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Michael J. Apter is a research psychologist who has worked in the area of motivation. He developed reversal theory. He is currently a visiting researcher at Georgetown University.

Dr. Apter is founder and director of Apter International, which is a worldwide management consultancy company.

Biographical information


He has a doctorate from Bristol University (U.K.). While working for his doctorate he spent a year at Princeton and a year at King’s College London, as well as a term at Oxford.


He taught at the University of Wales, Cardiff for twenty years. He has been a visiting professor at Purdue, Northwestern, Chicago and Yale, and has held visiting positions in Canada, Spain, Norway, Belgium and France.

Main areas of interest

He edited one of the first books on computers and psychology with George Westby[1]

Funded grants


He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a Life Fellow of the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies.

Editorial board/consulting editor

Association affiliations

See also

  • Apter Motivational Style Profile



  • Apter, M.J. (1982) The experience of motivation: The theory of psychological reversals.London and New York: Academic Press.
  • Apter, M.J. (Ed.) (2001) Motivational Styles in Everyday Life: A Guide to Reversal Theory. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.ISBN: 1-55798-739-4
  • Apter, M.J. (2005) Personality Dynamics: Key Concepts in Reversal Theory. Loughborough, U.K.: Apter International Ltd.

Book Chapters


External links

  1. Apter, M.J. & Westby, G. (1973)The computer in psychology. London. Wiley