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According to a 2006 study by the Center on Education Policy, two-thirds of the 15 million public high school students in the United States of America were required to pass a high school graduation examination to get a diploma of completion of studies so they may call themselves high school graduates. These are usually criterion-referenced tests which were implemented as part of a comprehensive standards-based education reform program which sets into place new standards intended to increase the learning of all students.
When a criterion-referenced test is tied to serious negative consequences for failure, such as denying a diploma, it is called a high-stakes test. Many organizations such as the NCTM have taken positions against high stakes tests, with the NCTM stating "placing too much emphasis on a single test or on testing can undermine the quality of education and jeopardize equality of opportunity."
Reaction and criticism
No new states adopted a new graduation examination requirement in 2006. Utah abandoned plans to withhold diplomas from students who failed to demonstrate mastery of standards. Twenty-two states currently require a test to graduate, 3 others are to phase them in by 2012. Jack Jennings of the CEP believes that there is a "kickback" against imposing this requirement.
Graduation examinations first appeared in the U.S. after the Civil War, when the Regents Board of the State of New York imposed its first exams.
A century later in the form of the Certificate of Initial Mastery proposed by the NCEE, led by Marc Tucker, in the late 1990s which was the basis for education reform legislation in many states such as Washington State, Texas and Massachusetts in the early 1990s. The paper "America's Choice: High Skills or Low Wages" outlined a model that a new educational performance standard should be set for all students, to be met by age sixteen. This standard should be established nationally and benchmarked to the highest in the world. Students passing a series of performance- based assessments that incorporate the standard would be awarded a Certificate of Initial Mastery. This certificate would qualify the student to choose among going to work, entering a college preparatory program, or studying for a Technical and Professional Certificate, which would be explicitly tied to advanced job requirements. These standards would not be intended as sorting mechanisms, but would allow multiple opportunities for success; the goal would simply be to ensure achievement of high performance standards for the great majority of the nation's workforce. The states would ensure that virtually all students achieve the Certificate of Initial Mastery. Most of the current high school examinations are also given in the 10th grade even though US students are not considered to have completed high school until grade 12. Idaho is phasing in their requirement with a grade 8 level of achievement.
Students who are unable to pass the exit examinations given by their local public school may be able to graduate from a private school or a school in another state by transferring their accumulated credits at the end of the last year of school. This is typically not free, but is not considered very expensive relative to the cost of hiring an attorney to contest the statewide exams, or to the cost of hiring a private tutor.
-  State High School Exit Exams: A Challenging Year. CEP study in .pdf format
-  State High School Exit Examinations for Graduating Classes Since 1977. An online data repository.
|Standards-based education reform|
|Theorists: John Dewey • William Spady • Jean Piaget •Benjamin Bloom • Robert Carkhuff • Marc Tucker
Theories: Standards-based education reform • Outcomes-based education • Developmentally Appropriate Practice • Holism • Constructivism (learning theory) • Block scheduling • Holistic grading • NCEE • Active learning • Discovery learning • Inquiry-based science • Inventive spelling • Open-space school • Small schools movement
Values: Excellence and equity • Meaningful high school diploma • High standards • High expectations • Continual improvement • Accountability • Closing the achievement gap
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