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Nialamide chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
ATC code


Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 298.34 g/mol
Elimination half-life
Excretion Renal[1]
Pregnancy category
Legal status Rx-only
Routes of administration Oral, intramuscular,[2] intravenous[3]

Nialamide was one of the first MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) antidepressants. It is chemically related to iproniazide, another MAOI derived from isonicotinic acid.



Nialamide is effective for depression characterized by anergic symptoms,[4] endogenous depression,[5] and reactive depression.[6]


Nialamide is sometimes used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. It has also been studied for alcoholism,[7] dermatomally distributed vitiligo,[8] irregular menstruation,[9] angina,[10] cerebrovascular disorders,[11] and the prevention of streptomycin-induced deafness.[12]

Adverse effects

Adverse effects of nialamide include euphoria, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, anxiety, headache, vertigo, tremor, hyperreflexia, manic state, arterial hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, arterial hypertension, palpitations, hyperhidrosis, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, constipation, vision problems, retrobulbar optic neuritis, polyneuritis, weight gain, acute cardiac insufficiency, tachycardia, peripheral neuropathy, jaundice, hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, urinary retention, elevated transaminases, hepatitis, hepatocellular insufficiency, cutaneous eruption, impotence, and delayed ejaculation.[1]


Nialamide is sold under Psicodisten, Niaquitil, Nialamid, Niamidal, Niamide, Novazid, Nuredal, Niamid (Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, England, United States),[13] Niazin, Nyazin, Surgex (Italy),[1] Mygal, Delmoneurina, Isalizina (Italy),[1] Espril (Italy),[1] and Nyezin.[14]

References and End Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 (2001). NIALAMIDE. BIAM Database. URL accessed on 2005-08-27.
  2. Benady DR, Clein LJ, Pare CM (1965). Intramuscular nialamide in intractable depression. Diseases of the Nervous System 26 (12): 792–4.
  3. Oules J, Cabazon (1964). [Treatment Of Depressive States With Intravenous Niamide.]. Toulouse Medical 65 (1): 1298–302.
  4. Vaisberg M, McGahee CL, Radinger N, Saunders JC (1959). Nialamide for the treatment of anergy and depression. Diseases of the Nervous System 20 (Supplemental): 22–5.
  5. Van Reeth PC, Bloch C (1960). [Treatment of endogenous depressions by a new inhibitor of monoamine oxidase: nialamide.]. Acta Neurologica Belgica 60 (1): 320–7.
  6. Cormary M (1966). [Use of parenteral nialamide in the treatment of reactive or neurotic depressive states]. Lyon Medical 215 (15): 1051–62.
  7. Bobrov AE, Shurygin AN, Krasil'nikov SB (1991). [Effectiveness of combined use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic alcoholism]. Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni SS Korsakova. 91 (2): 79–83.
  8. Koga M (1977). Vitiligo: a new classification and therapy. British Journal of Dermatology 97 (3): 255–61.
  9. Gautray JP, Jolivet A (1976). [Neuroendocrine investigation and therapy of the menstrual cycle disorders (author's transl)(proceedings)]. Annales d'Endocrinologie 37 (4): 293–4.
  10. Barats SS, Oranskii IE, Kartashova DI, Gorovater EN (1976). [Comparative clinico-physiological study of the effect of several MAO inhibitors in stenocardia]. Kardiologiia 16 (3): 138–40.
  11. Mirzoian RS (1975). [Prevention of cerebrovascular disorders with adrenergic substances]. Biulleten' Eksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny 80 (11): 50–3.
  12. Semczuk B, Klonowski S, Golabek W (1974). The protective effect of niamid on hearing in patients treated with large doses of streptomycin. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska Sectio D: Medicina 29 (1): 193–7.
  13. Anonymous (2001). NIALAMIDE. Antidepresseurs. BIAM. URL accessed on 2005-08-27.
  14. SID 35970 -- PubChem Substance Summary - Depositor-Supplied Synonyms: All. URL accessed on 2005-09-25. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine
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