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Ingratiation is a type of impression management behaviour displayed to try to win the approval of those observing.

Edward Ellsworth Jones identified three main tactics of ingratiators in addition to the obvious one of doing favours for the target:

  • Other-enhancement - They flatter and complement the person they are trying to win favour with
  • Opinion conformity - They pretend to share the same views and values and attitudes of the target person.
  • Biased self presentation- Ingratiators maximize the positive features and minimize their negative ones in communication with the target.

Research indicates that these tactics are effective in facilitating positive social regard.

See also

References & Bibliography

Key texts


  • Jones,EE (1964) Ingratiation: a social psychological analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts.


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