Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)

Lead II

In electrocardiography an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. It is the prime tool in cardiac electrophysiology, and has a prime function in screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.

The electrocardiogram does not assess the contractility of the heart.


12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with ST-segment elevation in leads II, III and aVF, suggestive of an inferior acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

The ECG has a wide array of uses:

  • Determine whether the heart is performing normally or suffering from abnormalities (eg. extra or skipped heartbeats - cardiac arrhythmia).
  • May indicate acute or previous damage to heart muscle (heart attacks) or ischaemia of heart muscle (angina).
  • Can be used for detecting potassium, calcium, magnesium and other electrolyte disturbances.
  • Allows the detection of conduction abnormalities (heart blocks and in bundle branch blocks).
  • As a screening tool for ischaemic heart disease during an exercise tolerance test.
  • Can provide information on the physical condition of the heart (eg: left ventricular hypertrophy, mitral stenosis).
  • Can suggest non-cardiac disease (e.g. pulmonary embolism, hypothermia)

Lead placement

Lead I

An ECG is constructed by measuring electrical potential between various points of the body using a galvanometer. Leads I, II and III are measured over the limbs: I is from the right to the left arm, II is from the right arm to the left leg and III is from the left arm to the left leg. From this, the imaginary point V is constructed, which is located centrally in the chest above the heart. The other nine leads are derived from potential between this point and the three limb leads (aVR, aVL and aVF) and the six precordial leads (V1-6). Leads Readings

Therefore, there are twelve leads in total. Each, by their nature, record information from particular parts of the heart:

  • The inferior leads (leads II, III and aVF) look at electrical activity from the vantage point of the inferior region (wall) of the heart. This is the apex of the left ventricle.
  • The lateral leads (I, aVL, V5 and V6) look at the electrical activity from the vantage point of the lateral wall of the heart, which is the lateral wall of the left ventricle.
  • The anterior leads, V1 through V6, and represent the anterior wall of the heart, or the frontal wall of the left ventricle.
  • aVR is rarely used for diagnostic information, but indicates if the ECG leads were placed correctly on the patient.

Understanding the usual and abnormal directions, or vectors, of depolarization and repolarization yields important diagnostic information. The right ventricle has very little muscle mass. It leaves only a small imprint on the ECG, making it more difficult to diagnose than changes in the left ventricle.

The leads measure the average electrical activity generated by the summation of the action potentials of the heart at a particular moment in time. For instance, during normal atrial systole, the summation of the electrical activity produces an electrical vector that is directed from the SA node towards the AV node, and spreads from the right atrium to the left atrium (since the SA node resides in the right atrium). This turns into the P wave on the EKG, which is upright in II, III, and aVF (since the general electrical activity is going towards those leads), and inverted in aVR (since it is going away from that lead).

The normal ECG

Schematic representation of normal EKG trace (sinus rhythm), with waves, segments, and intervals labeled.

Electrocardiogram of a healthy man, 21 years old

A typical ECG tracing of a normal heartbeat consists of a P wave, a QRS complex and a T wave. A small U wave is not normally visible.


The axis is the general direction of the electrical impulse through the heart. It is usually directed to the bottom left (normal axis: -30o to +90o), although it can deviate to the right in very tall people and to the left in obesity.

  • Extreme deviation is abnormal and indicates a bundle branch block, ventricular hypertrophy or (if to the right) pulmonary embolism.
  • It also can diagnose dextrocardia or a reversal of the direction in which the heart faces, but this condition is very rare and often has already been diagnosed by something else (such as a chest X-ray).

P wave

The P wave is the electrical signature of the current that causes atrial contraction. Both the left and right atria contract simultaneously. Its relationship to QRS complexes determines the presence of a heart block.

  • Irregular or absent P waves may indicate arrhythmia.
  • The shape of the P waves may indicate atrial problems.


The QRS complex corresponds to the current that causes contraction of the left and right ventricles, which is much more forceful than that of the atria and involves more muscle mass, thus resulting in a greater ECG deflection. The duration of the QRS complex is normally less than or equal to 0.10 second.

The Q wave, when present, represents the small horizontal (left to right) current as the action potential travels through the interventricular septum.

  • Very wide and deep Q waves do not have a septal origin, but indicate myocardial infarction that involves the full depth of the myocardium and has left a scar.

The R and S waves indicate contraction of the myocardium itself.

  • Abnormalities in the QRS complex may indicate bundle branch block (when wide), ventricular origin of tachycardia, ventricular hypertrophy or other ventricular abnormalities.
  • The complexes are often small in pericarditis or pericardial effusion.

T wave

The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles. The QRS complex usually obscures the atrial repolarization wave so that it is not usually seen. Electrically, the cardiac muscle cells are like loaded springs. A small impulse sets them off, they depolarize and contract. Setting the spring up again is repolarization (more at action potential).

In most leads, the T wave is positive.

  • Negative T waves can be signs of disease, although an inverted T wave is normal in V1 (and V2-V3 in African-Americans/Afro-Caribbeans).
  • T wave abnormalities may indicate electrolyte disturbance, such as hyperkalemia and hypokalemia.

The ST segment connects the QRS complex and the T wave.

  • This segment ordinarily lasts about 0.08 second and is usually level with the PR segment. Upward or downward displacement may indicate damage to the cardiac muscle or strain on the ventricles. It can be depressed in ischemia and elevated in myocardial infarction, and upslopes in digoxin use.

U Wave

Not always seen. Quite small. Follows T wave. Thought to represent repolarization of the papillary muscles or purkinje fibers. Prominent U waves is most often seen in hypokalemia, but may be present in hypercalcemia, thyrotoxicosis, or exposure to digitalis, epinephrine, and Class 1A and 3 antiarrhythmics, as well as in the congenital long QT syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage. An inverted U wave may represent myocardial ischemia or left ventricular volume overload.

ECG measures

QT interval

The QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave. A normal QT interval is usually about 0.40 seconds. The QT interval as well as the corrected QT interval are important in the diagnosis of long QT syndrome and short QT syndrome. The QT interval varies based on the heart rate, and various correction factors have been developed to correct the QT interval for the heart rate.

The most commonly used method for correcting the QT interval for rate is the one formulated by Bazett and published in 19201. Bazett's formula is , where QTc is the QT interval corrected for rate, and RR is the interval from the onset of one QRS complex to the onset of the next QRS complex, measured in seconds. However, this formula tends to not be accurate, and over-corrects at high heart rates and under-corrects at low heart rates.

PR interval

The PR interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. It is usually 0.12 to 0.20 seconds. A prolonged PR indicates a first degree heart block, while a shorting may indicate an accessory bundle, such as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome[1] [2].


  1. Bazett HC. An analysis of the time-relations of electrocardiograms. Heart 1920;7:353-370
  2. Cooper JK. Electrocardiography 100 years ago. Origins, pioneers, and contributors. N Engl J Med 1986;315:461-4. PMID 3526152.

