Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Language: Linguistics · Semiotics · Speech

The Extensions to the IPA are extensions of the International Phonetic Alphabet and were designed for disordered speech. However, some of the symbols (especially diacritics, below) are occasionally used for transcribing normal speech as well, particularly in certain languages.


The Extended IPA for speech pathology has added additional bracket notations. Parentheses are used to indicate mouthing (silent articulation), as in (ʃːː), a silent sign to hush; parentheses are also used to indicate silent pauses, for example (...). Double parentheses indicate obscured or unintelligible sound, as in ((2 syll.)), two audible but unidentifiable syllables. Curly brackets with Italian musical terms are used to mark prosodic notation, such as [{falsetto hɛlp falsetto}].

Extended IPA letters


The letters and diacritics of the ExtIPA

ʩ Velopharyngeal fricative (snoring sound; often occurs with a cleft palate)
ʪ Voiceless central-plus-lateral alveolar fricative, [ɬ͡s] (a lisp)[note 1]
ʫ Voiced central-plus-lateral alveolar fricative, [ɮ͡z] (a lisp)[note 2]
ʬ Bilabial percussive (smacking lips)
ʭ Bidental percussive (gnashing teeth)
¡ Sublaminal lower alveolar click (sucking tongue)

The last symbol may be used with the alveolar click for [ǃ¡], a combined alveolar and sublaminal click or "cluck-click".

  1. Corresponds to the sound in English usually represented by /s/: sand
  2. Corresponds to the sound in English usually represented by /z/: zoo

Extended IPA diacritics

The ExtIPA has widened the use of some of the regular IPA symbols, such as ʰp for pre-aspiration, for uvularization, or for a linguolabial sibilant, as well as adding some new ones. Some of the ExtIPA diacritics are occasionally used for non-disordered speech, for example for the unusual airstream mechanisms of Damin.

One modification is the use of subscript parentheses around the phonation diacritics to indicate partial phonation; a single parenthesis at the left or right of the voicing indicates that it is partially phonated at the beginning or end of the segment. For example, ₍s̬₎ is a partially voiced [s], ₍s̬ shows partial initial voicing, and s̬₎ partial final voicing; also ₍z̥₎ is a partially devoiced [z], ₍z̥ shows partial initial devoicing, and z̥₎ partial final devoicing. These conventions may be convenient for representing various voice onset times.

Phonation diacritics may also be prefixed or suffixed rather than placed directly under the segment to represent relative timing. For instance,  ̬z is a pre-voiced [z], z ̬ a post-voiced [z], and a ̰ is an [a] with a creaky offglide.

Other ExtIPA diacritics are:

Airstream mechanism
p↓ Ingressive airflow ǃ↑ Egressive airflow
p⁼[1] Unaspirated Whispery phonation
aĦ Faucalized voice (stretched pharynx,
as in a yawn)
a! Harsh voice, ('pressed voice'; involves the
false vocal cords, as when lifting a load)
ʰp Pre-aspiration a‼ Ventricular vibration
n͋    v͋ Nasal fricative or frication Denasal (as with a headcold)
Articulatory strength
Strong articulation Weak articulation
Dentolabial n̪͆    h̪͆ Interdental or bidental
s͇    f͇ Alveolar(ized) Whistled
Secondary articulation
Labial spreading (see rounded vowel) ʒœ Open-rounded labialization
kᶹ Labiodentalized Velopharyngeal friction
s͢θ Slurred/sliding articulation p\p\p Stutter (reiterated articulation)

In addition to these symbols, a subscript < or > indicates that an articulation is laterally offset to the left or right.

Prosodic notation

The ExtIPA also makes use of Italian musical notation for the tempo and dynamics of connected speech. These are subscripted within a {curly brace} notation to indicate that they are comments on the prosody.

Pauses are indicated with periods or numbers inside parentheses.

(.) Short pause (..) Medium pause (...) Long pause (1.2) 1.2-second pause
f Loud speech
[{f lɑʊdf}] ff Louder speech
[{ff lɑʊdɚ ff}]
p Quiet speech
[{p kwaɪət p}] pp Quieter speech
[{pp kwaɪətɚ pp}]
allegro Fast speech [{allegro fɑːst allegro}] lento Slow speech [{lento sloʊ lento}]
crescendo, rallentando, and other musical terms may also be used.

See also


  1. not to be confused with ⁼
  • Ball, Martin J.; Esling, John H.; & Dickson, B. Craig. (1995). The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality. Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 25 (2), 71-80.
  • Duckworth, M.; Allen, G.; Hardcastle, W.; & Ball, M. J. (1990). Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 4, 273-280.

External links

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).