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A key objective of The Psychology Wiki is to document all the significant references in psychology and link each to either a copy of the full text or to a summary on the MEDLINE database via PubMed etc.

In writing on the site you should follow broadly the form of APA style where it is not contradicted explicitly by the demands of Wiki text.

References in the text[]

Reference citations in text are those which are referenced within a passage of text in the body of an article. APA style defines that a reference section may only include articles which are cited within the body of an article. This is the distinction between a document having a Reference section and a Bibliography which may incorporate sources which may have been read by the authors as background but not referred to or included in the body of a document.

To do this place the reference in between ref tags. (Because they are invisible on the article page, if written correctly, so here we have to use () instead of <> brackets) so the form is (ref)full reference in APA format (/ref). In proper use you would substitute the <> brackets. see ref tag example article, particularly in "edit this page mode" to see how it works or contact me on my user page if you have difficulty.Dr Joe Kiff 20:35, February 24, 2010 (UTC)

APA follows a number of rules for formatting in-line citations, the following is not an exhaustive list as it does not cover quotations, nor all scenarios that may arise when referring to an article or document. Hopefully, it is enough to get a feel for how it is used.

  • Single Author, Book, Journal, Published article, conference proceedings.: Format should be Author's last name (no initials) followed directly by a comma, then the year of publication. You may choose not to use enclosing brackets around the authors' names and refer to the article as part of a natural sentence (year should however normally remains enclosed). The same holds for multiple authors.

Social representations theory posits that reified scientific knowledge that exists at the boundaries of a given society, will be interpreted in meaningful and often simplified forms by the majority (Pauling, 2005).


Pauling (2005) posits that...

  • Two Authors, Book, Journal, Published article, conference proceedings. Authors should be presented in order that they appear in the published article. If they are cited within closed brackets, use the ampersand (&) symbol between them. If not enclosed in brackets then use expanded "and".

Social representations theory posits that reified scientific knowledge that exists at the boundaries of a given society will be interpreted in meaningful and often simplified forms by the majority (Pauling & Liu, 2005).


Pauling and Liu (2005) posit that...

  • Three or More Authors, Book, Journal, Published Article, Conference proceedings. At this point ambiguities and problems over various journals' interpretations and enforcement of various APA styles and editions becomes apparent. With three or more authors, it is expected that the first reference to an article contains all authors. Subsequent citations in the same document may refer to the article by the principal author only plus "et al." The general format is Author 1, Author 2, ... Author N & Author N + 1, normally in the order they appear in the publication, but sometimes listing the principle author, then the others in alphabetical order. The number of authors required for invoking the "et al. rule" is also often misused and misunderstood. (Note the reference section must contain ALL authors)

First Instance

Social representations theory posits that reified scientific knowledge that exists at the boundaries of a given society, will be interpreted in meaningful and often simplified forms by the majority (Pauling, Liu & Guo, 2005).


Pauling, Liu and Guo(2005) posit...

Subsequent instances in the same document

Pauling, et al. (2005) posit...


(Pauling et al., 2005)

  • Multiple publications same author

If an author has multiple publications which you wish to cite, you use a semi colon (;) to separate the years of publication in chronological order (oldest to most recent). If the publications occur in the same year, then you must denote this, using a suffix "a" or "b" is common (note you must also ensure that the "year field" in the reference section also contains the same suffix). For multiple authors, follow the same rules.

...majority (Pauling, 2004; 2005)


Pauling (2004; 2005) suggests that...

  • Multiple publications different authors

Follow the rules above as for same author, using a semicolon to separate articles. Citation should first be in Alphabetical order of the Author, then chronological.

...majority (Alford, 1995; Pauling, 2004; 2005; Sirkis, 2003)

Reference list at the end of the article[]

The reference list at the end of the article should provide full references for material cited in the text. Where more than two authors are listed use et al but list all authors on the reference record page Links placed around Author {date} link to the record page for that reference. See below.

The APA style guide asserts that bibliographies and other lists of names should be ordered by surname first, and mandates inclusion of surname prefixes. For example, "Martin de Rijke" should be sorted as "de Rijke, M.".

Book by One Author:
Sherman, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.

Book by Two Authors:
Kurosawa, J., & Armistead, Q. (1972). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.

