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- Main article: Female orgasm
Female ejaculation (also known colloquially as squirting or gushing) refers to the expulsion of noticeable amounts of clear fluid by human females from the paraurethral ducts and/or urethra during orgasm. The exact source of the fluid is debated, although some researchers believe it originates from the Skene's gland.
Relation to urinary incontinence
For most of the last century, there was controversy over whether the effect existed at all, and in recent history there has been confusion between female ejaculation and urinary incontinence. However, scientific studies from the 1980s and later have demonstrated an effect that is unrelated to urine.
According to some, female ejaculation is mostly accomplished by stimulation of the urethral sponge (sometimes identified as the G-spot) an area purported to be near the front of the vaginal wall. More rarely, ejaculation can be accomplished through external stimulation of the clitoris alone, the internal tissue of the clitoris then contracting and stimulating the urethral tissue. [How to reference and link to summary or text]
Historical and scientific discussion
Female ejaculation has been discussed in anatomical, medical, and biological literature since classical antiquity. The Greek philosopher Aristotle noted the existence of female ejaculation, and the Roman physician Galen (2nd century) described the female prostate. The Italian Renaissance anatomist Renaldus Columbus referred to female ejaculate in his explanation of the function of the clitoris. In the 17th century, the Dutch anatomist Regnier de Graaf wrote a book about female anatomy and spoke of female fluid "rushing out" and "coming in one gush" during sexual excitement.
Up until the 1980s female ejaculation was largely ignored by the medical community. At that time the subject resurfaced with the bestselling book The G-Spot by Ladas, Whipple, and Perry. The book not only addressed the validity of the G-spot, but it also brought female ejaculation to the forefront of women's sexual health inside the medical community.
Lack of understanding
While many in the medical and scientific communities are now acknowledging the existence of female ejaculation, there remains a large void when it comes to solid scientific data explaining:
- The process of ejaculation in females.
- The source of the fluid itself.
Nature of the fluid
Studies have been done by Beverly Whipple, John Perry, Gary Schuback, Milan Zaviacic and Cabello Santamaria but their findings are limited. While current information offers no solid information about the source of the fluid, chemical analysis performed on the fluid has revealed that while it sometimes contains at least traces of urine, it regularly contains chemical markers unique to the prostate (whether male or female).
The latest research indicates the possibility that all women produce female ejaculate, even if they are not aware of it:
- The expelled or released fluid is not urine, it is an alkaline liquid secreted by the paraurethral (alongside the urethra) glands.
- The paraurethral glands produce an enzyme called prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
- Skene's gland also produces Human Protein 1, a trait formerly believed to be unique to the male prostate.
Studies have found that:
- 54-60% of women have experienced emission of fluid at orgasm,
- with 6% reporting that they regularly ejaculate in a forceful manner, and
- an additional 13% stating that they have done so infrequently.
Dr. Shubach believes that "most women, the overwhelming proportion of women" are capable of ejaculation.
It must also be noted that female ejaculation has long been reported in Ancient Indian and Chinese history.The esoteric Buddhist sect of Tantra was particularly focused on this physical function in their ritualistic, sexual practice.
There have been a number of studies carried out on the fluid expelled during female ejaculation to determine the chemical makeup. Through chemical analysis the expelled fluid has been found to contain the following:
- glucose (a natural sugar) and fructose (another natural sugar, also found in the prostatic fluid of semen)
- prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein in male ejaculate produced by the prostate gland, and in females, believed to be generated by Skene's glands
- very low levels of creatinine and urea (the two primary chemical markers of urine, found in high levels in pre- and post-ejaculatory urinalysis).
In 1988, Milan Zaviacic, M.D., Ph.D., head of the Institute of Pathology, Comenius University Bratislava, published a study of five women who were patients at a fertility department of a hospital of gynecology and obstetrics. Total samples from one of the participants and one of four samples from a second participant were collected in the laboratory. The rest were collected at the homes of the women and transported to the laboratory in ice. In four of the five cases, the samples were analyzed within three hours of collection, with the fifth subject’s specimens analyzed three months after collection. The results in all five cases showed a higher concentration of fructose in the ejaculate sample than in the urine sample.
In 1997 Dr. F Cabello Santamaria analyzed urine for PSA using Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay and found that 75 percent of the samples showed a concentration of PSA in post-orgasmic urine samples which was not present in pre-orgasmic urine samples. The fluid collected at the point of orgasm (distinct from the urine samples) showed the presence of PSA in 100 percent of samples.
In 2002, Emanuele Jannini of L'Aquila University in Italy offered one explanation for this phenomenon, as well as for the frequent denials of its existence:
Skene's gland openings are usually the size of pinholes, and vary in size from one woman to another, to the point where they appear to be missing entirely in some women. If Skene's glands are the cause of female ejaculation, this may explain the observed absence of this phenomenon in many women.
