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Psychology of music: Cognition · Ability · Training · Emotion

Music education
Treble clef.svg
Major instructional methodologies
Kodály Method - Orff Schulwerk - Dalcroze method - Suzuki method
Instructional settings
General music instruction - Extracurricular - Ensemble

Chorus - Concert band - Marching band - Orchestra

International organizations
International Society for Music Education
International Association for Jazz Education
Organization of Kodaly Educators
National organizations in the United States
National Association for Music Education - Music Teachers National Association - American Choral Directors Association - American String Teachers Association - American School Band Directors Association

The Kodály Method

The Kodály Method is an approach to music education which was developed in Hungary during the mid-twentieth century. Though named after Hungarian composer and educator Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967), the method itself was not created by him. His philosophies of education served as inspiration for the method, which was then developed over a number or years by his associates.


Kodály became interested in the music education of children in 1925 when he overheard some students singing songs they had learned in school. Kodály was appalled at the quality of these songs, and was inspired to do something to improve the system of music education in Hungary (Eösze 1962:69-70). He wrote a number of controversial articles, columns, and essays to raise awareness about this issue (74). In his writings, Kodály criticized the schools for using poor-quality music and for only teaching music in the secondary grades (72). Kodály insisted that the music education system needed better teachers, better curriculum, and more class time devoted to music (Dobszay 1972:30).

Kodály’s efforts finally bore fruit in 1945 when the new Hungarian government began to implement his ideas in the public schools (Eösze 1962:74). Socialist control of the educational system facilitated the establishment of Kodály’s methods nationwide (Landis 1972:64). The first music primary school, in which music was taught daily, opened in 1950. The school was so successful that over one hundred music primary schools opened within the next decade (Eösze 1962:79). After about fifteen years approximately 50% of the schools in Hungary were music schools (Russell-Smith 1967:44).

Kodály’s success eventually spilled outside of Hungarian borders. Kodály’s method was first presented to the international community in 1958 at a conference of the International Society for Music Educators (I.S.M.E.) held in Vienna. Another I.S.M.E. conference in Budapest in 1964 allowed participants to see Kodály’s work first-hand, causing a surge of interest. Music educators from all over the world traveled to Hungary to visit Kodály’s music schools (Choksy 1999:4). The first symposium dedicated solely to the Kodály method was held in Oakland, California in 1973; it was at this event that the International Kodály Society was inaugurated (6). Today Kodály-based methods are used throughout the world (DeVries 2001:24).


At the heart of the Kodály Method is Kodály’s belief that music literacy is the right of every human being. Kodály stressed that anyone who is capable of reading language is also capable of reading music (Choksy 1999:16). He urged that music education be accessible to everyone, not just to the musically gifted (Landis 1972:41). He felt that no education could be complete without music, and that it was therefore the schools’ obligation to offer quality music instruction. Kodály stressed that music be taught daily as a part of the core curriculum and given equal importance as to language and mathematics (Choksy 1999:16).

Kodály believed that, to be effective, musical learning must begin with singing (Choksy 1981:7). He stressed that only through use of the voice could the musical ear be developed (Dobszay 1972:25). Even instrumentalists, Kodály argued, must begin their musical training with singing in order to gain an understanding of music outside the mechanics of their instrument (Eösze 1962:80). Kodály recommended that instrumental instruction not begin until a student has achieved a certain level of musical literacy (Landis 1972:40).

Kodály was of the opinion that, in order for a child to fully realize his or her musical potential, it is necessary that he or she begin musical training at an early age (Choksy 1981:7). Kodály emphasized that children must learn to read music at the same time as they learn to read language (Russell-Smith 1967:43). Kodály felt that children between ages three and seven are most sensitive to music, and therefore good musical instruction is crucial at this time if the musical ear is to be fully developed (DeVries 2001:25). Kodály recommended that musical training begin no later than in Kindergarten and the primary grades (Choksy 1981:7).

Also central to the Kodály Method is the philosophy that, as a child naturally learns his mother tongue before learning foreign languages, so should he learn his musical mother tongue, that is, the folk music of his native language, before learning foreign music (Choksy 1999:2). Kodály believed that the use of native folk music is most valuable in helping children develop basic music skills because of its familiarity to children through real-life musical experiences (Landis 1972:62).

