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?Old World monkeys
File:Malpy waskonose s.png
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
Gray, 1821
Family: Cercopithecidae
Gray, 1821
Subfamilies

Cercopithecinae - 11 genera
Colobinae - 10 genera

The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. From the point of view of superficial appearance, they are unlike apes in that most have tails (the family name means "tailed ape"), and unlike the New World monkeys in that their tails are never prehensile. Technically, the distinction of catarrhines from platyrrhines depends on the structure of the nose, and the distinction of Old World monkeys from apes depends on dentition.

Several Old World monkeys have anatomical oddities. The colobus monkeys have a stub for a thumb; the Proboscis Monkey has an extraordinary nose while the snub-nosed monkeys have almost no nose at all; the penis of the male Mandrill is colored red and the scrotum has a lilac color, while the face also has bright coloration like the genitalia and this develops in only the dominant male of a multi-male group.

The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, but are also known from Europe in the fossil record. They include many of the most familiar species of non-human primates.

Classification

Two subfamilies are recognised, the Cercopithecinae, which are mainly African but include the diverse genus of macaques which are Asian and North African, and the Colobinae, which includes most of the Asian genera but also the African colobus monkeys.

  • Superfamily Cercopithecoidea
    • Family Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys
      • Subfamily Cercopithecinae
        • Tribe Cercopithecini
          • Genus Allenopithecus
            • Allen's Swamp Monkey, Allenopithecus nigroviridis
          • Genus Miopithecus
            • Angolan Talapoin, Miopithecus talapoin
            • Gabon Talapoin, Miopithecus ogouensis
          • Genus Erythrocebus
            • Patas Monkey, Erythrocebus patas
          • Genus Chlorocebus
            • Green Monkey, Chlorocebus sabaceus
            • Grivet, Chlorocebus aethiops
            • Bale Mountains Vervet, Chlorocebus djamdjamensis
            • Tantalus Monkey, Chlorocebus tantalus
            • Vervet Monkey, Chlorocebus pygerythrus
            • Malbrouck, Chlorocebus cynosuros
          • Genus Cercopithecus
            • Dryas Monkey or Salongo Monkey, Cercopithecus dryas
            • Diana Monkey, Cercopithecus diana
            • Roloway Monkey, Cercopithecus roloway
            • Greater Spot-nosed Monkey, Cercopithecus nictitans
            • Blue Monkey, Cercopithecus mitis
            • Silver Monkey, Cercopithecus doggetti
            • Golden Monkey, Cercopithecus kandti
            • Sykes's Monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis
            • Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus mona
            • Campbell's Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus campbelli
            • Lowe's Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus lowei
            • Crested Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus pogonias
            • Wolf's Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus wolfi
            • Dent's Mona Monkey, Cercopithecus denti
            • Lesser Spot-nosed Monkey, Cercopithecus petaurista
            • White-throated Guenon, Cercopithecus erythrogaster
            • Sclater's Guenon, Cercopithecus sclateri
            • Red-eared Guenon, Cercopithecus erythrotis
            • Moustached Guenon, Cercopithecus cephus
            • Red-tailed Monkey, Cercopithecus ascanius
            • L'Hoest's Monkey, Cercopithecus lhoesti
            • Preuss's Monkey, Cercopithecus preussi
            • Sun-tailed Monkey, Cercopithecus solatus
            • Hamlyn's Monkey or Owl-faced Monkey, Cercopithecus hamlyni
            • De Brazza's Monkey, Cercopithecus neglectus
        • Tribe Papionini
          • Genus Macaca
            • Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus
            • Lion-tailed Macaque, Macaca silenus
            • Southern Pig-tailed Macaque or Beruk, Macaca nemestrina
            • Northern Pig-tailed Macaque, Macaca leonina
            • Pagai Island Macaque or Bokkoi, Macaca pagensis
            • Siberut Macaque, Macaca siberu
            • Moor Macaque, Macaca maura
            • Booted Macaque, Macaca ochreata
            • Tonkean Macaque, Macaca tonkeana
            • Heck's Macaque, Macaca hecki
            • Gorontalo Macaque, Macaca nigriscens
            • Celebes Crested Macaque or Black "Ape", Macaca nigra
            • Crab-eating Macaque or Long-tailed Macaque or Kera, Macaca fascicularis
            • Stump-tailed Macaque or Bear Macaque, Macaca arctoides
            • Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta
            • Formosan Rock Macaque, Macaca cyclopis
            • Japanese Macaque, Macaca fuscata
            • Toque Macaque, Macaca sinica
            • Bonnet Macaque, Macaca radiata
            • Assam Macaque, Macaca assamensis
            • Tibetan Macaque or Milne-Edwards' Macaque, Macaca thibetana
            • Arunachal Macaque or Munzala, Macaca munzala
          • Genus Lophocebus
            • Gray-cheeked Mangabey, Lophocebus albigena
              • Lophocebus albigena albigena
              • Lophocebus albigena osmani
              • Lophocebus albigena johnstoni
            • Black Crested Mangabey, Lophocebus aterrimus
            • Opdenbosch's Mangabey, Lophocebus opdenboschi
          • Genus Rungwecebus
            • Kipunji, Rungwecebus kipunji
          • Genus Papio
            • Hamadryas Baboon, Papio hamadryas
