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E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning is broadly inclusive of all forms of educational technology in learning and teaching. E-learning is inclusive of, and is broadly synonymous with multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, and digital educational collaboration. These alternative names emphasize a particular aspect, component or delivery method.

E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underly many e-learning processes.[1]

E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used.

It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education.[2] Many proponents of e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals.


E-learning refers to the use of technology in learning and education. There are several aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of e-learning, which can be categorized into discrete areas. These are addressed in turn in the sections of this article:

  1. e-learning as an educational approach or tool that supports traditional subjects;
  2. e-learning as a technological medium that assists in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange;
  3. e-learning itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "Computer Studies" or "Information and Communication Technology (ICT)";
  4. e-learning administrative tools such as education management information systems (EMIS).


E-learning is a broadly inclusive term that describes educational technology that electronically or technologically supports learning and teaching. Bernard Luskin, a pioneer of e-learning, advocates that the "e" should be interpreted to mean "exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in addition to "electronic." This broad interpretation focuses on new applications and developments, and also brings learning and media psychology into consideration.[3] Parks suggested that the "e" should refer to "everything, everyone, engaging, easy".[4]

Depending on whether a particular aspect, component or delivery method is given emphasis, a wide array of similar or overlapping terms has been used. As such, e-learning encompasses multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) which are also called learning platforms, m-learning, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction. Every one of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up particular potential distinctions. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" aspect that was initially emphasized has blended into "e-learning." As an example, "virtual learning" in a narrowly-defined semantic sense implies entering the environmental simulation within a virtual world,[5][6] for example in treating PTSD.[7][8] In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing. Students and instructors communicate via these technologies.[9]

The worldwide e-learning industry is economically significant, and was estimated in 2000 to be over $48 billion according to conservative estimates.[10] Developments in internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning, with consulting, content, technologies, services and support being identified as the five key sectors of the e-learning industry.[11] Information and communication technologies (ICT) are used extensively by young people.[12]

E-learning expenditures differ within and between countries. Finland, Norway, Belgium and Korea appear to have comparatively effective programs.[13]


In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely device like television or audio device.[14]

In the early 1960s, Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math and reading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto, California. Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction, working with Stanford and others, developed computer assisted instruction. Luskin completed his landmark UCLA dissertation working with the Rand Corporation in analyzing obstacles to computer assisted instruction in 1970.

Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information.

Early e-learning systems, based on Computer-Based Learning/Training often attempted to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.

Computer-based learning made up many early e-learning courses such as those developed by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz in the 1970s and 80s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology,[15] and the ones developed at the University of Guelph in Canada.[16] In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a "college without walls" using television station KOCE-TV as a vehicle. By the mid-1980s, accessing course content become possible at many college libraries.

Cassandra B. Whyte researched about the ever increasing role that computers would play in higher education. This evolution, to include computer-supported collaborative learning, in addition to data management, has been realized. The type of computers has changed over the years from cumbersome, slow devices taking up much space in the classroom, home, and office to laptops and handheld devices that are more portable in form and size and this minimalization of technology devices will continue.[17]

The Open University in Britain[16] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc. was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning,[18] making heavy use of web-based training and online distance learning and online discussion between students.[19] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995)[20] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks.

With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality system, to create course websites along with simple sets instructions for its students.[21] As the Internet becomes popularized, correspondence schools like University of Phoenix became highly interested with the virtual education, setting up a name for itself in 1980.[22]

In 1993, Graziadei described an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project using electronic mail. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses include being portable, replicable, scalable, and affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.[23]

By 1994, CALCampus presented its first online curriculum as Internet becoming more accessible through major telecommunications networks. CALCampus is where concepts of online-based school first originated, this allowed to progress real-time classroom instructions and Quantum Link classrooms.[24] With the drastic shift of Internetfunctionality, multimedia began introducing new schemes of communication; through the invention of webcams, educators can simply record lessons live and upload them on the website page. Now, there are currently wide varieties of online education that are reachable for colleges, universities and K-12 students. In fact, the National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005. This form of high learning allowed for greater flexibility by easing the communication between teacher and student, now teachers received quick lecture feedbacks from their students. The idea of Virtual Education soon became popular and many institutions began following the new norm in the education history.