Misinformation about female ejaculation can lead to misdiagnosis of underlying medical conditions or wrong diagnosis where no medical condition exists.
Current studies verify that female ejaculate is expelled through the urethra[How to reference and link to summary or text] yet many continue to believe that the fluid leaves the body through the vagina. Expulsion of copious amounts of fluid from the vagina is called profuse vaginal discharge and can have several different causes:
- infection or sexually transmitted disease - presents with typical symptoms including itch, odor and / or redness;
- a sexually transmitted infection such as Trichomonas vaginalis which will often present without typical symptoms; or
- physiological discharge - an abundant amount of discharge with no underlying medical disorder.
For this reason it is important that any female who experiences abnormal amounts of vaginal discharge undergo a physical examination to rule out underlying medical conditions.
In other cases, women who may not be fully educated about female ejaculation may assume themselves to be suffering from urinary stress incontinence and seek medical intervention. Treatment for urinary stress incontinence may involve the use of medications or surgery, both unnecessary and dangerous if the source of the fluid leakage is female ejaculation.
- Bartholin's gland
- Retrograde ejaculation, where the fluid travels up the urethra towards the bladder could also possibly account for the absence otherwise observed.
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- Rabinerson, D, E Horowitz. (February 2007). G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?. Harefuah. 146 (2): 145-7, 163.
- Davidson, JK, CA Darling CA, C Conway-Welch. (Summer 1989). The role of the Grafenberg Spot and female ejaculation in the female orgasmic response: an empirical analysis.. J Sex Marital Ther. 15 (2): 102-20.
- Sundahl, D. (February 2003). Female Ejaculation and the G-Spot, Hunter House Publishers. ISBN 0-89793-380-X.
- Regnier De Graaf, New Treatise Concerning the Generative Organs of Women
- Pollen, JJ, A. Dreilinger (March 1984). Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands.. Urology. 23 (3): 303-4.
- Tepper, SL, J Jagirdar, D Heath, SA Geller. (May 1984). Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration.. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 108 (5): 423-5.
- Wernert, N, M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger. (1992). The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance.. Eur Urol. 22 (1): 64-9.
- Zaviacic, Z, M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková. (November 1994). The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate. Bratisl Lek Listy. 95 (11): 491-7.
- Zaviacic, Z, RJ Ablin. (January 2000). The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female.. Histol Histopathol. 15 (1): 131-42.
- Zaviacic, M, L Danihel, M Ruzicková, J Blazeková, Y Itoh, R Okutani, T Kawai. (March 1997). Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate.. Histochem J. 29 (3): 219-27.
- Bullough, B, M David, B Whipple, J Dixon, ER Allgeier, KC Drury. (March 1984). Subjective reports of female orgasmic expulsion of fluid.. Nurse Pract. 9 (3): 55-9.
- Female Ejaculation & G-Spot Orgasm Podcast Interview with Dr. Gary Schubach. Personal Life Media. URL accessed on 2007-05-15.
- Edwin G. Belzer, Jr., Beverly Whipple and William Moger, co-researchers with Addiego, et al (1981)
- Gary Schubach, Ed.D 2001, Urethral Expulsions During Sensual Arousal and Bladder Catheterization in Seven Human Females
- Cabello, F. (1997). Female ejaculation: Myth and reality. In J.J. Baras-Vass & M.Perez-Conchillo (Eds) Sexuality and Human Rights: Proceedings of the XIII World Congress of Sexology (pp.325-333) Valencia, Spain: E.C.V.S.A.
- CEG (2001) National guidelines on the management of Trichomoniasis vaginalis. Clinical Effectiveness Group (Association of Genitourinary Medicine and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases)
- Addiego, F., Belzer, E. G., Comolli, J., Moger, W., Perry, J. D., & Whipple, B. (1981). Female ejaculation: A case study. The Journal of Sex Research, 17, 13-21.
- Arthur, Clint (2004) "9 Free Secrets of New Sensual Power"
- Nicola Jones (2002-07-03). Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot. New Scientist.
- An Annotated Bibliography on Sexual Arousal, Orgasm, and Female Ejaculation in Humans and Animals
- The-Clitoris.com: Female Ejaculation & The G-Spot: Instructions and diagrams from the feminist perspective.
- Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality: Urethral Expulsions During Sensual Arousal and Bladder Catheterization in Seven Human Females by Gary Schubach ("Female Ejaculation" Bibliography)
- Feminists Against Censorship: Submission to the BBFC: Female Ejaculation: Research Contrary to BBFC Ruling.
- Female Ejaculation: What is it? - by Lisa S. Lawless, R.M., C.E.O. Psychotherapist, Founder Of HolisticWisdom.com
- Female Ejaculation, Myth and Reality by Dr. Santamaría Cabello
- History of "shejaculation"
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