See also


  • Adler, R., & et al. (1974). Symptom-context-analysis of directly registered variations of blood pressure: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse Vol 20(4) Oct-Dec 1974, 312-327.
  • Alam, F., Paranthaman, R., & Mbaya, P. (2006). Monitoring the physical health of psychiatric patients on psychotropic drugs: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 30(12) Dec 2006, 469.
  • Alderton, H. R. (1995). Tricyclic medication in children and the QT interval: Case report and discussion: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 40(6) Aug 1995, 325-329.
  • Al-Khatib, S. M., LaPointe, N. M. A., Kramer, J. M., Chen, A. Y., Hammill, B. G., Delong, L., et al. (2005). A Survey of Health Care Practitioners' Knowledge of the QT Interval: Journal of General Internal Medicine Vol 20(5) May 2005, 392-396.
  • Ames, D., Camm, J., Cook, P., Falkai, P., Gury, C., Hurley, R., et al. (2002). Minimizing the risks associated with significant QTc prolongation in people with schizophrenia: A consensus statement by the Cardiac Safety in Schizophrenia Group: Australasian Psychiatry Vol 10(2) Jun 2002, 115-124.
  • Arabian, J. M., Furedy, J. J., Morrison, J., & Szalai, J. P. (1983). Treatment of PAT: Bradycardiac reflexes induced by dive vs. body-tilt: Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science Vol 18(2) Apr-Jun 1983, 88-93.
  • Arbuck, D. M. (2005). 12,800-mg ziprasidone overdose without significant ECG changes: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 27(3) May-Jun 2005, 222-223.
  • Asgian, B., & Dudea, C. (1973). Some polygraphic aspects recorded during cerebral vascular coma up to clinical death: Neurologie, Psihiatrie, Neurochirurgie Vol 18(2) Mar 1973, 163-176.
  • Baker, B., Dorian, P., Sandor, P., & Shapiro, C. (1997). Electrocardiographic effects of fluoxetine and doxepin in patients with major depressive disorder: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 17(1) Feb 1997, 15-21.
  • Barber, J. M. (1998). Risk of sudden death on high-dose antipsychotic medication: QTc dispersion: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 173 Jul 1998, 86-87.
  • Barnhill, J. G. (1992). Plasma desipramine levels and ECG changes in depressed young adults: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 136-137.
  • Barry, R. J., & Mitchell, F. H. (1987). A comparison of phasic cardiac responses derived from the electrocardiogram and the peripheral pulse: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(1) May 1987, 73-78.
  • Barsky, A. J., Ahern, D. K., Bailey, E. D., & Delamater, B. A. (1996). Predictors of persistent palpitations and continued medical utilization: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 42(5) May 1996, 465-472.
  • Bartels, M. G., Varley, C. K., Mitchell, J., & Stamm, S. J. (1991). Pediatric cardiovascular effects of imipramine and desipramine: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 30(1) Jan 1991, 100-103.
  • Basner, M., Griefahn, B., Muller, U., Plath, G., & Samel, A. (2007). An ECG-based algorithm for the automatic identification of autonomic activations associated with cortical arousal: Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research Vol 30(10) Oct 2007, 1349-1361.
  • Becker-Carus, C. (1971). Physiological correlates of psychic variables: Archiv fur Psychologie Vol 123(1) Oct 1971, 65-82.
  • Berntson, G. G., Lozano, D. L., Chen, Y.-J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Where to Q in PEP: Psychophysiology Vol 41(2) Mar 2004, 333-337.
  • Biederman, J. (1995). "A naturalistic study of 24-hour electrocardiographic recordings and echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents treated with desipramine": Reply: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 34(2) Feb 1995, 125-126.
  • Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Goldblatt, A., Lapey, K. A., & et al. (1993). A naturalistic study of 24-hour electrocardiographic recordings and echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents treated with desipramine: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 32(4) Jul 1993, 805-813.
  • Black, B. A. (1979). Electrocardiogram and heart rate components of attention in visual reaction time tasks: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Blair, J., Scahill, L., State, M., & Martin, A. (2005). Electrocardiographic Changes in Children and Adolescents Treated With Ziprasidone: A Prospective Study: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 44(1) Jan 2005, 73-79.
  • Boettger, S., Hoyer, D., Falkenhahn, K., Kaatz, M., Yeragani, V. K., & Bar, K.-J. (2006). Altered diurnal autonomic variation and reduced vagal information flow in acute schizophrenia: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 117(12) Dec 2006, 2715-2722.
  • Bogdanowicz, E., Ekiel, I., & Pasiud-Waniek, J. (1975). Evaluation of the influence of tricyclic antidepressants on the EEG recordings in patients with endogenous depression: Psychiatria Polska Vol 9(3) 1975, 283-288.
  • Bonner, R. A. (1973). The cardiovascular response to cerebral trauma: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Bornas, X., Llabres, J., Noguera, M., Lopez, A. M., Gelabert, J. M., & Vila, I. (2006). Fear induced complexity loss in the electrocardiogram of flight phobics: A multiscale entropy analysis: Biological Psychology Vol 73(3) Oct 2006, 272-279.
  • Boscarino, J. A., & Chang, J. (1999). Electrocardiogram abnormalities among men with stress-related psychiatric disorders: Implications for coronary heart disease and clinical research: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 21(3) Sum 1999, 227-234.
  • Bowman, R. L. (1976). A study of the marathon group tension function via telemetered radioelectrocardiography and self-report: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bunnell, D. E. (1980). T-wave amplitude and the P-Q interval: Relationships to noninvasive indices of myocardial performance: Psychophysiology Vol 17(6) Nov 1980, 592-597.
  • Burgar, C. G., & Rugh, J. D. (1978). Proposed standard measurement techniques for the technical specification of biofeedback devices: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 10(5) Oct 1978, 632-638.
  • Candilis, P. J. (1998). Ethics, malingering, and a lie-detector at the bedside: Journal of Forensic Sciences Vol 43(3) May 1998, 609-612.
  • Canger, R., & Penati, G. (1971). Some considerations on the orienting reflex: Polygraphic features in a SSLE case during repetitive acoustical stimulation: Acta Neurologica Vol 26(2) Mar 1971, 225-234.
  • Chalmers, D. V. (1975). Differential alterations in electrocardiographic waveforms associated with similar increases and decreases in heart rate elicited in different situations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chandran, K. S. K. (1994). ECG and clonidine: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 33(9) Nov-Dec 1994, 1351-1352.
  • Chojnacki, M., & et al. (1981). Comparison of standard and Holtor-monitored EKGs in a patient treated with several antidepressants: Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry & Behavior Vol 6(1) 1981, 103-111.
  • Chong, S. A., Mythily, Lum, A., Goh, H. Y., & Chan, Y. H. (2003). Prolonged QTc intervals in medicated patients with schizophrenia: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 18(8) Dec 2003, 647-649.
  • Christie, I. C., & Friedman, B. H. (2004). Autonomic specificity of discrete emotion and dimensions of affective space: A multivariate approach: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 51(2) Jan 2004, 143-153.
  • Ciofu, I. (1974). Simulated behavior: Psychophysiological research. Oxford, England: Editura Academiei Republicii Social.
  • Cohen, H., Kotler, M., Matar, M. A., Kaplan, Z., & et al. (1997). Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in posttraumatic stress disorder patients: Biological Psychiatry Vol 41(5) Mar 1997, 627-629.
  • Contrada, R. J. (1992). T-wave amplitude: On the meaning of a psychophysiological index: Biological Psychology Vol 33(2-3) Jul 1992, 249-258.
  • Contrada, R. J., Dimsdale, J., Levy, L., & Weiss, T. (1991). Effects of isoproterenol on T-wave amplitude and heart rate: A dose-response study: Psychophysiology Vol 28(4) Jul 1991, 458-462.
  • Cook, T. C., & Cashman, P. M. (1982). Stress and ectopic beats in ships' pilots: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 26(6) 1982, 559-569.
  • Corley, K. C., & et al. (1973). Electrocardiographic and cardiac morphological changes associated with environmental stress in squirrel monkeys: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 35(4) Jul 1973, 361-364.
  • Corley, K. C., Mauck, H. P., & Shiel, F. O. M. (1975). Cardiac responses associated with "yoked-chair" shock avoidance in squirrel monkeys: Psychophysiology Vol 12(4) Jul 1975, 439-444.
  • Corovic, N., Durakovic, Z., & Misigoj-Durakovic, M. (2006). Dispersion of the Corrected QT and JT Interval in the Electrocardiogram of Alcoholic Patients: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 30(1) Jan 2006, 150-154.
  • Czekalla, J., Gastpar, M., Hubner, W. D., & Jager, D. (1997). The effect of hypericum extract on cardiac conduction as seen in the electrocardiogram compared to that of imipramine: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 30(Suppl 2) Sep 1997, 86-88.