The emergence of e-learning is arguably[attribution needed] one of the most powerful tools available to the growing need for education. The need to improve access to education opportunities allowed students who desire to pursue their education but are constricted due to the distance of the institution to achieve education through "virtual connection" newly available to them. Online education is rapidly increasing and becoming as a viable alternative for traditional classrooms. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, back in 2006-2007 academic year, about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools began participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses, record shows only 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses being for those with an online component.[25] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.[26]

Recent studies show that the effectiveness of online instruction is considered equal to that of face-to-face classroom instructions but not as effective as the combination of face-to-face and online methods.[25]

Educational approach

The extent to which e-learning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable, ranging on a continuum from none to fully online distance learning.[27][28] A variety of descriptive terms have been employed (somewhat inconsistently) to categorize the extent to which technology is used. For example, 'hybrid learning' or 'blended learning' may refer to classroom aids and laptops, or may refer to approaches in which traditional classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, and is replaced with some online learning.[29][30][31] 'Distributed learning' may describe either the e-learning component of a hybrid approach, or fully online distance learning environments.[27] Another scheme described the level of technological support as 'web enhanced', 'web supplemented' and 'web dependent'.(Sloan Commission)[citation needed]

Synchronous and asynchronous

E-learning may either be synchronous or asynchronous. Synchronous learning occurs in real-time, with all participants interacting at the same time, while asynchronous learning is self-paced and allows participants to engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time.

Synchronous learning involves the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. A face-to-face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. In e-learning environments, examples of synchronous communications include online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback, Skype conversations, or chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time.

Asynchronous learning may use technologies such as email, blogs, wikis, and discussion boards, as well as web-supported textbooks,[32] hypertext documents, audio[33] video courses, and social networking using web 2.0. At the professional educational level, training may include virtual operating rooms.[34] Asynchronous learning is particularly beneficial for students who have health problems or have child care responsibilities and regularly leaving the home to attend lectures is difficult. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment and within a more flexible timeframe.[19] In asynchronous online courses, students proceed at their own pace. If they need to listen to a lecture a second time, or think about a question for awhile, they may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas more quickly, or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students. Students also have access to an incredible variety of enrichment courses in online learning, and can participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class.

Both the asynchronous and synchronous methods rely heavily on self-motivation, self-discipline, and the ability to communicate in writing effectively.[35]

Linear learning

Computer-based learning or training (CBT) refers to self-paced learning activities delivered on a computer or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone. CBT often delivers content via CD-ROM, and typically presents content in a linear fashion, much like reading an online book or manual. For this reason, CBT is often used to teach static processes, such as using software or completing mathematical equations. Computer-based training is conceptually similar to web-based training (WBT), the primary difference being that WBTs are delivered via Internet using a web browser.

Assessing learning in a CBT is often by assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as multiple choice questions, drag-and-drop, radio button, simulation or other interactive means. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software, providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates.

CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook, manual, or classroom-based instruction. For example, CBTs offer user-friendly solutions for satisfying continuing education requirements. Instead of limiting students to attending courses or reading printed manuals, students are able to acquire knowledge and skills through methods that are much more conducive to individual learning preferences.[citation needed] For example, CBTs offer visual learning benefits through animation or video, not typically offered by any other means.[citation needed]

CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can easily be embedded to enhance the learning.

However, CBTs pose some learning challenges. Typically the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. The software for developing CBTs (such as Flash or Adobe Director) is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. In addition, the lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented as well as the type of assessment that can be performed. Many learning organizations are beginning to use smaller CBT/WBT activities as part of a broader online learning program which may include online discussion or other interactive elements.

Collaborative learning

Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks. CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology, "e-learning 2.0".

