance disorder]]
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* [[Vertigo (medical)]]
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* [[Syncope (medicine)]]
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* [[Equilibrioception]]
   
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{{Cognition, perception, emotional state and behaviour symptoms and signs}}
== External links ==
 
* [http://www.hadassah.org.il/English/Eng_SubNavBar/Departments/Medical+departments/Ear+Nose+Throat/Tinnitus/default.htm Hadassah Medical Center]
 
   
{{med-stub}}
 
 
[[Category:Neurology]]
 
[[Category:Neurology]]
[[Category:Otolaryngology]]
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[[Category:Otology]]
 
[[Category:Symptoms]]
 
[[Category:Symptoms]]
   
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<!--
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[[da:Svimmelhed]]
 
[[de:Vertigo]]
 
[[de:Vertigo]]
[[es:Vértigo]]
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[[el:Ζάλη]]
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[[es:vértigo]]
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[[fr:Vertige]]
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[[he:סחרחורת]]
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[[nl:Duizeligheid]]
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[[pt:Tontura]]-->
 
{{enWP|Dizziness}}
 
{{enWP|Dizziness}}

Latest revision as of 21:55, 26 July 2020

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Name of Symptom/Sign:
{{{Name}}}
[[Image:|190px|center|]]
ICD-10 R42
ICD-O:
ICD-9 780.4
OMIM [1]
MedlinePlus [2]
eMedicine neuro/693
DiseasesDB 17771

Dizziness describes a number of subjective symptoms, which the patient may describe as feelings of lightheadedness, floating, wooziness, giddiness, confusion, disorientation or loss of balance. Medical terms include vertigo, disequilibrium, pre-syncope or syncoptic episode. Causes may stem from a variety of failures of equilibrioception, hypotension, cerebral hypoxia or a reaction to environmental chemicals or drugs.

Vertigo

Main article: Vertigo (medical)

Vertigo is a specific medical term used to describe the sensation of spinning or having the room spin about you. Many people find vertigo very disturbing and often report associated nausea and vomiting.

Otologic causes of vertigo:

If the vertigo arises from the inner ear, it is severe and has associated nausea and vomiting. One common cause of otologic vertigo is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Alternate causes of vertigo originating from the inner ear include Ménière's disease, superior canal dehiscence syndrome, and labyrinthitis.

Central nervous system causes of vertigo:

If vertigo arises from the balance centers of the brain, it is milder, and has accompanying neurologic deficits, such as slurred speech, double vision or nystagmus. Alternately, brain pathology can cause a sensation of disequilibrium which is an off-balance sensation.

Often vertigo can be treated by the Epley maneuver.

Disequilibrium

Disequilibrium is the sensation of being off balance, and is most often characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction. This condition is not often associated with nausea or vomiting.

Pre-syncope

Pre-syncope, or a syncoptic episode, is lightheadedness, muscular weakness and feeling faint as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting. Pre-syncope does not result from primary central nervous system pathology, nor does it originate in the inner ear but is most often cardiovascular in etiology. In many patients, lightheadedness is a symptom of orthostatic hypotension. Orthostatic hypotension occurs when the blood pressure drops significantly when the patient stands from a supine or seated position. If loss of consciousness occurs in this situation, it is termed syncope.

External links

  • Dizzytimes.com Online Community for Sufferers of Vertigo and Dizziness

See also



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