  • de Barros-Ferreira, M. (1974). Directed reverie and electroencephalography: Etudes Psychotherapiques No 18 18 Dec 1974, 7-200.
  • de Geus, E. J. C., & van Doornen, L. J. P. (1996). Ambulatory assessment of parasympathetic/sympathetic balance by impedance cardiography. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
  • Dec, G. W., Biederman, J., & Hougen, T. J. (1987). Cardiovascular findings in adolescent inpatients with anorexia nervosa: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 49(3) May-Jun 1987, 285-290.
  • Delfini, L. F., & Campos, J. J. (1972). Signal detection and the "cardiac arousal cycle." Psychophysiology Vol 9(5) Sep 1972, 484-491.
  • DePetrillo, P. B., White, K. V., Liu, M., Hommer, D., & Goldman, D. (1999). Effects of alcohol use and gender on the dynamics of EKG time-series data: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 23(4) Apr 1999, 745-750.
  • Deuel, R. K. (1973). Polygraphic monitoring of apneic spells: Archives of Neurology Vol 28(2) Feb 1973, 71-76.
  • Diethrich, E. B., & Krus, D. J. (1985). Further validation of the Arizona Heart Institute Cardiovascular Risk Factor Questionnaire: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 45(4) Win 1985, 915-923.
  • Donker, D. N., Robles de Medina, E. O., & Kieft, J. (1972). Micturition syncope: Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 33(3) Sep 1972, 328-331.
  • Dornbush, R. L., & Volavka, J. (1976). ACTH-sub(4-10): A study of toxicological and behavioral effects in an aging sample: Neuropsychobiology Vol 2(5-6) 1976, 350-360.
  • Douglas, R. B., Blanks, R., Crowther, A., & Scott, G. (1988). A study of stress in West Midlands firemen, using ambulatory electrocardiograms: Work & Stress Vol 2(4) Oct-Dec 1988, 309-318.
  • Drici, M.-D., Wang, W. X., Liu, X.-k., Woolsey, R. L., & Flockhart, D. A. (1998). Prolongation of the QT interval in isolated feline hearts by antipsychotic drugs: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 18(6) Dec 1998, 477-481.
  • Duan, X., Wang, Q., Yambe, T., Nitta, S.-i., & Kawashima, R. (2003). Nonlinear Mathematical Analysis of the Heart Rate Variability during Virtual Reality Immersion with Healing Video Contents: Journal of International Society of Life Information Science Vol 21(2) Sep 2003, 455-463.
  • Dubois, N. (1980). Usefulness of physiological indices in the study of emotional regulation: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 34(17-18) Sep-Oct 1980-1981, 915-930.
  • Duru, M., Seyfeli, E., Kuvandik, G., Kaya, H., & Yalcin, F. (2006). Effect of Weight Loss on P Wave Dispersion in Obese Subjects: Obesity Vol 14(8) Aug 2006, 1378-1382.
  • Dussault, C., Jouanin, J.-C., & Guezennec, C.-Y. (2004). EEG and ECG Changes During Selected Flight Sequences: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 75(10) Oct 2004, 889-897.
  • Dutch, J., & Redman, S. (1983). Tonic and phasic changes in interbeat interval and ECG transit time during the foreperiod of a reaction time task: Physiological Psychology Vol 11(2) Jun 1983, 130-134.
  • Eckardt, L., Breithardt, G., & Haverkamp, W. (2002). Electrophysiologic characterization of the antipsychotic drug sertindole in a rabbit heart model of torsade de pointes: Low torsadogenic potential despite QT prolongation: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 300(1) Jan 2002, 64-71.
  • Eddy, D. R., McKendree, J., McKenzie, R. E., & Bremner, F. J. (1982). Component analysis of ECG by computer: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 14(2) Apr 1982, 290-293.
  • Edeline, J.-M., & Weinberger, N. M. (1993). Receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex during frequency discrimination training: Selective retuning independent of task difficulty: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 107(1) Feb 1993, 82-103.
  • Egger, J., Habeler, G., & Tinchon, H.-J. (1981). The influence of television on the EKG of heart-attack patients: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 28(1) 1981, 38-53.
  • Enemark, B. (1993). The importance of ECG monitoring in antidepressant treatment: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 47(Suppl 30) 1993, 57-65.
  • Fincher, R.-M. E., Abdulla, A. M., Sridharan, M. R., Gullen, W. H., & et al. (1987). Comparison of computer-assisted and seminar learning of electrocardiogram interpretation by third-year students: Journal of Medical Education Vol 62(8) Aug 1987, 693-695.
  • Fisch, C. (1985). Effect of fluoxetine on the electrocardiogram: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 46(3, Sect 2) Mar 1985, 42-44.
  • Flugelman, M. Y., & et al. (1985). Psychotropic drugs and long QT syndromes: Case reports: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 46(7) Jul 1985, 290-291.
  • Fodor, G., & Fischer, W. (1978). Multi-channel commutator for recording biopotentials from small animals: Physiology & Behavior Vol 20(4) Apr 1978, 491-493.
  • Follick, M. J., Gorkin, L., Smith, T. W., Capone, R. J., & et al. (1988). Quality of life post-myocardial infarction: Effects of a transtelephonic coronary intervention system: Health Psychology Vol 7(2) 1988, 169-182.
  • Fox, N. A., & Porges, S. W. (1985). The relation between neonatal heart period patterns and developmental outcome: Child Development Vol 56(1) Feb 1985, 28-37.
  • Freedman, R. R., Ianni, P., Ettedgui, E., & Puthezhath, N. (1985). Ambulatory monitoring of panic disorder: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 42(3) Mar 1985, 244-248.
  • Freeman, L. J., Conway, A. V., & Nixon, P. G. (1986). Heart rate response, emotional disturbance and hyperventilation: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 30(4) 1986, 429-436.
  • Frey, M. B., Doerr, B. M., & Miles, D. S. (1982). Transthoracic impedance: Differences between men and women with implications for impedance cardiography: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 53(12) Dec 1982, 1190-1192.
  • Freyberger, H. J., Schwedler, J., Richter, R., Buhrig, M., & et al. (1990). Psychophysiological microperspective in the process of psychotherapy: A sequential approach: Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie Vol 40(8) Aug 1990, 278-284.
  • Furedy, J. J. (1987). Beyond heart rate in the cardiac psychophysiological assessment of mental effort: The T-wave amplitude component of the electrocardiogram: Human Factors Vol 29(2) Apr 1987, 183-194.
  • Furedy, J. J., Heslegrave, R. J., & Scher, H. (1992). T-wave amplitude utility revisited: Some physiological and psychophysiological considerations: Biological Psychology Vol 33(2-3) Jul 1992, 241-248.
  • Furedy, J. J., & Shulhan, D. L. (1986). Effects of respiratory depth and rate on HR and TWA: An indirect assessment of the respiratory confound in cognitive task difficulty manipulations: Physiology & Behavior Vol 37(3) 1986, 515-517.
  • Furedy, J. J., Shulhan, D. L., & Scher, H. (1986). Effects of electrode placement on direction of T-wave amplitude changes in psychophysiological studies: Physiology & Behavior Vol 36(5) 1986, 983-986.
  • Furedy, J. J., Szabo, A., & Peronnet, F. (1996). Effects of psychological and physiological challenges on heart rate, T-wave amplitude, and pulse-transit time: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 22(3) Jun-Jul 1996, 173-183.
  • Geller, B., & et al. (1985). Serial ECG measurements at controlled plasma levels of nortriptyline in depressed children: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 142(9) Sep 1985, 1095-1097.
  • Georgotas, A., McCue, R. E., Friedman, E., & Cooper, T. B. (1987). Electrocardiographic effects of nortriptyline, phenelzine, and placebo under optimal treatment conditions: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 144(6) Jun 1987, 798-801.
  • Giardino, N. D., Lehrer, P. M., & Edelberg, R. (2002). Comparison of finger plethysmograph to ECG in the measurement of heart rate variability: Psychophysiology Vol 39(2) Mar 2002, 246-253.
  • Gilbert, F., & Gofton, N. (1982). Terminal dives in mink, muskrat and beaver: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(5) May 1982, 835-840.
  • Gilhooly, K. J., McGeorge, P., Rawles, J. M., Kirby, I. K., & et al. (1997). Biomedical knowledge in diagnostic thinking: The case of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 9(2) Jun 1997, 199-223.
  • Gofman, S. S., Bein, B. N., Bershitskii, S. Y., & Shatokhin, V. M. (1981). Radiotelemetric studies of EEGs and EKGs of epileptics: Soviet Neurology & Psychiatry Vol 14(1-2) Spr-Sum 1981, 131-139.
  • Goldgran-Toledano, D., Sideris, G., & Kevorkian, J.-P. (2002). Overdose of cyclic antidepressants and the Brugada syndrome: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 346(20) May 2002, 1591-1592.
  • Goldie, A., & Edwards, J. G. (1989). Effect of clovoxamine fumarate on the electrocardiogram: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 3(1) 1989, 29-31.
  • Gordon, M. (1978). Occult cardiac arrhythmias associated with falls and dizziness in the elderly: Detection by Holter monitoring: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 26(9) Sep 1978, 418-423.