Collaborative learning is distinguishable from the traditional approach to instruction in which the instructor is the principal source of knowledge and skills. For example, the neologism "e-learning 1.0" refers to the direct transfer method in computer-based learning and training systems (CBL). In contrast to the linear delivery of content, often directly from the instructor's material, CSCL uses blogs, wikis, and cloud-based document portals (such as Google Docs and Dropbox). With technological Web 2.0 advances, sharing information between multiple people in a network has become much easier and use has increased.[36]:1 One of the main reasons for its usage states that it is "a breeding ground for creative and engaging educational endeavors."[36]:2

Using Web 2.0 social tools in the classroom allows for students and teachers to work collaboratively, discuss ideas, and promote information. According to Sendall (2008),[37] blogs, wikis, and social networking skills are found to be significantly useful in the classroom. After initial instruction on using the tools, students also reported an increase in knowledge and comfort level for using Web 2.0 tools. The collaborative tools also prepare students with technology skills necessary in today's workforce.

Locus of control remains an important consideration in successful engagement of e-learners. According to the work of Cassandra B. Whyte, the continuing attention to aspects of motivation and success in regard to e-learning should be kept in context and concert with other educational efforts. Information about motivational tendencies can help educators, psychologists, and technologists develop insights to help students perform better academically.[38]

Classroom 2.0

Classroom 2.0 refers to online multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) that connect schools across geographical frontiers. Also known as "eTwinning", computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) allows learners in one school to communicate with learners in another that they would not get to know otherwise,[39][40][41] enhancing educational outcomes and cultural integration. Examples of classroom 2.0 applications are Blogger and Skype.[42]

E-learning 2.0

E-learning 2.0 is a type of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) system that developed with the emergence of Web 2.0.[43][44][45] From an e-learning 2.0 perspective, conventional e-learning systems were based on instructional packets, which were delivered to students using assignments. Assignments were evaluated by the teacher. In contrast, the new e-learning places increased emphasis on social learning and use of social software such as blogs, wikis, podcasts and virtual worlds such as Second Life.[46] This phenomenon has also been referred to as Long Tail Learning[47] See also (Seely Brown & Adler 2008)[48]

E-learning 2.0, in contrast to e-learning systems not based on CSCL, assumes that knowledge (as meaning and understanding) is socially constructed. Learning takes place through conversations about content and grounded interaction about problems and actions. Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others.[48]

In addition to virtual classroom environments, social networks have become an important part of E-learning 2.0. Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and language education.[49] Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning. Traditional educators may not promote social networking unless they are communicating with their own colleagues.[50]



Many technologies can be, and are, used in eLearning, including:

Most e-learning uses combinations of these techniques .


The radio has been around for a long time and has been used in educational classrooms. Recent technologies have allowed classroom teachers to stream audio over the internet. There are also webcasts and podcasts available over the internet for students and teachers to download. For example, iTunes has various podcasts available on a variety of subjects that can be downloaded for free.


Videos allow teachers to reach students who are visual learners and tend to learn best by seeing the material rather than hearing or reading about it. Teachers can access video clips through the internet instead of relying on DVDs or VHS tapes. Websites like YouTube are used by many teachers. Teachers can use messaging programs such as Skype, Adobe Connect, or webcams, to interact with guest speakers and other experts. Interactive video games are being integrated in the curriculum at both K-12 and higher education institutions.

Research on the use of video in lessons is preliminary, but early results show an increased retention and better results when video is used in a lesson. Creating a systematic video development method holds promise for creating video models that positively impact student learning.[51]

Computers, tablets and mobile devices

Computers and tablets allow students and teachers access to websites and other programs, such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, PDF files, and images. Many mobile devices support m-learning.


Blogs allow students and teachers to post their thoughts, ideas, and comments on a website. Blogging allows students and instructors to share their thoughts and comments on the thoughts of others which could create an interactive learning environment.[52]


The development of webcams and webcasting has facilitated the creation of virtual classrooms and virtual learning environments. Virtual classrooms supported by such technology are becoming more and more popular, especially since they are contributing as a main solution to solving problems with travel expenses. Virtual classrooms with such technology also provide the benefits of being easy to set up.[53]


Interactive whiteboards ("smartboards") allow teachers and students to write on the touch screen, so learning becomes interactive and engaging.


Screencasting is a recent trend in e-learning. There are many screencasting tools available that allow users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that the viewers can stream the video directly.[54] The advantage of such tools is that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them, which may be more confusing when delivered via simple text instructions. With the combination of video and audio, the expert can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom and deliver clear, complete instructions. From the learner's point of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learners the advantage of moving at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always offer.

