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The UN Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, childbirth, and other factors for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. The index was developed in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and has been used since 1993 by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report.

The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:

• A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth.
• Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weight).
• A decent standard of living, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) in USD.

Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it, as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital) or discouraging emigration.

An alternative measure, focusing on the amount of poverty in a country, is the Human Poverty Index.

## Method used to calculate the Human Development Index

In general to transform a raw variable, say ${\displaystyle x}$, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

• ${\displaystyle x}$-index = ${\displaystyle \frac{x - \min\left(x\right)} {\max\left(x\right)-\min\left(x\right)}}$

where ${\displaystyle \min\left(x\right)}$ and ${\displaystyle \max\left(x\right)}$ are the lowest and highest values the variable ${\displaystyle x}$ can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the average of the following three general indices:

• Life Expectancy Index = ${\displaystyle \frac{LE - 25} {85-25}}$
• Education Index = ${\displaystyle \frac{2} {3} \times ALI + \frac{1} {3} \times GEI}$
• Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = ${\displaystyle \frac{ALR} {100}}$
• Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) = ${\displaystyle \frac{CGER} {100}}$
• GDP Index = ${\displaystyle \frac{\log\left(GDPpc\right) - \log\left(100\right)} {\log\left(40000\right) - \log\left(100\right)}}$

LE: Life expectancy
ALR: Adult literacy rate
CGER: Combined gross enrollment ratio
GDPpc: GNP per capita at PPP in USD

## 2005 report

The report for 2005 shows that, in general, the HDI for countries around the world is improving, with two major exceptions: Post-Soviet states, and Sub-Saharan Africa, both of which show steady decline. Worsening education, economies, and mortality rates have contributed to HDI declines amongst countries in the first group, while HIV/AIDS and concomitant mortality is the principal cause of decline in the second group.

Most of the data used for the 2005 report, indicating country HDIs for 2003, are derived largely from 2003 or earlier. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics. Notable absences from the list (excluding micro-states) are Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Serbia and Montenegro, and Somalia. While these countries are either unwilling or unable to provide data, they are generally considered countries of medium to low human development.

An HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent low development and 30 of the 32 countries in that category are located in Africa, with the exceptions of Haiti and Yemen. The bottom ten countries are all in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan country, South Africa, is ranked 120th (with an HDI of 0.658), which is well above most other countries in the region.

An HDI 0.8 or more is considered to represent high development. This includes countries of northern and western Europe, Australia, Israel, Canada, the United States, and Japan. Other countries that exhibit high human development amidst countries with lower HDIs include (with their position) South Korea (28th), Costa Rica (47th), Cuba (52nd), and Panama (56th).

### Top thirty countries (HDI range from 0.963 down to 0.878)

 [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Norway|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Norway]] [[Template:Country alias Norway|Template:Country shortname alias Norway]] (=) Template:Country data Iceland (↑ 5) Template:Country data Australia (=) Template:Country data Luxembourg (↑ 11) Template:Country data Canada (↓ 1) Template:Country data Sweden (↓ 4) REDIRECT Template:CHE (↑ 4) Template:Country data Republic of Ireland (↑ 2) Template:Country data Belgium (↓ 3) Template:Country data United States (↓ 2) Template:Country data Japan (↓ 2) Template:Country data Netherlands (↓ 7) Template:Country data Finland (=) REDIRECT Template:DNK (↑ 3) Template:Country flag2 (↓ 3) Template:Country data France (=) Template:Country flag2 (↓ 3) Template:Country data Italy (↑ 3) Template:Country data New Zealand (↓ 1) REDIRECT Template:DEU (↓ 1) Template:Country data Spain (↓ 1) [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Hong Kong|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Hong Kong]] [[Template:Country alias Hong Kong|Template:Country shortname alias Hong Kong]] (↑ 1) Template:Country data Israel (↓ 1) Template:Country data Greece (=) REDIRECT Template:SGP (=) Template:Country data Slovenia (↑ 1) REDIRECT Template:PRT (↓ 1) [[Image:Template:Country flag alias South Korea|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias South Korea]] [[Template:Country alias South Korea|Template:Country shortname alias South Korea]] (=) Template:Country data Cyprus (↑ 1) REDIRECT Template:BRB (↓ 1)