  • Gray, D. L. (1991). The effects of cocaine and two major metabolites on epinephrine-induced cardiac arrhythmias, electrocardiographic parameters, and mortality halothaneanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Greene, B. R., Boylan, G. B., Reilly, R. B., de Chazal, P., & Connolly, S. (2007). Combination of EEG and ECG for improved automatic neonatal seizure detection: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 118(6) Jun 2007, 1348-1359.
  • Guler, I., & Ubeyli, E. D. (2005). An expert system for detection of electrocardiographic changes in patients with partial epilepsy using wavelet-based neural networks: Expert Systems: International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Neural Networks Vol 22(2) May 2005, 62-71.
  • Gupta, S., Nienhaus, K., & Shah, S. A. (2003). Quetiapine and QTc issues: A case report: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 64(5) May 2003, 612-613.
  • Guttmacher, L. B., & Greenland, P. (1990). Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the electrocardiogram in geriatric patients with stable cardiovascular diseases: Convulsive Therapy Vol 6(1) Mar 1990, 5-12.
  • Guy, S., & Silke, B. (1990). The electrocardiogram as a tool for therapeutic monitoring: A critical analysis: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 51(Suppl B) Dec 1990, 37-39.
  • Hale, W. E., Stewart, R. B., Moore, M. T., & Marks, R. G. (1992). Electrocardiographic changes and cognitive impairment in the elderly: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Gerontology Vol 14(2) Jun 1992, 91-102.
  • Hall, R. G., Sachs, D. P., & Hall, S. M. (1979). Medical risk and therapeutic effectiveness of rapid smoking: Behavior Therapy Vol 10(2) Mar 1979, 249-259.
  • Haning, W., & Goebert, D. (2007). Electrocardiographic abnormalities in methamphetamine abusers: Addiction Vol 102(Suppl 1) Apr 2007, 70-75.
  • Harenstam, A., Theorell, T. P., Orth-Gomer, K., Palm, U. B., & et al. (1987). Shift work, decision latitude and ventricular ectopic activity: A study of 24-hour electrocardiograms in Swedish prison personnel: Work & Stress Vol 1(4) Oct-Dec 1987, 341-350.
  • Harper, R. M., Kelly, D. S., Walter, D. O., & Hoppenbrouwers, T. (1976). Cardiac waveform alterations during sleep in the infant: Psychophysiology Vol 13(4) Jul 1976, 318-322.
  • Hatala, R., Norman, G. R., & Brooks, L. R. (1999). Influence of a single example on subsequent electrocardiogram interpretation: Teaching and Learning in Medicine Vol 11(2) 1999, 110-117.
  • Hatayama, T., & Komatsu, H. (1971). Studies on sensory overload: III. Results of polygraphic records: II: Tohoku Psychologica Folia Vol 30(1-4) 1971, 5-9.
  • Hatch, J. P., Borcherding, S., & German, C. (1992). Cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during self-regulation of heart period: Biofeedback & Self Regulation Vol 17(2) Jun 1992, 89-106.
  • Hatfield, B. D. (1982). Central and autonomic nervous system activity during self-paced motor performance: A study of the activation construct in marksmen: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hayano, J., Ishihara, S., Fukuta, H., Sakata, S., Mukai, S., Ohte, N., et al. (2002). Circadian rhythm of atrioventricular conduction predicts long-term survival in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: Chronobiology International Vol 19(3) 2002, 633-648.
  • Hayes, R. L., & et al. (1983). ECG findings in geriatric depressives given trazodone, placebo, or imipramine: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 44(5) May 1983, 180-183.
  • Hayes, T. A., Panitch, M. L., & Barker, E. (1975). Imipramine dosage in children: A comment on "Imipramine and electrocardiographic abnormalities in hyperactive children." American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(5) May 1975, 546-547.
  • Heiselman, D. E., Bredle, D. L., Kessler, E., Rutecki, G. W., Hines, R. M., Whittier, F. C., et al. (1997). Relevance of routine admission electrocardiograms for psychiatric patients: Psychiatric Services Vol 48(10) Oct 1997, 1323-1327.
  • Heslegrave, R. J., & Furedy, J. J. (1979). Sensitivities of HR and T-wave amplitude for detecting cognitive and anticipatory stress: Physiology & Behavior Vol 22(1) Jan 1979, 17-23.
  • Heslegrave, R. J., & Furedy, J. J. (1983). On the utility of T-wave amplitude: A reply to Schwartz and Weiss: Psychophysiology Vol 20(6) Nov 1983, 702-708.
  • Hewer, W., Rost, W., & Gattaz, W. F. (1995). Cardiovascular effects of fluvoxamine and maprotiline in depressed patients: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 246(1) 1995, 1-6.
  • Hijzen, T. H., & Slangen, J. L. (1985). The electrocardiogram during emotional and physical stress: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 2(4) Apr 1985, 273-279.
  • Hochberg, H. M., Kanter, D., & Houser, V. P. (1995). Electrocardiographic findings during extended clinical trials of fluvoxamine in depression: One years experience: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 28(6) Nov 1995, 253-256.
  • Hollister, L. E. (1975). Hydroxyzine hydrochloride: Possible adverse cardiac interactions: Psychopharmacology Communications Vol 1(1) 1975, 61-65.
  • Hollister, L. E. (1995). Electrocardiographic screening in psychiatric patients: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 56(1) Jan 1995, 26-29.
  • Horan, J. J., & et al. (1977). Rapid smoking: A cautionary note: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 45(3) Jun 1977, 341-343.
  • Howitt, J. S., Hay, A. E., Shergold, G. R., & Ferres, H. M. (1978). Workload and fatigue-in-flight EEG changes: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 49 Oct 1978, 1197-1202.
  • Hrdina, P. D., & et al. (1980). Comparison of single-dose pharmacokinetics of imipramine and maprotiline in the elderly: Psychopharmacology Vol 70(1) Sep 1980, 29-34.
  • Huang, M. H., Ebey, J., & Wolf, S. (1989). Manipulating the QT interval of the ECG by cognitive effort: Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science Vol 24(3) Jul-Sep 1989, 102-108.
  • Huang, M. H., Ebey, J., & Wolf, S. (1989). Responses of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram during emotional stress: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 51(4) Jul-Aug 1989, 419-427.
  • Hung, G., & Marg, E. (1973). Computer-assisted eye examination: III. Physiological indices for subjective refraction: American Journal of Optometry & Archives of American Academy of Optometry Vol 50(12) Dec 1973, 968-977.
  • Hungerford, J. C. (1984). Exploratory study of response time, eye movements, EKG, and EEG in a sustained attention task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hyde, I. H. (1924). Effects of Music Upon Electrocardiograms and Blood Pressure: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 7(3) Jun 1924, 213-224.
  • Iwahashi, K. (1996). Significantly higher plasma haloperidol level during cotreatment with carbamazepine may herald cardiac change: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 19(3) Jun 1996, 267-270.
  • Janota, M., Lexa, J., Maleckova, M., & Fabian, J. (1987). Mental stress test evaluated by isopotential ST segment mapping: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 29(3) Sep 1987, 172-173.
  • Janus, L., & Maiwald, M. (1987). Verbal interaction and heart rate during the therapeutic process in a neurotic patient: A psychobiological pilot study: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse Vol 33(4) 1987, 323-337.
  • Jennings, J. R., & et al. (1981). Publication guidelines for heart rate studies in man: Psychophysiology Vol 18(3) May 1981, 226-231.
  • Jernstedt, G. C., & White, W. F. (1974). Cardiovascular response measures with simple integrated circuit amplifiers: Psychophysiology Vol 11(2) Mar 1974, 211-215.
  • Johnson, A., Giuffre, R. M., & O'Malley, K. (1996). ECG changes in pediatric patients on tricyclic antidepressants, desipramine, and imipramine: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 41(2) Mar 1996, 102-106.
  • Joost, M. G., & Salvendy, G. (1979). The development and validation of an objective method for quantifying hyperactivity in children: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 21(1) May 1979, 18-28.
  • Jorna, P. G. (1992). Spectral analysis of heart rate and psychological state: A review of its validity as a workload index: Biological Psychology Vol 34(2-3) Nov 1992, 237-257.
  • Kalashnikova, I. G. (1995). The individual-typological features of the EEG correlates of human emotional responses: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR im I M Sechenova Vol 81(10) Oct 1995, 108-112.
  • Kang, U. G., Kwon, J. S., Ahn, Y. M., Chung, S. J., Ha, J. H., Koo, Y. J., et al. (2000). Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients treated with clozapine: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 61(6) Jun 2000, 441-446.
  • Karpov, A. N., & Zinovyeva, L. A. (1982). Characterization of slow waves of the cardiac rhythm of the normal man under different conditions: Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina Vol 16(3) May-Jun 1982, 30-32.
  • Kelsey, R. M., & Guethlein, W. (1990). An evaluation of the ensemble averaged impedance cardiogram: Psychophysiology Vol 27(1) Jan 1990, 24-33.
  • Khachaturian, Z. S., Kerr, J., Kruger, R., & Schachter, J. (1972). A methodological note: Comparison between period and rate data in studies of cardiac function: Psychophysiology Vol 9(5) Sep 1972, 539-545.