Combining technology

Along with the terms learning technology, instructional technology, the term educational technology refers to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. In cases where mobile technologies are used, the term M-learning has become more common. E-learning, however, also has implications beyond just the technology and refers to the actual learning that takes place using these systems.

In higher education especially, the increasing tendency is to create a virtual learning environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments and student newspapers.

E-learning can also refer to educational websites such as those offering learning scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises for children. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training.

Virtual classroom

Main article: Virtual Learning Environment

Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), also known as learning platforms, utilize virtual classrooms and meetings which often use a mix of communication technologies. One example of web conferencing software that enables students and instructors to communicate with each other via webcam, microphone, and real-time chatting in a group setting, is Adobe Connect, which is sometimes used for meetings and presentations.[55] Participants in a virtual classroom can also use icons called emoticons to communicate feelings and responses to questions or statements. Students are able to 'write on the board' and even share their desktop, when given rights by the teacher. Other communication technologies available in a virtual classroom include text notes, microphone rights, and breakout sessions. Breakout sessions allow the participants to work collaboratively in a small group setting to accomplish a task as well as allow the teacher to have private conversations with his or her students.

The virtual classroom also provides the opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment. Students have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom also provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be helpful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. In addition, the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional "brick and mortar" classroom. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. Each class is recorded and stored on a server, which allows for instant playback of any class over the course of the school year. This can be extremely useful for students to review material and concepts for an upcoming exam. This also provides students with the opportunity to watch any class that they may have missed, so that they do not fall behind. It also gives parents the ability to monitor any classroom to ensure that they are satisfied with the education their child is receiving.

Administrative tools

Learning management system

Main article: Learning management system

A learning management system (LMS) is software used for delivering, tracking and managing training and education; for example, tracking attendance, time on task, and student progress. Educators can post announcements, grade assignments, check on course activity, and participate in class discussions. Students can submit their work, read and respond to discussion questions, and take quizzes.[52] An LMS may allow teachers, administrators, students, and permitted additional parties (such as parents if appropriate) to track various metrics. LMSs range from systems for managing training/educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning content requires substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts requires even more investment by knowledgeable personnel.[56]

Two widely used internet-based learning management systems tools for e-learning are Blackboard Inc. and Moodle.

Blackboard Inc. has over 20 million users daily. Offering six different platforms: Blackboard Learn, Blackboard Collaborate, Blackboard Mobile, Blackboard Connect, Blackboard Transact, and Blackboard Analytics; Blackboard's tools allow educators to decide whether their program will be blended or fully online, asynchronous or synchronous. Blackboard can be used for K-12 education, Higher Education, Business, and Government collaboration.[57]

Moodle is an Open Source Course Management System. It is free to download and provides blended learning opportunities as well as platforms for distance learning courses. The Moodle website has many tutorials for creating a program or becoming a Moodle student.[58]

Learning content management system

A learning content management system (LCMS) is software for author content (courses, reusable content objects). An LCMS may be solely dedicated to producing and publishing content that is hosted on an LMS, or it can host the content itself. The Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) specification provides support for content that is hosted separately from the LMS.

A recent trend in LCMSs is to address this issue through crowd-sourcing (cf.SlideWiki[59]).

Computer-aided assessment

Computer-aided assessment (also but less commonly referred to as e-assessment), ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned.

The best examples follow a formative Assessment structure and are called "Online Formative Assessment". This involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers. The author of the assessment/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with each question. It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. This is the formative learning stage. The next stage is to make a summative assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught.

Learning design is the type of activity enabled by software that supports sequences of activities that can be both adaptive and collaborative. The IMS Learning Design specification is intended as a standard format for learning designs, and IMS LD Level A is supported in LAMS V2.elearning has been replacing the traditional settings due to its cost effectiveness.