Kodály also believed that only music of the highest quality should be used in the education of children (Choksy 1981:8). He felt that children are more sensitive to art than adults, and would therefore only reach their full potential through the use of the finest music (Landis 1972:60). Kodály expressed distaste for the inferior “educational music” used in the schools, claiming that exposure to this type of music as a child would prevent one from being able to appreciate high-quality music as an adult (61). He stressed that no composer should feel that he is too great to write children’s music; on the contrary, he must strive to be good enough to do so (Russell-Smith 1967:43-44).


Using these principles as a foundation, Kodály’s colleagues, friends, and most talented students developed the actual pedagogy which is now called the Kodály Method (Choksy 1981:8). Many of the techniques used were adapted from existing methods (Choksy 1999:15). The creators of the Kodály Method researched music educational techniques used throughout the world and incorporated those which they felt were the best and most suited for use in Hungary (Choksy 1981:9).

Child-Developmental Approach

The Kodály Method uses a child-developmental approach to sequence, introducing skills in accordance with the capabilities of the child (Choksy 1999:10). New concepts are introduced beginning with that which is easiest for the child and progressing to that which is more difficult (Landis 1972:56). Children are first introduced to musical concepts through experiences such as listening, singing, or movement (Wheeler 1985:12). It is only after the child becomes familiar with a concept that he or she learns how to notate it (Landis 1972:46). Concepts are constantly reviewed and reinforced through games, movement, songs, and exercises (58).

Rhythm Syllables

The Kodály Method incorporates rhythm syllables similar to those created by nineteenth-century French theoretician Emile-Joseph Chêvé (Choksy 1999:16). In this system, note values are assigned specific syllables which literally express their durations (12). For example, quarter notes are expressed by the syllable ta while eighth note pairs are expressed using the naturally shorter syllables ti-ti. Larger note values are expressed by extending ta to become ta-a (half note), ta-a-a (dotted-half note), and ta-a-a-a (whole note) (Wheeler 1985:13). These syllables are then used when sight-reading or otherwise performing rhythms.

Rhythm and Movement

The Kodály Method also includes the use of rhythmic movement, a technique inspired by the work of Swiss music educator Emile-Jaques-Dalcroze (Choksy 1981:10). Kodály was familiar with Dalcroze’s techniques and agreed that movement is an important tool for the internalization of rhythm (Landis 1972:42). To reinforce new rhythmic concepts, the Kodály Method uses a variety of rhythmic movements, such as walking, running, marching, and clapping. These may be performed while listening to music or singing. Some singing exercises call for the teacher to invent appropriate rhythmic movements to accompany the songs (43).

Rhythm Sequence and Notation

Rhythmic concepts are introduced in a child-developmentally appropriate manner. The first rhythmic values taught are quarter notes and eighth notes, which are familiar to children as the rhythms of their own walking and running (Choksy 1999:10). Rhythms are first experienced by listening, speaking in rhythm syllables, singing, and performing various kinds of rhythmic movement. Only after students internalize these rhythms is notation introduced. The Kodály Method uses a simplified method of rhythmic notation, writing note heads only when necessary, such as for half notes and whole notes (13).

Movable-Do Solfege

The Kodály Method uses a system of movable-do solfege syllables, in which, during sight-singing, scale degrees are sung using corresponding syllable names (do, re, mi, fa, so, la, and ti). The syllables show function within the key and the relationships between pitches, not absolute pitch (Landis 1972:45). Kodály was first exposed to this technique while visiting England, where a movable-do system created by John Curwen was being used nationwide as a part of choral training (Landis 44). Kodály found movable-do solfege to be helpful in developing a sense of tonal function, thus improving students’ sight-singing abilities (Choksy 1981:8). Kodály felt that movable-do solfege should precede acquaintance with the staff, and developed a type of short-hand using solfege initials with simplified rhythmic notation (Choksy 1999:14).

Melodic Sequence and Pentatony

Scale degrees are introduced in accordance with child-developmental patterns. The first Kodály exercise books were based on the diatonic scale (Choksy 1999:3), but educators soon found that children struggled to sing half notes in tune and to navigate within such a wide range (11). It is thus that the pentatonic scale came to be used as a sort of stepping stone (9-10). Revised Kodály exercises begin with the minor third (so-mi) and then, one at a time, add la, do, and re. Only after children become comfortable with these pitches are fa and ti introduced, a much simpler feat when taught in relation to the already established pentatonic scale (12).