  • Kinne, G., & Droste, C. (1996). Psychophysiological monitoring of transient ischemic states in patients with coronary heart disease. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
  • Kitamura, S., Hatayama, T., & Maruyama, K. (1970). Studies on sensory overload: II. General methods and results of polygraphic records: I: Tohoku Psychologica Folia Vol 29(3-4) 1970, 45-52.
  • Klorman, R., & Lang, P. J. (1972). Cardiac responses to signal and nonsignal tasks in 9-year-olds: Psychonomic Science Vol 28(5) Sep 1972, 299-300.
  • Klosterhalfen, W. (1980). A computer-controlled cardiotachometer: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 12(1) Feb 1980, 58-62.
  • Knirk, F. G., & Spindell, W. A. (1975). Indirect (biofeedback) measurement in instructional technology: Educational Technology Vol 15(6) Jun 1975, 33-35.
  • Kocer, A., Karakaya, O., Barutcu, I., Esen, O. B., Kargin, R., & Domac, F. M. (2006). Assesment of P wave duration and dispersion in Parkinson's disease: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 30(4) May 2006, 718-723.
  • Kochar, M. S., & Hosko, M. J. (1973). Electrocardiographic effects of marihuana: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 225(1) Jul 1973, 25-27.
  • Koenig, L. J. (1981). Investigation of physiological and self-report concomitants of emotion using the induced effect procedure: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kofoed, L., Tadepalli, G., Oesterheld, J. R., Awadallah, S., & Shapiro, R. (1999). Case series: Clonidine has no systematic effects on PR or QTc intervals in children: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 38(9) Sep 1999, 1193-1196.
  • Kojima, K., Ogomori, K., Mori, Y., Hirata, K., & et al. (1996). Relationship of emotional behaviors induced by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus to changes in EKG, heart, stomach, adrenal glands, and thymus: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 58(4) Jul-Aug 1996, 383-391.
  • Koriath, J. J., Lindholm, E., & Landers, D. M. (1987). Cardiac-related cortical activity during variations in mean heart rate: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 5(4) Dec 1987, 289-299.
  • Kratin, Y. G., Artemtchuk, N. L., Butorina, G. V., Velshikaev, R. H., & et al. (1992). Brain activation levels and significance of the Stage B(I) EEG parameters in neuroses: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 42(3) May-Jun 1992, 500-508.
  • Kroeze, S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2000). Selective attention for cardiac information in panic patients: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 38(1) Jan 2000, 63-72.
  • Krulewicz, S., Carpenter, D. J., Fong, R., Horrigan, J. P., Lipschitz, A., Perera, P., et al. (2006). Analysis of electrocardiographic data following use of paroxetine in pediatric depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 45(4) Apr 2006, 422-430.
  • Kupriyanova, O. O., Nidekker, I. G., Belova, N. R., & Kozhevnikova, O. V. (1999). Possibilities of Holter monitoring of ECG in the study of cardiac rhythm in pediatrics: Human Physiology Vol 25(1) Jan-Feb 1999, 65-72.
  • Kupriyanova, O. O., Nidekker, I. G., Kozhevnikova, O. V., & Meshcheryakov, L. P. (1997). Circadian variability of cardiac rhythm in healthy children of school age: Human Physiology Vol 23(3) May-Jun 1997, 297-300.
  • Kutcher, S. P., Reid, K., Dubbin, J. D., & Shulman, K. I. (1986). Electrocardiogram changes and therapeutic desipramine and 2-hydroxy-desipramine concentrations in elderly depressives: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 148 Jun 1986, 676-679.
  • Kveim, K. R. B. (1967). Muscular and Circulatory Responses: Their Sensitivity Assessed in a Signal Detection Situation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lancia, L., Cerone, M. P., Vittorini, P., Romano, S., & Penco, M. (2008). A comparison between EASI system 12-lead ECGs and standard 12-lead ECGs for improved clinical nursing practice: Journal of Clinical Nursing Vol 17(3) Feb 2008, 370-377.
  • Lang, A. (1994). What can the heart tell us about thinking? Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Leibovitz, A., Friedensohn, A., Nirenburg, V., Gil, I., & Habot, B. (1998). Electrocardiographic monitoring during digital rectal examination in demented long-term care patients: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Vol 27(1) Jul-Aug 1998, 19-24.
  • Leonard, H. L., Meyer, M. C., Swedo, S. E., Richter, D., & et al. (1995). Electrocardiographic changes during desipramine and clomipramine treatment in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 34(11) Nov 1995, 1460-1468.
  • Leubeweg, H. J. (1990). Alteration of the ECG and blood pressure during treatment with amitriptyline and amitriptylinoxide: A study with plasma levels: Irish Journal of Psychiatry Vol 11(2) Fal 1990, 12-15.
  • Leutmezer, F., Schernthaner, C., Lurger, S., Potzelberger, K., & Baumgartner, C. (2003). Electrocardiographic changes at the onset of epileptic seizures: Epilepsia Vol 44(3) Mar 2003, 348-354.
  • Levenson, J. L. (1999). Prolonged QT interval after trazodone overdose: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 156(6) Jun 1999, 969-970.
  • Levy, W. O., Robichaux-Keene, N. R., & Nunez, C. (2004). No significant QTc interval changes with high-dose ziprasidone: A case series: Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol 10(4) Jul 2004, 227-232.
  • Lille, F., & Burnod, Y. (1983). Professional activity and physiological rhythms: Advances in Biological Psychiatry Vol 11 1983, 64-71.
  • Lin, C.-s. (1983). A study of GSR and EKG activities in self-disclosure and bio-feedback situations of undergraduates with different teacher-student relationship: Bulletin of Educational Psychology Vol 16 Dec 1983, 37-46.
  • Lindsey, J. W. (1972). Binaural analysis as a function of physiological masking: The cardiac cycle: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Lindsley, D. B. (1987). Heart and brain potentials of human fetuses in utero: American Journal of Psychology Vol 100(3-4) Fal-Win 1987, 641-646.
  • Llabres, J., Bornas, X., Noguera, M., Lopez, A. M., & Barcelo, F. (2005). Is there chaos in the electrocardiogram of fearful flyers: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology Vol 5(2) May 2005, 273-284.
  • Lockhart, R. A. (1973). A simple and accurate measurement device for hand scoring of interbeat intervals of the electrocardiogram: Psychophysiology Vol 10(6) Nov 1973, 614-615.
  • Loebel, A., Miceli, J., Chappell, P., & Siu, C. (2006). Electrocardiographic changes with ziprasidone: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 45(6) Jun 2006, 636-637.
  • Longo, N., & Pellegrino, J. W. (1967). A Simple Telemetric Method for Monitoring Cardiac Function in Small Animals: Perceptual and Motor Skills 24(2) 1967, 512-515.
  • Lovallo, W. R., Pincomb, G. A., Sung, B. H., & Wilson, M. F. (1993). Impedance cardiography used to assess patterns of cardiovascular response to behavioral stressors: Biological Psychology Vol 36(1-2) Aug 1993, 97-105.
  • Luzoro, J., Vial, A. M., Lizarraga, J. M., & Sanchez, L. (1979). The alpha rhythm and other response systems: Revista Mexicana de Analisis de la Conducta Vol 5(1) Jun 1979, 65-74.
  • Lynch, J. J., & et al. (1974). The effects of human contact on cardiac arrhythmia in coronary care patients: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 158(2) Feb 1974, 88-99.
  • Lynch, J. J., Fregin, G. F., Mackie, J. B., & Monroe, R. R. (1974). Heart rate changes in the horse to human contact: Psychophysiology Vol 11(4) Jul 1974, 472-478.
  • Marchant-Ford, R. M., Marlin, D. J., & Marchant-Forde, J. N. (2004). Validation of a cardiac monitor for measuring heart rate variability in adult female pigs: Accuracy, artefacts and editing: Physiology & Behavior Vol 80(4) Jan 2004, 449-458.
  • Martin, A., Blair, J., State, M., Leckman, J. F., & Scahill, L. (2006). "Electrocardiographic changes with ziprasidone": Reply: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 45(6) Jun 2006, 638-639.
  • Martin, D. E., Zussman, B. D., Everitt, D. E., Benincosa, L. J., Etheredge, R. C., & Jorkasky, D. K. (1997). Paroxetine does not affect the cardiac safety and pharmacokinetics of terfenadine in healthy adult men: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 17(6) Dec 1997, 451-459.
  • Martin, G. I., & Zaug, P. J. (1975). Electrocardiographic monitoring of enuretic children receiving therapeutic doses of imipramine: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(5) May 1975, 540-542.
  • Martini, C., & Fici, F. (1978). Acute poisoning with melitracen: Absence of ECG changes: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmacy Vol 16(3) Mar 1978, 129-131.
  • Mayer, H., Stanek, B., & Hahn, P. (1973). Biometric findings on cardiac neurosis: II. EKG and circulation findings of cardiophobic patients during standardized examination of the circulatory system: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 22(2-6) 1973, 283-288.
  • Mayer, H., & Stanek, R. (1973). Heartrate changes and interaction in psychoanalytic initial interviews: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie Vol 21(3) 1973, 251-270.
  • Mayou, R., Sprigings, D., & Gilbert, T. (1999). Patients with palpitations referred for 24-hour ECG recording: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 46(6) Jun 1999, 491-496.