Electronic performance support systems (EPSS)

An Electronic Performance Support System is, according to Barry Raybould, "a computer-based system that improves worker productivity by providing on-the-job access to integrated information, advice, and learning experiences" (Raybould, 1991).[60] Gloria Gery defines it as "an integrated electronic environment that is available to and easily accessible by each employee and is structured to provide immediate, individualized on-line access to the full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems to permit job performance with minimal support and intervention by others." (Gery, 1989).[61]

Electronic performance support systems are used for:

  • task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes),
  • access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed)
  • alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge, e.g., video, audio, text, image, data)


Content is a core component of e-learning and includes issues such as pedagogy and learning object re-use. While there are a number of means of achieving a rich and interactive elearning platform, one option is using a design architecture composed of the “Five Types of Content in eLearning” (Clark, Mayer, 2007).[62]

Content normally comes in one of five forms:

  • Fact - unique data (e. g., symbols for Excel formula, or the parts that make up a learning objective)
  • Concept - a category that includes multiple examples (e. g., Excel formulas, or the various types/theories of Instructional Design)
  • Process - a flow of events or activities (e. g., how a spreadsheet works, or the five phases in ADDIE)
  • Procedure - step-by-step task (e. g., entering a formula into a spreadsheet, or the steps that should be followed within a phase in ADDIE)
  • Strategic Principle - task performed by adapting guidelines (e. g., doing a financial projection in a spreadsheet, or using a framework for designing learning environments)

Pedagogical elements

Pedagogical elements are defined as structures or units of educational material. They are the educational content that is to be delivered. These units are independent of format, meaning that although the unit may delivered in various ways, the pedagogical structures themselves are not the textbook, web page, video conference, Podcast, lesson, assignment, multiple choice question, quiz, discussion group or a case study, all of which are possible methods of delivery.

Pedagogical approaches

Main article: E-learning (theory)

Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with e-learning programs. E-learning theory examines these approaches, including social-constructivist, one application of which was One Laptop Per Child,[63] Laurillard's conversational model[64] including Gilly Salmon's five-stage model,[65] and cognitive,[66] emotional,[67] behavioral,[68] and contextual perspectives.[69] In 'mode neutral' learning online and classroom learners can coexist within one learning environment, encouraging interconnectivity.[70] Self-regulated learning refers to several concepts that play major roles in e-learning. Learning courses should provide opportunities to practice these strategies and skills. Self-regulation and structured supervision both enhance e-learning.[71]

Learning object standards

Main article: Sharable Content Object Reference Model

Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using learning objects. These are self-contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata, and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository.

Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications that applies to certain web-based e-learning. Other specifications such as Schools Framework allow for the transporting of learning objects, or for categorizing metadata (LOM). These standards themselves are early in the maturity process with the oldest being 8 years old. They are also relatively vertical specific: SIF is primarily pK-12, LOM is primarily Corp, Military and Higher Ed, and SCORM is primarily Military and Corp with some Higher Ed. PESC- the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council- is also making headway in developing standards and learning objects for the Higher Ed space, while SIF is beginning to seriously turn towards Instructional and Curriculum learning objects.

In the US pK12 space there are a host of content standards that are critical as well- the NCES data standards are a prime example. Each state government's content standards and achievement benchmarks are critical metadata for linking e-learning objects in that space.

An excellent example of e-learning that relates to knowledge management and reusability is Navy E-Learning, which is available to Active Duty, Retired, or Disable Military members. This on-line tool provides certificate courses to enrich the user in various subjects related to military training and civilian skill sets. The e-learning system not only provides learning objectives, but also evaluates the progress of the student and credit can be earned toward higher learning institutions. The Internet allows for learning to be directed at one’s current objectives.[72] This reuse is an excellent example of knowledge retention and the cyclical process of knowledge transfer and use of data and records.



Various forms of electronic media are a feature of preschool life.[73] Although parents report a positive experience, the impact of such use has not been systematically assessed.[73]

The age when a given child might start using a particular technology such as a cellphone or computer might depend on matching a technological resource to the recipient's developmental capabilities, such as the age-anticipated stages labeled by Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget.[74] Parameters, such as age-appropriateness, coherence with sought-after values, and concurrent entertainment and educational aspects, have been suggested for chosing media.[75]


