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This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

Revisions and sourced additions are welcome.

Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s)
Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1] Subscription EBSCO Publishing


Aerospace & High Technology Database Aerospace, Aeronautics, Astronautics Subscription ProQuest


AJOL: African Journals OnLine Multidisciplinary Scholarly journals published in Africa[4] Template:Partial African Journals OnLine


AgeLine Sociology, Gerontology Includes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy. Subscription EBSCO Publishing


AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access Agriculture Template:Partial Produced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by Proquest,[8] OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural database Agriculture Covers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

Free Produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti Inc Multidisciplinary China, Taiwan. Subscription Airiti Inc


Analytical Abstracts Chemistry Subscription Royal Society of Chemistry


Analytical sciences digital library Analytical chemistry Free National Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index Online Anthropology Index only (no abstracts or full-text). Free Royal Anthropological Institute


Anthropological Literature Anthropology Template:Partial Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
Arachne Archaeology, Art history German language Free German Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
Arnetminer Computer Science Online service used to index and search academic social networks Free Tsinghua University


Arts & Humanities Citation Index Arts, Humanities Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters


arXiv Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and Statistics Free Cornell University


Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Computer Science, Engineering Subscription Association for Computing Machinery


Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics, Geophysics, Physics Free Harvard University


ATLA Religion Database Religious studies Provides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issues Subscription [21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Military Science Free Air University


BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine Multidisciplinary Free Bielefeld University


Beilstein database Organic chemistry Subscription Available from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[24]
Biological Abstracts Biology A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally. Subscription Available from Thomson Reuters[25]
BioOne Biology, Ecology, and Environmental Science An aggregation of over 78,000 peer-reviewed, full-text articles on current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences, Entomology, Ornithology, and Zoology. Template:Partial Available from BioOne[26]
Bioinformatic Harvester Biology, Bioinformatics A meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects. Free Available from Liebel-Lab [1] KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [2]
Book Review Index Online Book reviews Subscription Thomson Gale


Books In Print Books Subscription R.R. Bowker


CAB Abstracts Applied Life Sciences Bibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature. Subscription CABI


Chemical Abstracts Service Chemistry Subscription American Chemical Society


ChemXSeer Chemistry Free Pennsylvania State University


Chinese Social Science Citation Index Social sciences Subscription Nanjing University


Cochrane Library Medicine, Healthcare Includes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare. Subscription Wiley Interscience


CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Nursing, Allied Health Subscription EBSCO


CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database Medicine Free University of Calgary


Citebase Search Mathematics, Computer science, Physics Semi-autonomous citation index of free online research Free University of Southampton


CiteULike Computer science Free
CiteSeer Computer Science Replaced by CiteSeerX. Free Pennsylvania State University


CiteSeerX Computer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming Multidisciplinary Free Pennsylvania State University


CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archives Science (General) Free University of Southampton


The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Computer science Free Alf-Christian Achilles


Compendex Engineering Electronic version of Engineering Index. Subscription Elsevier


Current Index to Statistics Statistics Limited free search[42] Subscription American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[43]
Current Contents Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Knowledge. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Subscription Thomson Reuters


Directory of Open Access Journals Journals Free Lund University


DBLP Computer science Comprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journals Free University of Trier, Germany
EconLit Economics The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature. Subscription Produced by the American Economic Association.[46] Available from CSA, DIALOG, OCLC, OVID, and AEA.[47]
EMBASE Biomedicine, Pharmacology Biomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research. Subscription Elsevier


ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center Education Education literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966. Free Produced by the United States Department of Education.[49] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Food Science and Technology Abstracts Food science, Food technology, Nutrition The world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutrition Subscription Produced by the International Food Information Service. Access provided by OVID, Web of Knowledge, Dialog, DataStar and STN International[50]
GENESIS Women's history Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites. Free London Metropolitan University


Global Health Public Health Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing datatabase dedicated to public health research and practice. Subscription CABI


Google Scholar Multidisciplinary Free Google


GoPubMed Medicine GoPubMed, the first knowledge-based search engine for the life sciences industry. Free Transinsight


HubMed Medicine An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database Free Alf Eaton


IEEE Xplore Computer Science, Engineering, Electronics Subscription IEEE


Index Copernicus Multidisciplinary science Scientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[57] Free Index Copernicus International[58]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information Multidisciplinary The Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[59]
Informit Multidisciplinary Australasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journals N/A RMIT Publishing