Hand Signs

Hand signs, also borrowed from the teachings of Curwen, are performed during singing exercises to provide a visual aid. This technique assigns to each scale degree a hand sign which shows its particular tonal function. For example, do, mi, and so are stable in appearance, whereas fa and ti point in the direction of mi and do, respectively. Likewise, the hand sign for re suggests motion to do, and that of la to so. Kodály added to Curwen’s hand signs upward/downward movement, allowing children to actually see the height or depth of the pitch (Wheeler 1985:15). The signs are made in front of the body, with do falling about at waist level and la at eye level. Their distance in space corresponds with the size of the interval they represent (Choksy 1999:14).


Kodály Method materials are drawn strictly from two sources: authentic folk music and good-quality composed music (that of recognized composers) (Choksy 1999:16). Folk music was thought to be an ideal vehicle for early musical training because of its short forms, pentatonic style, and simple language (2). Of the classical repertoire, elementary students sing works of major composers of the Baroque, Classical music era, and Romantic eras, while secondary-level students sing music from the twentieth century as well (16).

Kodály collected, composed, and arranged a large number of works for pedagogical use (Young 1964:83). Along with Béla Bartók and other associates, Kodály collected and published six volumes of Hungarian folk music, including over one thousand children’s songs. Much of this literature was used in Kodály Method songbooks and textbooks (Choksy 1999:15). High quality music was needed in short and simple forms in order to bridge the gap between folk music and classical works (2). For this purpose, Kodály composed literally thousands of songs and sight-singing exercises, making up sixteen educational publications, six of which contain multiple volumes of over one hundred exercises each (Eösze 1972:69). Kodály’s complete pedagogical works are published collectively by Boosey and Hawkes as The Kodály Choral Method (Eösze/Houlahan 2006).


Studies have shown that the Kodály Method improves intonation, rhythm skills, music literacy, and the ability to sing in increasingly complex parts (DeVries 2001:24). Outside of music, it has been shown to improve perceptual functioning, concept formation, motor skills, and performance in other academic areas such as reading and math (25). Some, however, have criticized the method for preventing students from learning conventional staff notation (Eösze 1972:81). Still, the Kodály Method remains widely-used in the field of music education.


Choksy, Lois. The Kodály Context: Creating an Environment for Musical Learning. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1981.

Choksy, Lois. The Kodály Method I: Comprehensive Music Education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

DeVries, Peter. “Reevaluating Common Kodaly Practices.” Music Educators Journal 88:3 (November 2001) 24-27. [1]

Dobszay, L. “The Kodaly Method and Its Musical Basis.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 14:¼ (1972) 15-33. [2]

Eösze, László. Zoltán Kodály: His Life and Work. Trans. István Farkas and Gyula Gulyás. London: Collet’s, 1962.

Eösze, László/Mícheál Houlahan, Philip Tacka: ‘Kodály, Zoltán’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 26 November 2006), [3]

Kodály, Zoltán. Let Us Sing Correctly. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1965.

Kodály, Zoltán. The Selected Writings of Zoltán Kodály. Trans. Lily Halápy and Fred Macnicol. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1974.

Kodály, Zoltán. 333 Elementary Exercises. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1965.

Landis, Beth. The Eclectic Curriculum in American Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly, and Orff. Washington: Music Educators National Conference, 1972.

Russell-Smith, Geoffry. “Introducing Kodaly Principles into Elementary Teaching.” Music Educators Journal 54:3 (November 1967) 43-46. [4]

Shehan, Patricia K. “Major Approaches to Music Education: An Account of Method.” Music Educator’s Journal 72:6 (February 1986) 26-31. [5]

Turpin, Douglas. “Kodaly, Dalcroze, Orff, and Suzuki: Application in the Secondary Schools.” Music Educators Journal 72:6 (February 1986) 56-59. [6]

Wheeler, Lawrence. Orff and Kodaly: Adapted for the Elementary School. 3rd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1985.

Young, Percy. Zoltán Kodály: A Hungarian Musician. London: Ernest Benn, 1964.

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