E-learning is utilized by public K–12 schools in the United States as well as private schools. Some e-learning environments take place in a traditional classroom, others allow students to attend classes from home or other locations. There are several states that are utilizing virtual school platforms for e-learning across the country that continue to increase. Virtual school enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an internet connection. Technology kits are usually provided that include computers, printers, and reimbursement for home internet use. Students are to use technology for school use only and must meet weekly work submission requirements. Teachers employed by K–12 online public schools must be certified teachers in the state they are teaching in. Online schools allow for students to maintain their own pacing and progress, course selection, and provide the flexibility for students to create their own schedule.[citation needed]

E-learning is increasingly being utilized by students who may not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues, fear of school violence and school bullying and students whose parents would like to homeschool but do not feel qualified.[76] Online schools create a safe haven for students to receive a quality education while almost completely avoiding these common problems. Online charter schools also often are not limited by location, income level or class size in the way brick and mortar charter schools are.[77]

National private schools are also available online. These provide the benefits of e-learning to students in states where charter online schools are not available. They also may allow students greater flexibility and exemption from state testing.

Virtual education in K-12 schooling often refers to virtual schools, and in higher education to virtual universities. Virtual schools are “cybercharter schools"[78] with innovative administrative models and course delivery technology.[78]

Higher education

In the United States, e-learning has become a predominant form of post-secondary education.[citation needed] Enrollments for fully online learning increased by an average of 12–14 percent annually between 2004–2009, compared with an average of approximately 2 per cent increase per year in enrollments overall.[79][80] In 2006, 3.5 million students participated in on-line learning at higher education institutions in the United States.[81] Almost a quarter of all students in post-secondary education were taking fully online courses in 2008.[79] In 2009, 44 percent of post-secondary students in the USA were taking some or all of their courses online, this figure is projected to rise to 81 percent by 2014.[82] During the fall 2011 term, 6.7 million students enrolled in at least one online course.[83] Over two-thirds of chief academic officers believe that online learning is critical for their institution.[84] The Sloan report, based on a poll of academic leaders, indicated that students are as satisfied with on-line classes as with traditional ones.

Although a large proportion of for-profit higher education institutions now offer online classes, only about half of private, non-profit schools do so. Private institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the costs decrease. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. These staff members need to understand the content area, and also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities.[85]

Although massively-open online courses (MOOCs) may have limitations that preclude them from fully replacing college education,[86] such programs have significantly expanded. MIT, Stanford and Princeton University offer classes to a global audience, but not for college credit.[87] University-level programs, like edX founded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, offer wide range of disciplines at no charge. Private organizations also offer classes, such as Udacity, with free computer science classes, and Khan Academy, with over 3,900 free micro-lectures available via YouTube.

Coursera, an online-enrollment platform, is now offering education for millions of people around the world. A certification is consigned by Coursera for students who are able to complete an adequate performance in the course. Free online courses are administered by the website- fields like computer science, medicine, networks and social sciences are accessibly offered to pursuing students. The lectures are recorded into series of short videos discussing different topics and assignments in a weekly basis.

This virtual curriculum complement the curriculum taught in the traditional education setting by providing equality for all students, despite disability, and geographical location and socioeconomic status.

Corporate and professional

E-learning has now been adopted and used by various companies to inform and educate both their employees and customers. Companies with large and spread out distribution chains use it to educate their sales staff about the latest product developments without the need of organizing physical onsite courses. Compliance has also been a big field of growth with banks using it to keep their staff's CPD levels up. Other areas of growth include staff development, where employees can learn valuable workplace skills.

Advantages and disadvantages

Key advantages of e-learning include:

  • Improved open access to education, including access to full degree programs[88]
  • Better integration for non-full-time students, particularly in continuing education,[88]
  • Improved interactions between students and instructors,[89]
  • Provision of tools to enable students to independently solve problems,[89]
  • Acquisition of technological skills through practice with tools and computers.

Key disadvantages of e-learning, that have been found to make learning less effective than traditional class room settings, include:

  • Potential distractions that hinder true learning,
  • Ease of cheating,[citation needed]
  • Bias towards tech-savvy students over non-technical students,
  • Teachers' lack of knowledge and experience to manage virtual teacher-student interaction,[90]
  • Lack of social interaction between teacher and students,[91]
  • Lack of direct and immediate feedback from teachers,[91]
  • Asynchronic communication hinders fast exchange of question,[91]
  • Danger of procrastination.[91]

See also


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Further reading

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