How can the ToK help us analyze (and perhaps classify) the justification systems that inform various approaches to counseling?
Proposed categorization of counseling approaches
(Taken from Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy by Gerald Corey ISBN 0534348238)
I. Analytic approaches
II. Experiential and Relationship oriented approaches
III. Action therapies
IV. Systems perspective
The theoretical integration of various approaches to psychotherapy was the initial problem that ultimately resulted in the ToK System. Although there are literally hundreds of various approaches to psychotherapy, when one surveys the broad field, I believe it can be readily argued that there have been four major movements that have each had an enormous impact and focused at the level of the individual human. They are: 1) psychodynamic; 2) behavioral; 3) humanistic; and 4) cognitive. Two other major influences are the biopsychiatric view (i.e., nervous system and neurochemistry) and the social systems view (e.g., family systems and feminist perspectives). Through the lens of the ToK, the former emphasize a "bottom-up" approach and the latter a "top down" view. Henriques