### Bottom ten countries (HDI range from 0.281 up to 0.379)

1. Template:Country data Mozambique (↑ 3)
2. Template:Country data Burundi (↑ 4)
3. Template:Country data Ethiopia (=)
4. Template:Country data Central African Republic (↓ 2)
1. REDIRECT Template:GNB
(=)
1. REDIRECT Template:TCD
(↓ 6)
5. Template:Country data Mali (=)
6. Template:Country data Burkina Faso (=)
7. Template:Country data Sierra Leone (↑ 1)
1. REDIRECT Template:NER
(?)

### Top/bottom three countries by region

#### Africa

51.

1. REDIRECT Template:SYC
(↓ 16)


58.

1. REDIRECT Template:LBY
(=)


65.

1. REDIRECT Template:MUS
(↓ 1)


...
175. Template:Country data Burkina Faso

(=)


176. Template:Country data Sierra Leone

(↑ 1)


177.

1. REDIRECT Template:NER
(↓ 1)


#### Asia

11. Template:Country data Japan

(↓ 2)


22. [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Hong Kong|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Hong Kong]] [[Template:Country alias Hong Kong|Template:Country shortname alias Hong Kong]] (↑ 1)
23. Template:Country data Israel

(↓ 1)


...
139.

1. REDIRECT Template:BGD
(↓ 1)


140. Template:E TIMOR (↑ 18)
151. Template:Country data Yemen

(↓ 2)


#### Europe

1. [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Norway|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Norway]] [[Template:Country alias Norway|Template:Country shortname alias Norway]] (=)
2. Template:Country data Iceland

(↑ 5)


4. Template:Country data Luxembourg

(↑ 11)


...
100. Template:Country data Georgia

(↓ 3)


101. Template:Country data Azerbaijan

(↓ 10)


115. Template:MOL (↓ 2)

#### North America

5. Template:Country data Canada

(↓ 1)


10. Template:Country data United States

(↓ 2)


30.

1. REDIRECT Template:BRB
(↓ 1)


...
116.

1. REDIRECT Template:HND
(↓ 1)


117.

1. REDIRECT Template:GTM
(↑ 4)


153.

1. REDIRECT Template:HTI
(=)


#### Oceania

3. Template:Country data Australia

(=)


19. Template:Country data New Zealand

(↓ 1)


54.

1. REDIRECT Template:TON
(↑ 9)


...
118.

1. REDIRECT Template:VUT
(↑ 11)


128.

1. REDIRECT Template:SLB
(↓ 4)


137. Template:Country data Papua New Guinea

(↓ 4)


#### South America

34. Template:Country data Argentina

(=)


37.

1. REDIRECT Template:CHL
(↑ 8)


46. Template:Country data Uruguay

(=)


...
88.

1. REDIRECT Template:PRY
(↑ 1)


107. Template:Country data Guyana

(↓ 3)


113. Template:Country data Bolivia

(↑ 1)


## Past top countries

The number one ranked country in each year of the index.

 2004 – Norway 2003 – Norway 2002 – Norway 2001 – Norway 2000 – Canada 1999 – Canada 1998 – Canada 1997 – Canada 1996 – Canada 1995 – Canada 1994 – Canada 1993 – Japan 1992 – Canada 1991 – Japan 1990 – Canada 1985 – Canada 1980 – Switzerland

## Countries not included

The following countries or territories are not ranked in the 2005 Human Development Index, for being unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data.

 Liberia Somalia Andorra Liechtenstein Monaco San Marino Vatican City Serbia and Montenegro Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Palau Tuvalu

* The Republic of China (Taiwan) has calculated its HDI to be 0.910 for 2003 based on the following data: life expectancy of 76.1 years, adult literacy rate of 97.0%, combined gross enrolment rate of 97%, and GDP per capita (PPP) of US\$23,911. If included among UN HDI figures, Taiwan would rank 25th: behind Greece and in front of Singapore. [1]