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Oral communication or Speech communication refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language. A number of academic disciplines study speech and speech sounds, including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, and computer science.
- Main article: Speech production
In linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.
- Main article: Speech perception
Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.
Problems involving speech
- See also: Speech disorders
- See also: Speech and language pathology
There are several biological and psychological factors that can affect speech. Among these are:
- Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat.
- Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where impaired motor planning, nerve transmission, phonological processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech production.
- Hearing problems, such as otitis media effusion can lead to phonological problems.
- Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and tics can also affect speech.
- In addition to aphasias, anomia and certain types of dyslexia can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Hearing impairments and deafness can be considered to fall into this category.
Two areas of the cerebral cortex are necessary for speech. Broca's area, named after its discoverer, French neurologist Paul Broca (1824-1880), is in the frontal lobe, usually on the left, near the motor cortex controlling muscles of the lips, jaws, soft palate and vocal cords. When damaged by a stroke or injury, comprehension is unaffected but speech is slow and labored and the sufferer will talk in "telegramese". Wernicke's area, discovered in 1874 by German neurologist Carl Wernicke (1848-1904), lies to the back of the temporal lobe, again, usually on the left, near the areas receiving auditory and visual information. Damage to it destroys comprehension - the sufferer speaks fluently but nonsensically. Some researchers have explored the connections between brain physiology, neuroscience, and other elements of physiology to that of communication. Communibiology first proposed by Beatty and McCroskey address these issues and presents a set of specific axioms about these phenomena.
- Avoidance speech
- Code switching
- Esophageal speech
- Imagined speech
- Index of linguistics articles
- Oral reading
- Public speaking
- Self talk
- Source–filter model of speech production
- Speech act
- Speech delay
- Speech disorder
- Speech encoding
- Speech processing (mechanical)
- Speech recognition
- Speech repetition
- Speech synthesis
- Speech-language pathology
- Spoken language
- Talking birds
- Verbal ability
- Verbal fluency
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