  • McCall, W. V., Reid, S., & Ford, M. (1994). Electrocardiographic and cardiovascular effects of subconvulsive stimulation during titrated right unilateral ECT: Convulsive Therapy Vol 10(1) Mar 1994, 25-33.
  • McCue, R. E., Georgotas, A., Nagachandran, N., Basir, M. A., & et al. (1989). Plasma levels of nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline and treatment-related electrocardiographic changes in the elderly depressed: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 23(1) 1989, 73-79.
  • Meinrath, M., Collins, P., & D'Amato, M. R. (1977). A nonobtrusive heart rate telemetry system for rats: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 9(3) Jun 1977, 243-246.
  • Melnikova, T. S., Belyaev, B. S., & Yarovaya, A. B. (1992). The time-course of ECG changes in the treatment of depressive conditions with different versions of endogenous affective psychosis: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 92(1) 1992, 92-95.
  • Metzger, E., & Friedman, R. (1993). Prolongation of the corrected QT and torsades de pointes cardiac arrhythmia associated with intravenous haloperidol in the medically ill: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 13(2) Apr 1993, 128-132.
  • Meyer, M. C., Leonard, H. L., Allen, A. J., Swedo, S. E., & et al. (1996). "TCA cardiotoxicity: The latest": Reply: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 35(6) Jun 1996, 702.
  • Miller, M. D., Curtiss, E. I., Marino, L., Houck, P. R., Paradis, C. F., Mazumdar, S., et al. (1998). Long-term ECG changes in depressed elderly patients treated with nortriptyline: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 6(1) Win 1998, 59-66.
  • Mitchell, B. W., & Thomasson, G. O. (1975). Biotelemetry for monitoring electrocardiograms during athletic events and stress tests: Journal of the American College Health Association Vol 23(3) Feb 1975, 206-210.
  • Molnar, G. W. (1977). Electrocardiographic registration of sweating during routine monitoring: Psychophysiology Vol 14(1) Jan 1977, 64-67.
  • Montplaisir, J., Petit, D., Decary, A., Masson, H., Bedard, M. A., Panisset, M., et al. (1997). Sleep and quantitative EEG in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy: Neurology Vol 49(4) Oct 1997, 999-1003.
  • Mulder, G., & Mulder-Hajonides van der Meulen, W. R. (1972). Heart rate variability in a binary choice reaction task: An evaluation of some scoring methods: Acta Psychologica Vol 36(3) Jun 1972, 239-251.
  • Muller, A., Schandry, R., Montoya, P., & Gsellhofer, B. (1992). Differential effects of two stressors on heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and T-wave amplitude: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 6(3) 1992, 252-259.
  • Murray, T. M. (1982). The design, development, and implementation of a microprocessor-based ECG analysis system: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 14(2) Apr 1982, 281-289.
  • Myrtek, M. (1990). Covariation and reliability of ECG parameters during 24-hour monitoring: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 10(2) Dec 1990-1991, 117-123.
  • Myrtek, M., Stiels, W., Herrmann, J. M., Brugner, G., Muller, W., Hoppner, V., et al. (1995). Emotional arousal, pain, and ECG changes during ambulatory monitoring in patients with cardiac neurosis and controls: Methodological considerations and first results. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Nahshoni, E., Aizenberg, D., Strasberg, B., Dorfman, P., Sigler, M., Imbar, S., et al. (2000). QT dispersion in the surface electrocardiogram in elderly patients with major depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 60(3) Nov 2000, 197-200.
  • Nahshoni, E., Weizman, A., Yaroslavsky, A., Toledano, A., Sulkes, J., & Stein, D. (2007). Alterations in QT dispersion in the surface electrocardiogram of female adolescents diagnosed with restricting-type anorexia nervosa: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 62(4) Apr 2007, 469-472.
  • Nahshonia, E., Gur, S., Marom, S., Levin, J. B., Weizman, A., & Hermesh, H. (2004). QT dispersion in patients with social phobia: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 78(1) Jan 2004, 21-26.
  • Neelon, M. F., Williams, J., & Garell, P. C. (2006). The effects of auditory attention measured from human electrocorticograms: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 117(3) Mar 2006, 504-521.
  • Newlin, D. B. (1981). Relationships of pulse transmission times to pre-ejection period and blood pressure: Psychophysiology Vol 18(3) May 1981, 316-321.
  • Newton, J. E., Dykman, R. A., & Chapin, J. L. (1978). The prediction of abnormal behavior from autonomic indices in dogs: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 166(9) Sep 1978, 635-641.
  • Nizamie, S. H., & Sharma, S. (1988). Electrocardiographic changes in chronic schizophrenic patients: Indian Journal of Psychiatry Vol 30(2) Apr 1988, 183-188.
  • Norman, G. R., Brooks, L. R., Colle, C. L., & Hatala, R. M. (1999). The benefit of diagnostic hypotheses in clinical reasoning: Experimental study of an instructional intervention for forward and backward reasoning: Cognition and Instruction Vol 17(4) 1999, 433-448.
  • Norman, S. E., Eager, R. A., Waran, N. K., Jeffery, L., Schroter, R. C., & Marlin, D. J. (2005). Recording of ECG signals on a portable MiniDisc recorder for time and frequency domain heart rate variability analysis: Physiology & Behavior Vol 83(5) Jan 2005, 729-738.
  • Nousiainen, U., Mervaala, E., Ylinen, A., Uusitupa, M., & et al. (1989). The importance of the electrocardiogram in ambulatory electroencephalographic recordings: Archives of Neurology Vol 46(11) Nov 1989, 1171-1174.
  • Novak, S., Diaz, J., & Leinwand, S. (1973). Latency of alpha blocking as a function of photic stimulation during the cardiac cycle: Psychophysiology Vol 10(1) Jan 1973, 21-26.
  • Oba, A., Miyamoto, T., & Fujii, I. (1990). Electrocardiographic abnormalities caused by tricyclic antidepressants: Kyushu Neuro-psychiatry Vol 36(1) 1990, 29-32.
  • O'Brien, S., McKeon, P., & O'Regan, M. (1991). A comparative study of the electrocardiographic effects of tranylcypromine and amitriptyline when prescribed singly and in combination: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 6(1) Spr 1991, 11-17.
  • Oesterheld, J. (1996). TCA cardiotoxicity: The latest: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 35(6) Jun 1996, 701-702.
  • Opmeer, C. H. (1973). The information content of successive RR-interval times in the ECG: Preliminary results using factor analysis and frequency analysis: Ergonomics Vol 16(1) Jan 1973, 105-112.
  • Ornitz, E. M., & et al. (1967). The effect of sleep onset on the auditory averaged evoked response: Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 23(4) 1967, 335-341.
  • Paclt, I., Slavicek, J., Kittnar, O., & Dohnalova, A. (1995). Electrocardiological changes during the treatment with antidepressants in man: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 36(4) Nov 1995, 223-227.
  • Palmero, F. (1992). Physiological variables in a survey of achievement motivation (real life situation) carried out to Type A and Type B subjects: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 18(62) 1992, 861-881.
  • Parmley, L. F. (1972). The heart, the psyche, and neurosis: Psychiatric Forum Vol 3(1) Win 1972, 16-20.
  • Peles, E., Bodner, G., Kreek, M. J., Rados, V., & Adelson, M. (2007). Corrected-QT intervals as related to methadone dose and serum level in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients--A cross-sectional study: Addiction Vol 102(2) Feb 2007, 289-300.
  • Penzien, D. B., Hursey, K. G., Kotses, H., & Beazel, H. A. (1982). The effects of anticipatory stress on heart rate and T-wave amplitude: Biological Psychology Vol 15(3-4) Nov-Dec 1982, 241-248.
  • Perini, C., Nil, R., Bolli, P., Battig, K., & et al. (1993). Ischemic ECG changes are found more often in asymptomatic men with a coronary prone behaviour pattern: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 37(4) May 1993, 355-360.
  • Petre-Quadene, O., & Laroche, J. L. (1966). Sleep of the newborn: Paradoxically spontaneous and provoked phases: Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique 63(1) 1966, 19-27.
  • Picard, A., Heraut, F. C., Bouskraoui, M., Lemoine, M., Lacert, P., & Delattre, J. (1998). Sleep EEG and developmental dysphasia: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 40(9) Sep 1998, 595-599.
  • Pincomb, G. A., Sung, B. H., Lovallo, W. R., & Wilson, M. F. (1993). Consistency of cardiovascular response pattern to caffeine across multiple studies using impedance and nuclear cardiography: Biological Psychology Vol 36(1-2) Aug 1993, 131-138.
  • Pirow, R., Bilsing, R., Nichelmann, M., & Hochel, J. (1995). A method for noninvasive, long-term recording of the avian embryo heart rate: Physiology & Behavior Vol 58(1) Jul 1995, 185-189.
  • Pogarell, O., Hegerl, U., Boutros, N., Cournos, F., & Goldfinger, S. M. (2005). Clinical Neurophysiology Services in Psychiatry Departments: Psychiatric Services Vol 56(7) Jul 2005, 871.
  • Pollak, M. H., & Obrist, P. A. (1983). Aortic-radial pulse transit time and ECG Q-wave to radial pulse wave interval as indices of beat-by-beat blood pressure change: Psychophysiology Vol 20(1) Jan 1983, 21-28.