IngentaConnect Multidisciplinary Template:Partial Ingenta


Indian Citation Index Multidisciplinary Indian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc. Subscription ICI


Inspec Physics, Engineering, Computer Science The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering. Subscription IET


International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries. Template:Partial Philosophy Documentation Center


Intute Multidisciplinary Serves students, teachers, and researchers in UK further education and higher education, offering a selection of around 300,000 academic websites which have been hand-picked and described by subject specialists. Free Intute


JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Template:Partial JournalSeek


JSTOR: Journal Storage Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription JSTOR


JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Template:Partial JournalSeek


Lesson Planet Education (K-12) Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles. Template:Partial Lesson Planet


LexisNexis Law (general) Electronic database for legal and public-records related information Subscription Reed Elsevier
MathSciNet Mathematics Available in print as Mathematical Reviews Subscription American Mathematical Society


MedlinePlus Medicine Free Produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[70]
Mendeley Multidisciplinary The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and or web crawls. Free Mendeley


Merck Index Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology Also available in print. Subscription Produced by Merck & Co.. Available from CambridgeSoft Corporation, Dialog, Knovel, MedicinesComplete, STN International[72]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts Meteorology, Astrophysics, Geology Subscription Produced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[73] and CSA.[74]
Microsoft Academic Search Computer Science and a limited extent on information science Provides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[75] Free Microsoft
NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research Economics Free National Bureau of Economic Research


National Criminal Justice Reference Service


Criminology, Sociology Abstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedings Free United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[78]
National Diet Library Collection Multidisciplinary Japanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan. N/A National Diet Library


OAIster Multidisciplinary Free OCLC


Open J-Gate Journals Index of open access journals Free Informatics India


OpenSIGLE Grey literature Indexes European grey literature. Free Institut de l'information scientifique et technique


Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Applied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studies Journals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online. Template:Partial Philosophy Documentation Center


Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Index of books, journals, disserations, and other documents Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center


PhilPapers Philosophy Free PhilPapers


POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy, applied ethics, religious studies Journals and series, online access for institutions with print Template:Partial Philosophy Documentation Center


PsychSpider Psychology Psychology Search Engine Free Provided by the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information.[85]
PsycINFO Psychology The largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 2.6 million citations and summaries dating as far back as the early 19th century. Subscription Produced by the APA.[86] Available from several database vendors.[87]
Pubget Multidisciplinary Subscription Pubget
PubMed Biomedical Free National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[88]
PubChem Chemistry Free National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[89]
Questia: Online Research Library Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription Questia


Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Journals and Magazines Coverage: 1983–present. Subscription H. W. Wilson Company


Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982 Journals and Magazines Subscription H. W. Wilson Company


RePEc: Research Papers in Economics Economics Free Volunteer Collaboration[93]
Rock's Backpages Music Primary documents from the history of rock and roll Template:Partial. Limited free access with registration. Backpages Limited[94]
Russian Science Citation Index Scientific journals A bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian. Free Scientific Electronic Library


SafetyLit Multidisciplinary Citations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm. Free Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University

[96] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[97] Multidisciplinary SciDiver is an academic paper search engine for the physical sciences.

The service currently maintains an index over arXiv, the preprint service for mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative finance and related disciplines; expansion to additional repositories is expected in the course of the site's continued development.



SciELO Journals SciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format. Free FAPESP, CNPq and BIREME Multidisciplinary A gateway to government science information and research results. provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites. Free Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for[99]
Science Accelerator Multidisciplinary A gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[100]
Science Citation Index Science (General) Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters


ScienceDirect Multidisciplinary Subscription Elsevier


Scirus Science (General) Free Elsevier


Scopus Multidisciplinary Subscription Elsevier


SearchTeam Multidisciplinary Students search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resources Free Zakta


Seek Education Multidisciplinary UK only education resources academic search engine, compiled with data from the BECTA archives. Free Seek Education.[106]
Social Science Citation Index Social science Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters


Socol@r: Socolar Multidisciplinary Scholarly open access resources in different language Template:Partial Socolar


SSRN: Social Science Research Network Social science Contains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline. Free Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[109]
SSRRN: Social Science Research Resources Network Social science Indexes datasets and statistical codes Free Social Science Research Resources Network =[110]
SPIRES-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free Stanford Linear Accelerator Center & partners[111]
SpringerLink Multidisciplinary Template:Partial Springer


Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Periodicals Subscription Proquest


VET-Bib Social Science, Education European vocational education and training (VET) literature Free European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training


