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The Millennium Cohort Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study headquartered at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California and designed to evaluate any long-term health effects of military service, including deployments.[1] It is the largest population-based prospective health project in US military history,[2][3][4] currently collecting data on over 150,000 enrolled participants. Investigators that conduct the Millennium Cohort Study include uniformed and non-uniformed scientists from the Army,[5] Navy,[6] Air Force,[7] Department of Veterans Affairs,[8] and academic institutions.[9][10]

File:Millennium Cohort Study logo.gif

The Millennium Cohort Study logo


After the 1991 Gulf War, the United States Department of Defense recognized the need to collect prospective exposure and health information that may be associated with the long-term health of service members.[11][12] The Millennium Cohort Study was designed to address that need. Pilot studies were conducted in 2000; by mid 2001, the Millennium Cohort Study's first enrollment period was launched, collecting baseline data from over 77,000 people.


Funded by the US Department of Defense,[13] and supported by military, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and civilian researchers, over 150,000 military personnel are members of the cohort. The Millennium Cohort Study began with a random sample of US Military members including active duty, Reserve, and National Guard members from all services. Surveys are sent to this representative sample of US military personnel every three years through email and the United States Postal Service, requesting that they submit their data online or via the mail service. Approximately 25% of Millennium Cohort participants have left military service and the study will continue to follow all participants through their Active duty, Reserve, National Guard careers and civilian endeavors.


Prospective data analyses are underway to assess health outcomes including Posttraumatic stress disorder,[14][15] depression,[16] hypertension, respiratory symptoms and illness,[17] immune responses, chronic multi-symptom illness, CHD and CVD, and modifiable health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use[18] sleep,[19] and physical activity that may be associated with deployment in support of the current wars.[20] Currently, more than 50% of Millennium Cohort participants have deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.


In 2011 the Millennium Cohort Study was expanded to include 10,000 spouses of Millennium Cohort members. The sub study, The Millennium Cohort Family Study's [21][22] goal is to gain a more complete understanding of the military experience and its resultant impact on the health and well-being of service members and their families.


  1. Margaret A.K. Ryan, Tyler C. Smith, Besa Smith, Paul Amoroso, Edward J. Boyko, Gregory C. Gray, Gary D. Gackstetter, James R. Riddle, Timothy S. Wells, Gia Gumbs, Thomas E. Corbeil, Tomoko I. Hooper (2000). Millennium Cohort: enrollment begins a 21-year contribution to understanding the impact of military service 60: 181=191.
  2. Naval Health Research Center. NHRC Launches Next Survey Cycle of Largest DoD Population-Based Military Health Study.
  3. Naval Health Research Center. The Largest DoD Population-Based Military Health Study Launched Next Survey Cycle, Hopes to Enroll Military Members and Spouses. Naval Health Research Center.
  4. Dr. Michel E. Kilpatrick. What We Can Learn in 21 Years. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  5. Military Operational Medicine Research Program(MOMRP). Gulf War Illnesses Research Program (GWIRP). URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  6. Naval Health Research Center. Department 164. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  7. Navy Lt. Jennifer Cragg. Military medical advancements benefit civilian health care. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  8. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. VA, DoD Teaming Up to Track Health of Military Forces. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  9. The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. (2008). 2008 Annual Report - Millennium Cohort Study. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  10. National Cancer Institute. Cohort Consortium Members - EGRP. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  11. Lyla M. Hernandez, Jane S. Durch, Dan G. Blazer II, and Isabel V. Hoverman, Editors; Committee on Measuring the Health of Gulf War Veterans, Institute of Medicine (1999). Gulf War Veterans: Measuring Health. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  12. Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments. Lessons Learned And Recent Initiatives. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  13. Force Health Protection & Readiness. The Millennium Cohort Study Offers the First Comprehensive Review of Career-Span Military Health. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  14. Cynthia A LeardMann, senior biostatistician, Tyler C Smith, director, Besa Smith, senior epidemiologist/biostatistician, Timothy S Wells, medical chief epidemiologist, and Margaret A K Ryan, occupational and preventive medicine physician, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2008-12-19). Baseline self reported functional health and vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder after combat deployment: prospective US military cohort study. BMJ 338: b1273.
  15. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2007-11-25). New onset and persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures: prospective population based US military cohort study. BMJ 336 (7640): 366–71.
  16. Tyler C. Smith, MS, PhD, Deborah L. Wingard, PhD, Margaret A.K. Ryan, MD, MPH, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, PhD, Donald J. Slymen, PhD, and James F. Sallis, PhD, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2009-01). PTSD Prevalence, Associated Exposures, and Functional Health Outcomes in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort. Public Health Rep 124 (1): 90–102.
  17. David Loebsack. Respiratory Conditions Investigated Among the Deployed. Military Health System.
  18. Isabel G. Jacobson, MPH, Margaret A. K. Ryan, MD, MPH, Tomoko I. Hooper, MD, MPH, Tyler C. Smith, PhD, MS, Paul J. Amoroso, MD, MPH, Edward J. Boyko, MD, MPH, Gary D. Gackstetter, DVM, PhD, MPH, Timothy S. Wells, DVM, PhD, MPH, and Nicole S. Bell, ScD, MPH (2008-08-13). Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Before and After Military Combat Deployment 300 (6): 663–675.
  19. Amber D. Seelig, MPH, Isabel G. Jacobson, MPH, Besa Smith, MPH, PhD, Tomoko I. Hooper, MD, MPH, Edward J. Boyko, MD, MPH, Gary D. Gackstetter, DVM, MPH, PhD, Philip Gehrman, PhD, CBSM, Carol A. Macera, MS, PhD, Tyler C. Smith, MS, PhD, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2010-12-01). Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. Sleep 33 (12): 1615–1622.
  20. Molly L Kelton, Cynthia A LeardMann, Besa Smith, Edward J Boyko, Tomoko I Hooper, Gary D Gackstetter, Paul D Bliese, Charles W Hoge, and Tyler C Smith, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2010-10-15). Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort 10.
  21. Matt Pueschel. Millennium Cohort Study Expanding To Include Spouses of Service Members. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.
  22. Matt Pueschel. Millennium Cohort Study to Include Spouses. URL accessed on 2011-08-01.

Further reading

  • (2007). Millennium Cohort: The 2001–2003 baseline prevalence of mental disorders in the U.S. Military. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 60 (2): 192–201.
  • (2007). The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: Baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort. BMC Public Health 7.
  • (2008). New onset and persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures: Prospective population based US military cohort study. BMJ 336 (7640): 366–71.

External links

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