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Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.
Terms ending in the suffix -sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization.
Structural classification names and divides joints according to how the bones are connected to each other. There are three structural classifications of joints:
- fibrous joint - joined by fibrous connective tissue
- cartilaginous joint - joined by cartilage
- synovial joint - not directly joined
Joints can also be classified functionally, by the degree of mobility they allow:
- synarthrosis - permits little or no mobility. Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints.
- amphiarthrosis - permits slight mobility. Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints.
- diarthrosis - permits a variety of movements. All diarthrosis joints are synovial joints, and the terms "diarthrosis" and "synovial joint" are considered equivalent by Terminologia Anatomica.
Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:
- Simple Joint: 2 articulation surfaces (eg. shoulder joint, hip joint)
- Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation surfaces (eg. radiocarpal joint)
- Complex Joint: 2 or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (eg. knee joint)
The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:
- articulations of hand
- Elbow (Anatomy)
- axillary articulations
- sternoclavicular joints
- vertebral articulations
- temporomandibular joints
- sacroiliac joints
- hip joints
- articulations of foot
- Main article: Arthritis
Arthritis and direct physical trauma to a joint are the causes of joint damage. Arthritis is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55.
There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease) occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.
- eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup!. URL accessed on 2008-01-29.
- Ellis, Harold; Susan Standring; Gray, Henry David (2005). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice, 38, St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
- Module - Introduction to Joints. URL accessed on 2008-01-29.
- Module - Introduction to Joints. URL accessed on 2008-01-29.
- Dorlands/Elsevier d_15/12293929
- Introductory Anatomy: Joints. URL accessed on 2008-01-29.
|Types of joints||
Amphiarthrosis - Symphysis - Gomphosis - Synovial joint (Hinge joint, Pivot joint, Condyloid joint, Saddle joint, Ball and socket joint, Gliding joint)
Joints and ligaments of Head and Neck
anterior atlantoaxial ligament - posterior atlantoaxial ligament - cruciform ligament of atlas (transverse ligament of the atlas)
anterior atlantoöccipital membrane - posterior atlantoöccipital membrane - tectorial membrane - alar ligament - ligament of apex dentis
capsule - temporomandibular ligament - sphenomandibular ligament - stylomandibular ligament - articular disk
Joints and ligaments of upper limbs
sternoclavicular: anterior sternoclavicular - posterior sternoclavicular - interclavicular - costoclavicular
acromioclavicular: acromioclavicular - coracoclavicular (trapezoid, conoid) - coracoacromial - superior transverse scapular - inferior transverse of scapula
glenohumeral: coracohumeral - glenohumeral (superior, middle, and inferior) - transverse humeral - glenoid labrum
proximal radioulnar, humeroradial, humeroulnar: ulnar collateral - radial collateral - annular - oblique cord
distal radioulnar: volar radioulnar - dorsal radioulnar
wrist/radiocarpal: palmar radiocarpal - dorsal radiocarpal - ulnar collateral - radial collateral
intercarpal, midcarpal: pisohamate ligament - pisometacarpal ligament
carpometacarpal: dorsal carpometacarpal - palmar carpometacarpal
intermetacarpal: deep transverse metacarpal - superficial transverse metacarpal
Joints and ligaments of torso
articulations of vertebral bodies: anterior longitudinal ligament - posterior longitudinal ligament - intervertebral disc (annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus)
articulations of vertebral arches : ligamenta flava - supraspinous ligament (nuchal ligament) - interspinal ligament - intertransverse ligament
articulation of head of rib: radiate ligament - interarticular ligament
interarticular sternocostal ligament - radiate sternocostal ligaments - costoxiphoid ligaments
articulation of the vertebral column with the pelvis: iliolumbar ligament
sacroiliac: anterior sacroiliac ligament - posterior sacroiliac ligament - interosseous sacroiliac ligament
ligaments connecting the sacrum and ischium: sacrotuberous ligament - sacrospinous ligament
sacrococcygeal symphysis: anterior sacrococcygeal ligament - posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
pubic symphysis: superior pubic ligament - inferior pubic ligament
Joints and ligaments of lower limbs
iliofemoral - pubofemoral - ischiofemoral - head of femur - transverse acetabular
patellar - popliteal (oblique, arcuate) - collateral (medial/tibial, lateral/fibular) - cruciate (anterior, posterior) - menisci (medial, lateral)
Superior tibiofibular: anterior of the head of the fibula - posterior of the head of the fibula
deltoid - external lateral of the ankle-joint (anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, calcaneofibular)
|Foot - intertarsal||
Subtalar/talocalcaneal: anterior talocalcaneal - posterior talocalcaneal - lateral talocalcaneal - medial talocalcaneal - interosseous talocalcaneal
|Foot - other||
Cuneonavicular, Cuboideonavicular, Intercuneiform and cuneocuboid, Tarsometatarsal/Lisfranc, Intermetatarsal, Metatarsophalangeal, Interphalangeal
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