Web of Knowledge Multidisciplinary Includes other products, such as Web of Science, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological Record Subscription Thomson Reuters


Web of Science Science (General) Includes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index & Science Citation Index. Subscription Thomson Reuters


WestLaw Law (General) Subscription Thomson Reuters
WorldCat Multidisciplinary Unified catalog of member libraries' catalogs Template:Partial OCLC


WorldWideScience Multidisciplinary WorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature. Free The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[118]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index Journals Japanese. N/A National Diet Library's Online Catalog,[119] MagazinePlus,[120] CiNii[121]
Zentralblatt MATH Mathematics First three records free without subscription. Subscription Springer Science+Business Media


The Zoological Record Zoology Unofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present. Subscription Thomson Reuters


See also


  1. List of EBSCO databases
  2. Academic Search Complete
  3. Aerospace & High Technology Database
  4. Rosenberg, Diana (1 January 2002). African Journals Online: improving awareness and access. Learned Publishing 15 (1): 51–57.
  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)
  6. AgeLine, EBSCO Publishing. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  7. AGRICOLA (NAL Catalog)
  8. AGRICOLA (Proquest)
  9. AGRICOLA (Ovid)
  10. Airiti Inc
  11. Analytical Abstracts
  12. Analytical Sciences Digital Library
  13. Anthropological Index Online
  14. Anthropological Literature
  15. Arachne
  17. Arts & Humanities Citation Index
  19. Association for Computing Machinery
  20. Astrophysics Data System
  21. ATLA Catalog
  22. AULIMP
  23. BASE
  24. Information and Support Site. Reaxys. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  25. Biological Abstracts at Thomson Reuters
  27. Book Review Index Online
  28. Books In Print
  29. Publishing home | CAB Abstracts. CABI. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  30. Chemical Abstracts Service
  31. ChemXSeer
  32. Chinese Social Science Citation Index (in English)
  33. Cochrane Library
  34. CINAHL
  35. Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database
  36. CiteBase
  37. CiteSeer
  38. CiteSeerX
  39. Cogprints
  40. The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
  41. Compendex
  42. Current Index to Statistics: Limited Free Search
  43. Current Index to Statistics
  44. Current Contents
  45. Directory of Open Access Journals
  46. EconLit
  47. EconLit access providers
  48. EMBASE
  49. ERIC
  50. Food Science and Technology Abstracts
  52. Publishing home | Global Health. CABI. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  53. Google Scholar
  54. GoPubMed
  55. HubMed
  56. IEEE Xplore
  57. Journal Master List
  58. Index Copernicus
  59. Information Bridge
  60. Informit
  61. IngentaConnect
  62. Indian Citation Index. Indian Citation Index. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  63. INSPEC
  64. Philosophy Documentation Center. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  65. Intute
  66. 66.0 66.1 A Searchable Database of Online Scholarly Journals. JournalSeek. URL accessed on 2012-08-26.
  67. JSTOR
  68. Lesson Planet
  69. MathSciNet
  70. MedlinePlus
  71. Mendeley Research Catalog
  72. Online versions of the Merck Index
  73. Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts at DIALOG
  74. Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts at CSA
  75. Microsoft Academic Search Help
  76. National Bureau of Economic Research
  77. NCJRS Library
  78. NCJRS
  79. Japanese National Diet Library Collection in English
  80. OAIster
  81. Open J-Gate
  82. OpenSIGLE
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 Philosophy Documentation Center
  84. PhilPapers: Philosophy Online
  85. PsychSpider English Website
  86. PsycInfo
  87. PsycINFO vendors list
  88. PubMed
  89. PubChem
  90. Questia
  91. Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature
  92. Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982
  93. RePEc
  94. Rock's Backpages
  97. World health Organization
  100. Science Accelerator
  101. Science Citation Index
  102. ScienceDirect
  103. Scirus
  104. Scopus
  105. SNew Social Search Engine Lets People Search the Web Together With Friends. URL accessed on 11 August 2011.
  107. Social Science Citation Index
  108. Socolar (Socol@r)
  109. Social Science Research Network
  110. SSRRN: Social Science Research Resources Network
  112. SpringerLink
  113. Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  114. Cedefop
  115. Web of Knowledge
  116. Web of Science
  117. WorldCat
  118. WorldWideScience
  119. Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at NDL)
  120. Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at MagazinePlus)
  121. Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at CiNii)
  122. Zentralblatt MATH
  123. Zoological Record

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