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Flupentixol chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
ATC code


Chemical formula C23H25F3N2OS
Molecular weight 434.5219 g/mol
Elimination half-life 19-39 hours
Pregnancy category
Legal status Rx-only
Routes of administration Oral, IM

Flupentixol (INN), also known as flupenthixol (former BAN), marketed under brand names such as Depixol and Fluanxol, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class. In addition to single drug preparations, it is also available as Anxiset, Deanxit, Mixit, a combination product containing both melitracen and flupentixol.


Flupentixol's main use is as a long-acting injection given two or three times weekly to individuals with schizophrenia who have poor compliance with medication and suffer frequent relapses of illness.

Flupentixol is also used in low doses as an antidepressant.[1][2][3][4][5][6]


Flupentixol acts as an antagonist at various dopamine (D1-D5), serotonin (5-HT2), adrenaline (α1), and histamine (H1) receptors,[7] without affecting the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.[8]

Its antipsychotic effects are likely caused by D2 and/or 5-HT2A antagonism, whereas its antidepressant effects at lower doses may be mediated by preferential D2/D3 autoreceptor blockade, resulting in increased postsynaptic activation.

Side effects

The side effects of flupentixol are similar to most other typical antipsychotics, namely extrapyramidal symptoms of akathisia, muscle tremors, and rigidity and antihistamine effects like sedation and somnolence. However, it lacks anticholinergic adverse effects.

See also


  1. Robertson MM, Trimble MR (May 1981). The antidepressant action of flupenthixol. The Practitioner 225 (1355): 761–3.
  2. Pöldinger W, Sieberns S (1983). Depression-inducing and antidepressive effects of neuroleptics. Experiences with flupenthixol and flupenthixol decanoate. Neuropsychobiology 10 (2-3): 131–6.
  3. Johnson DA (January 1979). A double-blind comparison of flupenthixol, nortriptyline and diazepam in neurotic depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 59 (1): 1–8.
  4. Young JP, Hughes WC, Lader MH (May 1976). A controlled comparison of flupenthixol and amitriptyline in depressed outpatients. British Medical Journal 1 (6018): 1116–8.
  5. Fujiwara J, Ishino H, Baba O, Hanaoka M, Sasaki K (August 1976). Effect of flupenthixol on depression with special reference to combination use with tricyclic antidepressants. An uncontrolled pilot study with 45 patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 54 (2): 99–105.
  6. Tam W, Young JP, John G, Lader MH (March 1982). A controlled comparison of flupenthixol decanoate injections and oral amitriptyline in depressed out-patients. The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science 140: 287–91.
  7. PDSP Database - UNC.
  8. Golds PR, Przyslo FR, Strange PG (March 1980). The binding of some antidepressant drugs to brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology 68 (3): 541–9.

Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine

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