            • Guinea Baboon, Papio papio
            • Olive Baboon, Papio anubis
            • Yellow Baboon, Papio cynocephalus
            • Chacma Baboon, Papio ursinus
          • Genus Theropithecus
            • Gelada, Theropithecus gelada
          • Genus Cercocebus
            • Sooty Mangabey, Cercocebus atys
              • Cercocebus atys atys
              • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
            • Collared Mangabey, Cercocebus torquatus
            • Agile Mangabey, Cercocebus agilis
            • Golden-bellied Mangabey, Cercocebus chrysogaster
            • Tana River Mangabey, Cercocebus galeritus
            • Sanje Mangabey, Cercocebus sanjei
          • Genus Mandrillus
            • Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx
            • Drill, Mandrillus leucophaeus
      • Subfamily Colobinae
        • African group
          • Genus Colobus
            • Black Colobus, Colobus satanas
            • Angola Colobus, Colobus angolensis
            • King Colobus, Colobus polykomos
            • Ursine Colobus, Colobus vellerosus
            • Mantled Guereza, Colobus guereza
          • Genus Piliocolobus
            • Western Red Colobus, Piliocolobus badius
              • Bay Red Colobus, Piliocolobus badius badius
              • Temminck's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus badius temminckii
              • Miss Waldrone's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus badius waldronae
            • Pennant's Colobus, Piliocolobus pennantii
              • Bioko Red Colobus, Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
              • Niger Delta Red Colobus, Piliocolobus pennantii epieni
              • Bouvier's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus pennantii bouvieri
            • Preuss's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus preussi
            • Thollon's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus tholloni
            • Central African Red Colobus, Piliocolobus foai
              • Foa Red Colobus, Piliocolobus foai foai
              • Elliot's Red Colobus, Piliocolobus foai ellioti
              • Piliocolobus foai oustaleti
              • Piliocolobus foai semlikiensis
              • Lomami Red Colobus, Piliocolobus foai parmentierorum
            • Ugandan Red Colobus, Piliocolobus tephrosceles
            • Uzyngwa Red Colobus, Piliocolobus gordonorum
            • Zanzibar Red Colobus, Piliocolobus kirkii
            • Tana River Red Colobus, Piliocolobus rufomitratus
          • Genus Procolobus
            • Olive Colobus, Procolobus verus
        • Langur (leaf monkey) group
          • Genus Semnopithecus
            • Nepal Gray Langur, Semnopithecus schistaceus
            • Kashmir Gray Langur, Semnopithecus ajax
            • Tarai Gray Langur, Semnopithecus hector
            • Northern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus entellus
            • Black-footed Gray Langur, Semnopithecus hypoleucos
            • Southern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus dussumieri
            • Tufted Gray Langur, Semnopithecus priam
          • Genus Trachypithecus
            • T. vetulus group
              • Purple-faced Langur, Trachypithecus vetulus
              • Nilgiri Langur, Trachypithecus johnii
            • T. cristatus group
              • Javan Lutung, Trachypithecus auratus
              • Silvery Lutung or Silvered Leaf Monkey, Trachypithecus cristatus
              • Indochinese Lutung, Trachypithecus germaini
              • Tenasserim Lutung, Trachypithecus barbei
            • T. obscurus group
              • Dusky Leaf Monkey or Spectacled Leaf Monkey, Trachypithecus obscurus
              • Phayre's Leaf Monkey, Trachypithecus phayrei
            • T. pileatus group
              • Capped Langur, Trachypithecus pileatus
              • Shortridge's Langur, Trachypithecus shortridgei
              • Gee's Golden Langur, Trachypithecus geei
            • T. francoisi group
              • Francois' Langur, Trachypithecus francoisi
              • Hatinh Langur, Trachypithecus hatinhensis
              • White-headed Langur, Trachypithecus poliocephalus
              • Laotian Langur, Trachypithecus laotum
              • Delacour's Langur, Trachypithecus delacouri
              • Indochinese Black Langur, Trachypithecus ebenus
          • Genus Presbytis
            • Sumatran Surili, Presbytis melalophos
            • Banded Surili, Presbytis femoralis
            • Sarawak Surili, Presbytis chrysomelas
            • White-thighed Surili, Presbytis siamensis
            • White-fronted Surili, Presbytis frontata
            • Javan Surili, Presbytis comata
            • Thomas's Langur, Presbytis thomasi
            • Hose's Langur, Presbytis hosei
            • Maroon Leaf Monkey, Presbytis rubicunda
            • Mentawai Langur or Joja, Presbytis potenziani
            • Natuna Island Surili, Presbytis natunae
        • Odd-Nosed group
          • Genus Pygathrix
            • Red-shanked Douc, Pygathrix nemaeus
            • Black-shanked Douc, Pygathrix nigripes
            • Gray-shanked Douc, Pygathrix cinerea
          • Genus Rhinopithecus
            • Golden Snub-nosed Monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana
            • Black Snub-nosed Monkey, Rhinopithecus bieti
            • Gray Snub-nosed Monkey, Rhinopithecus brelichi
            • Tonkin Snub-nosed Langur, Rhinopithecus avunculus
          • Genus Nasalis
          • Genus Simias
            • Pig-tailed Langur, Simias concolor

See also

References


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