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Template:Science
The **formal sciences** are the branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, information theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, applied in constructing and testing scientific models dealing with observable reality.

## History[]

Formal sciences began before the formulation of scientific method, with the most ancient mathematical texts dating back to 1800 BC (Babylonian mathematics), 1600 BC (Egyptian mathematics) and 1000 BC (Indian mathematics). From then on different cultures such as the Indian, Greek and Islamic mathematicians made major contributions to mathematics, while the Chinese and Japanese independently developed their own mathematical tradition.

Besides mathematics, logic is another example of one of oldest subjects in the field of the formal sciences. As an explicit analysis of the methods of reasoning, logic received sustained development originally in three places: India from the 6th century BC, China in the 5th century BC, and Greece between the 4th century BC and the 1st century BC. The formally sophisticated treatment of modern logic descends from the Greek tradition, being informed from the transmission of Aristotelian logic, which was then further developed by Islamic logicians. The Indian tradition also continued into the early modern period. The native Chinese tradition did not survive beyond antiquity, though Indian logic was later adopted in medieval China.

As a number of other disciplines of formal science rely heavily on mathematics, they did not exist until mathematics had developed into a relatively advanced level. Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal (1654), and Christiaan Huygens (1657) started the earliest study of probability theory. In the early 1800s, Gauss and Laplace developed the mathematical theory of statistics, which also explained the use of statistics in insurance and governmental accounting. Mathematical statistics was recognized as a mathematical discipline in the early 20th century.

In the mid-twentieth century, mathematics was broadened and enriched by the rise of new mathematical sciences and engineering disciplines such as operations research and systems engineering. These sciences benefited from basic research in electrical engineering and then by the development of electrical computing, which also stimulated information theory, numerical analysis (scientific computing), and theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science also benefits from the discipline of mathematical logic, which included the theory of computation.

## Differences from other forms of science[]

One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem, above all other sciences, is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable, while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of being overthrown by newly discovered facts.

—Albert Einstein^{[1]}

As opposed to empirical sciences (natural, social), the formal sciences do not usually involve empirical procedures. Sometimes they do not presuppose knowledge of contingent fact, or describe the real world. In this sense, formal sciences are both logically and methodologically a priori, for their content and validity are often independent of any empirical procedures.

Although formal sciences are usually conceptual systems, sometimes lacking empirical content, this does not mean that they have no relation to the real world. But this relation is such that their formal statements hold in all possible worlds – whereas, statements based on empirical theories, such as, say, General Relativity or Evolutionary Biology, do not hold in all possible worlds, and may even turn out not to hold in this world. That is why formal sciences are applicable in all domains and useful in all empirical sciences.

Because of their non-empirical nature, formal sciences are often construed by outlining a set of axioms and definitions from which other statements (theorems) are deduced. In other words, theories in formal sciences contain no synthetic statements; all their statements are analytic.

## See also[]

Template:Wikipedia-Books Template:Colbegin

- Rationalism
- Abstract structure
- Abstraction in mathematics
- Abstraction in computer science
- Formal
- Formal language
- Formal method
- Formal system
- Mathematical model

Template:Colend

## References[]

- ↑ Albert Einstein (1923). "Geometry and Experience"
*Sidelights on relativity*, Courier Dover Publications. Reprinted by Dover (2010), ISBN 978-0-486-24511-9.

## Further reading[]

- Mario Bunge (1985).
*Philosophy of Science and Technology*. Springer. - Mario Bunge (1998).
*Philosophy of Science*. Rev. ed. of:*Scientific research*. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1967. - C. West Churchman (1940).
*Elements of Logic and Formal Science*, J.B. Lippincott Co., New York. - James Franklin (1994). The formal sciences discover the philosophers' stone. In:
*Studies in History and Philosophy of Science*. Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 513–533, 1994 - Stephen Leacock (1906).
*Elements of Political Science*. Houghton, Mifflin Co, 417 pp. - Bernt P. Stigum (1990).
*Toward a Formal Science of Economics*. MIT Press - Marcus Tomalin (2006),
*Linguistics and the Formal Sciences*. Cambridge University Press - William L. Twining (1997).
*Law in Context: Enlarging a Discipline*. 365 pp.

## External links[]

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