  • Pollock, B. G., Everett, G., & Perel, J. M. (1992). Comparative cardiotoxicity of nortriptyline and its isomeric 10-hydroxymetabolites: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 6(1) Jan 1992, 1-10.
  • Preobrazhenskaya, L. A. (1973). Some characteristics of an avoidance conditioned reflex reinforced by pain stimulation of a partner: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 23(1) Jan-Feb 1973, 51-58.
  • Punch, J. C., King, M. G., & Matyas, T. A. (1976). EKG T-wave amplitude, muscle tension, and heart rate concomitants of conditioned suppression: Physiological Psychology Vol 4(3) Sep 1976, 294-302.
  • Rainey, J. M., Pohl, R. B., & Bilolikar, S. G. (1982). The QT interval in drug-free depressed patients: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 43(5, Sect 2) May 1982, 39-40.
  • Randall, D. C., & Hasson, D. M. (1977). A note on ECG changes observed during Pavlovian conditioning in a rhesus monkey following coronary arterial occlusion: Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science Vol 12(4) Oct-Dec 1977, 229-231.
  • Reddy, M. N., Sobolewski, E., Igel, G., Gupta, S., Prasad, A. S., Jampala, V. C., et al. (1997). Analysis of 24-hour ECG in patients with panic disorder: Neuropsychobiology Vol 35(4) May 1997, 175-177.
  • Redman, S., & Dutch, J. (1984). Arterial pulse transit time and ECG-initiated transit time: The form of the conditioned responses: Physiological Psychology Vol 12(3) Sep 1984, 213-216.
  • Regestein, Q. R. (1975). Relationships between psychological factors and cardiac rhythm and electrical disturbances: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 16(2) Mar-Apr 1975, 137-148.
  • Reilly, J., Thomas, S., & Ferrier, N. (2002). Recent studies on ECG changes, antipsychotic use and sudden death in psychiatric patients: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 26(3) Mar 2002, 110-112.
  • Reite, M., Jackson, D., Cahoon, R. L., & Weil, J. V. (1975). Sleep physiology at high altitude: Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 38(5) May 1975, 463-471.
  • Rhody, J. L., & Kuenzel, W. J. (1981). Electroencephalograms, electrocardiograms, and blood pressure of seizure-prone chicks (Gallus domesticus): Physiology & Behavior Vol 26(6) Jun 1981, 1007-1011.
  • Riese, H., Groot, P. F. C., van den Berg, M., Kupper, N. H. M., Magnee, E. H. B., a, E. J., et al. (2003). Large-scale ensemble averaging of ambulatory impedance cardiograms: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers Vol 35(3) Aug 2003, 467-477.
  • Rodriguez Lopez, T., Gonzalez Perez, R., & Portilla Figarol, G. (1984). Principal electrocardiographic variations during electroconvulsive treatment: Revista del Hospital Psiquiatrico de La Habana Vol 25(2) Apr-Jun 1984, 205-213.
  • Rogers, J. L. (1976). An evaluation of computerized electrocardiography at Northwestern University: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rosburg, T., Trautner, P., Boutros, N. N., Korzyukov, O. A., Schaller, C., Elger, C. E., et al. (2006). Habituation of auditory evoked potentials in intracranial and extracranial recordings: Psychophysiology Vol 43(2) Mar 2006, 137-144.
  • Ryall, A. H., Abdulah, D. R., Rios, D., Wei, J. Y., & Hausdorff, J. M. (2001). Undertreatment of cardiovascular disease in ethnically diverse older adults: Who should receive an electrocardiogram? : Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 49(11) Nov 2001, 1573-1574.
  • Sabelli, H. C., Carlson-Sabelli, L., Patel, M. K., Zbilut, J. P., Messer, J. V., & Walthall, K. (1995). Psychocardiological portraits: A clinical application of process theory. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Sandstrom, M., Lyskov, E., Hornsten, R., Mild, K. H., Wiklund, U., Rask, P., et al. (2003). Holter ECG monitoring in patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 49(3) Sep 2003, 227-235.
  • Sansone, R. A., Todd, T., & Meier, B. P. (2002). Pretreatment ECGs and the prescription of amitriptyline in an internal medicine clinic: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 43(3) May-Jun 2002, 250-251.
  • Sapira, J. D., & Oken, D. (1986). The psychobiology of the T wave as seen by scalar microelectrocardiography: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 48(3-4) Mar-Apr 1986, 157-158.
  • Sarrel, P. M., Foddy, J., & McKinnon, J. B. (1977). Investigation of human sexual response using a cassette recorder: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 6(4) Jul 1977, 341-348.
  • Scher, D. L. (1995). The effect of aerobic fitness level on heart rate and electrocardiographic T-wave amplitude reactivity and conditioning. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Scher, H., Furedy, J. J., & Heslegrave, R. J. (1985). Individual differences in phasic cardiac reactivity to psychological stress and the law of initial value: Psychophysiology Vol 22(3) May 1985, 345-348.
  • Schneider, L. S., Cooper, T. B., Severson, J. A., Zemplenyi, T., & et al. (1988). Electrocardiographic changes with nortriptyline and 10-hydroxynortriptyline in elderly depressed outpatients: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 8(6) Dec 1988, 402-408.
  • Schwalb, H., Eckmann, F., & Van Eimeren, W. (1978). EKG changes in psychiatric patients under long-term therapy with psychopharmaca: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie und ihrer Grenzgebiete Vol 46(9) Sep 1978, 484-490.
  • Schwartz, P. J., & Weiss, T. (1983). T-wave amplitude as an index of cardiac sympathetic activity: A misleading concept: Psychophysiology Vol 20(6) Nov 1983, 696-701.
  • Schwarz, J. J., & Ekkers, C. L. (1976). Task and load difficulties in directing and regulating a complex technical system: Mens en Onderneming Vol 30(2) Mar-Apr 1976, 85-108.
  • Sem-Jacobsen, C. W. (1981). Brain/computer communication to reduce human error: A perspective: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 52(1) Jan 1981, 33-37.
  • Sgoifo, A., Stilli, D., Aimi, B., Parmigiani, S., & et al. (1994). Behavioral and electrocadiographic responses to social stress in male rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 55(2) Feb 1994, 209-216.
  • Sgoifo, A., Stilli, D., de Boer, S. F., Koolhaas, J. M., & Musso, E. (1998). Acute social stress and cardiac electrical activity in rats: Aggressive Behavior Vol 24(4) 1998, 287-296.
  • Sgoifo, A., Stilli, D., Medici, D., Gallo, P., & et al. (1996). Electrode positioning for reliable telemetry ECG recordings during social stress in unrestrained rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(6) Dec 1996, 1397-1401.
  • Sgoifo, A., Stilli, D., Parmigiani, S., Aimi, B., & et al. (1995). Maternal aggression as a model for acute social stress in the rat: A behavioral-electrocardiographic study: Aggressive Behavior Vol 21(1) 1995, 79-89.
  • Sharpley, C. F. (1994). Differences in pulse rate and heart rate and effects on the calculations of heart rate reactivity during periods of mental stress: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 17(1) Feb 1994, 99-109.
  • Sherwood, A. (1981). A simple preparation for obtaining a reliable heart rate record in freely moving rats: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 13(6) Dec 1981, 763-765.
  • Shimizu, H. (1978). Reliable and precise identification of R-waves in the EKG with a simple peak detector: Psychophysiology Vol 15(5) Sep 1978, 499-501.
  • Shirataki, S., & Prechtl, H. F. (1977). Sleep state transitions in newborn infants: Preliminary study: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 19(3) Jun 1977, 316-325.
  • Shulhan, D. L., Scher, H., & Furedy, J. J. (1986). Phasic cardiac reactivity to psychological stress as a function of aerobic fitness level: Psychophysiology Vol 23(5) Sep 1986, 562-566.
  • Sieck, G. C., & Harper, R. M. (1980). Discharge of neurons in the parabrachial pons related to the cardiac cycle: Changes during different sleep-waking states: Brain Research Vol 199(2) Oct 1980, 385-399.
  • Sierra, G., Acuna, C., Otero, J., & Dominguez, R. (1972). Simultaneous stimulation of limbic system structures: Brain Research Vol 47 1972, 113-125.
  • Simonov, P. V., Frolov, M. V., Evtushenko, V. F., & Sviridov, E. P. (1977). Effect of emotional stress on recognition of visual patterns: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 48 Sep 1977, 856-858.
  • Simpson, S. A., & Gilhooly, K. J. (1997). Diagnostic thinking processes: Evidence from a constructive interaction study of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 11(6) Dec 1997, 543-554.
  • Sirota, P., Ori, J., Schild, K., Appel, S., & et al. (1990). Electrocardiographic effects of amitriptyline in therapeutic doses on 24-hr monitoring (Holter) with correlation to plasma levels: Biological Psychiatry Vol 27(9) May 1990, 1053-1056.
  • Smith, R. H. (1992). Desipramine and the EKG: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 31(3) May 1992, 564-565.
  • Soler Victorero, A., Gonzalez Menendez, R., Luna Garcia, B. R., Diaz Garcia, R. F., & et al. (1987). Metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in patients subjected to 4 different types of electroconvulsive shock therapy: Revista del Hospital Psiquiatrico de La Habana Vol 28(3) Jul-Sep 1987, 389-400.