Book by More Than Two Authors:
Doe, J., et al (1972). Group dynamics in the old school. London University Press.

Article in an Edited Book:
Stanz, R. F. (1983). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). Place: Publisher.

Article in a Journal with Continuous Pagination:
Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Sarnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54. 66–146.

Article in a Journal Paginated Separately:
Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.

Article in a Monthly Magazine:
Doe, J. (2001, May). My life as a grocery-store delivery boy. Hot & Steamy Letters, pp.81–85+.

Article in a Newspaper
Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). Misquotes are "Problematastic" says Mayor. Toronto Sol. p.4.

Government Document
Revenue Canada. (2001) Advanced gouging: Manual for employees (MP 65–347/1124). Ottawa: Minister of Immigration and Revenue.

Internet Article Based on a Print Source
Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124.

Article in an Internet-only Journal
Blofeld, H. V. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from

Article in an Internet-only Newsletter
Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., et al. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the beaten path,7(3). Retrieved October 3, 1999, from

Stand-alone Internet document, no author identified, no date
What I did today. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from

Document available on university program or department Web site
Rogers, B. (2078). Faster-than-light travel: What we've learned in the first twenty years. Retrieved August 24, 2079, from Mars University, Institute for Martian Studies Web site:

Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Costanza, G., Seinfeld, J., Bennes, E., Kramer, C., & Peterman, J. (1993). Minutiæ and insignificant observations from the nineteen-nineties. Journal about Nothing, 52, 475–649. Retrieved October 31, 1999, from NoTHINGJournals database.

Monterey, Allison (personal communication, September 28, 2001)

Book on CD
Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.

Book on Tape
Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.

The record page for each paper referenced[]

The author date link takes you to a detailed record page for that reference which will include a link to full text or summary. It also, as an innovation, provides a space to discuss the paper and to place it in its historical context provide a space to evaluate the paper.

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·

Full reference for the paper:

Links for this paper: eg to full text or MEDLINE summary on PubMed etc

History behind the study: e.g.Why it was conducted. How the ideas came into being. The research group generating the work. Funding for the work.

Commentary on this paper by the author/s:

Commentary on this paper by others:

Please copy and paste this format to your own references and amend as necessary

How to link scientific paper references to summary or full text[]

There seems to be no problem linking to a full text article elsewhere on the web in a straight forward way using enclosing the full http: reference in only one set ofsquare bracets [].

Linking to the major databases seems more problematic. If the database assigns a stable code to each reference article then we seem to be able to access it with the input of just one password eg Proquest.As long as the cookie issued with that password is active we can continue to access the item. On the AIDS page copied from Wikipedia the PMID template call links articles to PubMed based on a number indexed for Medline. The cite journal and cite Web templates dont seem to work yet but once they are sorted this looks the way forward.

One format for a PubMed link is this:

Where uids = the PMID: 7919117 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] number

However some databases, say PsycINFO seem to allocate addresses on a dynamic basis and these are not reliably retained across sessions. This is of course a propietry database. Further research is required on this point and you can build on this article or use the discussion pages to make points.

To see what is possible look at Somatostatin note the different databases referencing the hormone. Click on the link to the EntrezGene and other genetic databases. This type of facility is going to be a powerful way for us to integrate our knowledge into a broader framework.

The record page for each book referenced[]

The author date link takes you to a detailed record page for that book which will include a link via the ISBN number to a number of book selling sites, notably Amazon. This of course not only gives you superficial details of the book but increasingly:

  • Copy of the copyright page
  • Table of contents
  • Excerpts
  • Copy of the index
  • Links to details of other books cited in this book
  • Details of who else has cited this book
  • List of statistically improbable phrases, SIPs
  • Readability statistcs including Fog index, Flesch index and Flesch-Kincaid index

The record page also provides a link to the libraries who have catalogued this book and are linked to Here you can search for local libraries, near to your postcode, that stock the book. This service is currently patchy but one imagines that in 5 - 10 years time most library catalogues will have been integrated.

The software in the Wiki recognises ISBN codes written in the form ISBNspace 1234567891 123456789x and makes the links automatically.

Please note no financial gain comes to anyone associated with The Psychology Wiki as a result of any click-throughs or purchases. Wikicities presumably benefit and this revenue stream contributes to their ability to host and technically run the site.

See also[]