  • Stazhadze, L. L., Lapshin, V. P., Nemtsev, I. Z., Panchenko, G. A., & et al. (1992). Treatment and prevention of stress-induced ischemic heart disease using lasers and transcutaneous electroneurostimulation: Aviakosmicheskaya i Ecologicheskaya Meditsina Vol 26(5-6) Sep-Dec 1992, 75-78.
  • Stern, R. M., Koch, K. L., & Vasey, M. W. (1990). The gastrointestinal system. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Stern, S. L., Ribner, H. S., Cooper, T. B., Nelson, L. D., & et al. (1991). 2-Hydroxydesipramine and desipramine plasma levels and electrocardiographic effects in depressed younger adults: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(2) Apr 1991, 93-98.
  • Stern, S. L., Ribner, H. S., Cooper, T. B., Nelson, L. D., & et al. (1992). "Plasma desipramine levels and ECG changes in depressed young adults": Reply: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 137.
  • Sulc, J., Cmiral, J., & Hanousek, J. (1983). W-index of ECG in the assessment of psychoemotional workload: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 25(3) Sep 1983, 163.
  • Szabo, A., Peronnet, F., Gauvin, L., & Furedy, J. J. (1994). Mental challenge elicits "additional" increases in heart rate during low and moderate intensity cycling: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 17(3) Aug 1994, 197-204.
  • Taylor, D. M. (2003). Antipsychotics and QT prolongation: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 107(2) Feb 2003, 85-95.
  • Theorell, T., Schalling, D., & Akerstedt, T. (1977). Circulatory reactions in coronary patients during interview: A noninvasive study: Biological Psychology Vol 5(3) Sep 1977, 233-243.
  • Troshkin, A. V. (1984). Parameters of distribution of ECG R intervals used to predict working capacity of a human operator: Human Physiology Vol 9(5) Jul 1984, 315-319.
  • Troshkin, A. V. (1984). Parameters of distribution of ECG R-R intervals used to predict working capacity of a human operator: Human Physiology Vol 9(5) Jul 1984, 315-319.
  • Tynkkynen, M. (2001). Assessing harvester operators' mental workload using continuous ECG recording technique: International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics Vol 5(3) Sep 2001, 213-219.
  • Ubeyli, E. D. (2007). Detection of electrocardiogram beats using a fuzzy similarity index: Expert Systems: International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Neural Networks Vol 24(2) May 2007, 87-96.
  • van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., & van Baal, G. C. M. (2002). Twin and family studies of the human electroencephalogram: A review and a meta-analysis: Biological Psychology Vol 61(1-2) Oct 2002, 111-138.
  • Van Egeren, L. F., Abelson, J. L., & Sniderman, L. D. (1983). Interpersonal and electrocardiographic responses of Type A's and Type B's in competitive socioeconomic games: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 27(1) 1983, 53-59.
  • Van Egeren, L. F., Fabrega, H., & Thornton, D. W. (1983). Electrocardiographic effects of social stress on coronary-prone (Type A) individuals: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 45(3) Jun 1983, 195-203.
  • Van Twyver, H., & Garrett, W. (1972). Arousal threshold in the rat determined by "meaningful" stimuli: Behavioral Biology Vol 7(2) Apr 1972, 205-215.
  • Velasco, M., Kastin, A. J., & Gonzalez-Barcena, D. (1972). Effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone on the cortical somatic evoked responses in man: Neuropharmacology Vol 11(3) May 1972, 395-407.
  • Velden, M., & Juris, M. (1975). Perceptual performance as a function of intra-cycle cardiac activity: Psychophysiology Vol 12(6) Nov 1975, 685-692.
  • Venables, P. H., & et al. (1978). Screening for risk of mental illness. Oxford, England: Brunner/Mazel.
  • Verhaegen, J. J. (1975). The long-term use of high doses of fluphenazine enanthate and fluphenazine decanoate: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 16(4) Jul-Aug 1975, 357-362.
  • Vieweg, W. V. R. (2002). Mechanisms and risks of electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation when using antipsychotic drugs: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 63(Suppl9) 2002, 18-24.
  • Villalobos, A. (1977). Biofeedback: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatria Vol 6(4) Dec 1977, 444-447.
  • Walker, J. M., & Berger, R. J. (1973). A polygraphic study of the tortoise (Testudo denticulata): Absence of electrophysiological signs of sleep: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 8(6) 1973, 453-467.
  • Warner, J. P., Barnes, T. R. E., & Henry, J. A. (1996). Electrocardiographic changes in patients receiving neuroleptic medication: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 93(4) Apr 1996, 311-313.
  • Warner, J. P., Gledhill, J. A., Connell, F., & Coghlan, J. G. (1996). How well do psychiatric trainees interpret electrocardiographs: A cross-sectional survey: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 20(11) Nov 1996, 651-652.
  • Waslick, B. (1995). "A naturalistic study of 24-hour electrocardiographic recordings and echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents treated with desipramine": Comment: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 34(2) Feb 1995, 125.
  • Weber, E. J. M., Molenaar, P. C. M., & van der Molen, M. W. (1991). PSPAT: A program for spectral analysis of point events including a test for stationarity. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
  • Weiss, T., & et al. (1985). Effects of repeated ambulatory ECG monitoring and relaxation practice on premature ventricular contractions: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 47(5) Sep-Oct 1985, 446-450.
  • White, K., & et al. (1983). Electrocardiographic effects of tranylcypromine vs. amitriptyline: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 44(3) Mar 1983, 91-93.
  • Wiens, S., & Palmer, S. N. (2001). Quadratic trend analysis and heartbeat detection: Biological Psychology Vol 58(2) Nov 2001, 159-175.
  • Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Puopolo, P. R., & et al. (1993). Electrocardiographic effects of desipramine and 2-hydroxydesipramine in children, adolescents, and adults treated with desipramine: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 32(4) Jul 1993, 798-804.
  • Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Spencer, T., & Geist, D. E. (1993). A retrospective study of serum levels and electrocardiographic effects of nortriptyline in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 32(2) Mar 1993, 270-277.
  • Winsberg, B. G., Goldstein, S., Yepes, L. E., & Perel, J. M. (1975). Imipramine and electrocardiographic abnormalities in hyperactive children: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(5) May 1975, 542-545.
  • Wolzt, M., Schmetterer, L., Kastner, J., Krejcy, K., & et al. (1995). Short-term drug effects on the signal-averaged electrocardiogram in healthy men: Assessment of intra- and interidividual variability of spectral temporal mapping and time-domain analysis: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 275(3) Dec 1995, 1375-1381.
  • Wynn, V. T. (1980). Reaction time as a function of the cardiac cycle: British Journal of Psychology Vol 71(1) Feb 1980, 155-162.
  • Yakupova, L. P., Smirnov, A. Y., Kozlova, I. A., Gorbachevskaya, N. L., & et al. (1991). Some neurophysiological aspects of examining children with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 91(8) 1991, 57-59.
  • Yellin, A. M. (1987). Application of computer averaging techniques to the study of learned volitive heartbeat control: Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 66(1) Jan 1987, 93-96.
  • Yeragani, V. K., Balon, R., Pohl, R., Weinberg, P., & et al. (1992). Leftward shift of R-axis on electrocardiogram in patients with panic disorder and depression: Neuropsychobiology Vol 25(2) 1992, 91-93.
  • Yeragani, V. K., Berger, R., Songer, D. A., & Yeragani, S. (1997). Power spectrum of the QRS complex in patients with panic disorder and normal controls: Psychiatry Research Vol 66(2-3) Feb 1997, 167-174.
  • Yeragani, V. K., Pohl, R., Jampala, V. C., Balon, R., Ramesh, C., & Srinivasan, K. (2000). Increased QT variability in patients with panic disorder and depression: Psychiatry Research Vol 93(3) Apr 2000, 225-235.
  • Young, R. C., & et al. (1985). Plasma 10-hydroxynortriptyline and ECG changes in elderly depressed patients: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 142(7) Jul 1985, 866-868.
  • Zareba, W., & Lin, D. A. (2003). Antipsychotic Drugs and QT Interval Prolongation: Psychiatric Quarterly Vol 74(3) Fal 2003, 291-306.
  • Zeier, H. (1979). Concurrent physiological activity of driver and passenger when driving with and without automatic transmission in heavy city traffic: Ergonomics Vol 22(7) Jul 1979, 799-810.
  • Ziegler, V. E., Co, B. T., & Biggs, J. T. (1977). Electrocardiographic findings in patients undergoing amitriptyline treatment: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 38(9) Sep 1977, 697-699.
  • Ziegler, V. E., Co, B. T., & Biggs, J. T. (1977). Plasma nortriptyline levels and ECG findings: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 134(4) Apr 1977, 441-443.

External links

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).