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{{Infobox Anatomy
| Name = Human penis
| Latin = ''penis'', ''penes''
| GraySubject = 262
| GrayPage = 1247
| Image =
| Caption =
| Width = 150
| Precursor = [[Genital tubercle]], [[Urogenital folds]]
| System =
| Artery = [[Dorsal artery of the penis]], [[deep artery of the penis]], [[artery of the urethral bulb]]
| Vein = [[Dorsal veins of the penis]]
| Nerve = [[Dorsal nerve of the penis]]
| Lymph = [[Superficial inguinal lymph nodes]]
| MeshName = Penis
| MeshNumber = A05.360.444.492
| DorlandsPre =
| DorlandsSuf =
{{for|the symbol of the erect penis|phallus}}
The '''penis''' (plural ''penises'', ''penes'') is an external [[sex organ|sexual organ]] of certain biologically [[male]] organisms, in both [[vertebrate]]s and [[invertebrates]].
The penis is a [[reproductive]] organ, technically an [[intromittent organ]], and for [[Eutheria|placental mammals]], additionally serves as the external organ of [[urination]]. The penis is generally found on [[mammals]] and reptiles.
The word "penis" is taken from the [[Latin]] word for "[[tail]]." Some derive that from [[Proto-Indo-European language|Indo-European]] ''*pesnis'', and the Greek word πεος = "penis" from Indo-European ''*pesos''. Prior to the adoption of the Latin word in English the penis was referred to as a "yard". The [[Oxford English Dictionary]] cites an example of the word ''yard'' used in this sense from 1379,<ref name="oed-yard">{{citation|title=[[Oxford English Dictionary]]|edition=2nd|contribution=yard, ''n''.<sup>2</sup>|contribution-url=|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|year=1989|editor1-last=Simpson|editor1-first=John|editor1-link=John Simpson (lexicographer)|editor2-last=Weiner|editor2-first=Edmund|editor2-link=Edmund Weiner|id=[ Online edition], print version ISBN 978-0-19-861186-8, CD-ROM ISBN 978-0-19-861016-8}}</ref> and notes that in his ''Physical Dictionary'' of 1684, [[Steven Blankaart]] defined the word ''penis'' as "the Yard, made up of two nervous Bodies, the Channel, Nut, Skin, and Fore-skin, etc."<ref name="oed-penis">{{citation|title=[[Oxford English Dictionary]]|edition=Draft revision September 2005|contribution=penis, ''n''.|contribution-url=|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|year=2005|editor-last=Simpson|editor-first=John|editor-link=John Simpson (lexicographer)|id=[ Online edition]}} (1989 second edition: ISBN 978-0-19-861186-8, CD-ROM ISBN 978-0-19-861016-8)</ref>
The Latin word ''"[[phallus]]"'' (from [[Greek language|Greek]] φαλλος) is sometimes used to describe the penis, although "phallus" originally was used to describe ''images'', pictorial or carved, of the penis.<ref>[ Online Etymology Dictionary]</ref>
The adjectival form of the word penis is '''penile'''. This adjective is commonly used in describing the male copulatory organ's various accessory structures which are commonly found in many kinds of [[invertebrate]] animals.
As with nearly any aspect of the human body that is involved in sexual or [[excretory]] functions, the word penis is considered inherently funny from a juvenile perspective, and there are many slang words for the penis, such as "cock", "dick", "shlong", or "willy". Many of these are noted in the [[Bathroom humor#Miscellaneous body parts, odours and medical ailments|bathroom humor]] article.
"Penii" is sometimes facetiously or mistakenly used as a plural form of "penis" instead of "penes" or "penises," its correct forms.
The human penis is made up of three columns of [[biological tissue|tissue]]: two [[Corpus cavernosum penis|corpora cavernosa]] lie next to each other on the [[dorsal side]] and one [[corpus spongiosum]] lies between them on the [[ventral side]].
The enlarged and bulbous-shaped end of the corpus spongiosum forms the [[glans penis]], which supports the [[foreskin]] or prepuce, a loose fold of skin that in adults can retract to expose the glans. The area on the underside of the penis, where the foreskin is attached, is called the [[frenulum of prepuce of penis|frenum]] (or frenulum).
[[Image:Gray1158.png|thumb|left|370px|Anatomical diagram of a human penis.]]
The [[urethra]], which is the last part of the [[urinary tract]], traverses the corpus spongiosum, and its opening, known as the [[urinary meatus|meatus]] ({{pron-en|miːˈeɪtəs}}), lies on the tip of the glans penis. It is a passage both for [[urine]] and for the [[ejaculation]] of [[semen]]. [[Spermatozoon|Sperm]] are produced in the [[testes]] and stored in the attached [[epididymis]]. During ejaculation, sperm are propelled up the [[vas deferens]], two ducts that pass over and behind the bladder. Fluids are added by the [[seminal vesicle]]s and the vas deferens turns into the [[ejaculatory duct]]s which join the urethra inside the [[prostate gland]]. The prostate as well as the [[bulbourethral gland]]s add further secretions, and the semen is expelled through the penis.
The [[Perineal raphe|raphe]] is the visible ridge between the [[Human anatomical terms#Anatomical directions|lateral]] halves of the penis, found on the ventral or underside of the penis, running from the meatus (opening of the urethra) across the [[scrotum]] to the [[perineum]] (area between scrotum and [[anus]]).
The human penis differs from those of most other mammals, as it has no [[baculum]], or '''erectile bone''', and instead relies entirely on engorgement with blood to reach its erect state. It cannot be withdrawn into the groin, and it is larger than average in the animal kingdom in proportion to [[body mass]].
{{clear}}<!-- This is a code to formate this section so it doesn't throw off the puberty section. DO NOT REMOVE, this will result in the Puberty Section becoming deformed. -->
On entering [[puberty]], the [[testicles]] will begin to develop and the genitalia will grow. The penis begins to grow between the ages of as early as 10 or as late as age 15. Growth is usually complete by age 18–21. During the process, [[pubic hair]] grows above and around the penis.
===Sexual homology===
{{main|List of homologues of the human reproductive system|l1=Sexual homology}}
In short, this is a known list of sex organs that evolve from the same tissue in a human life.
The [[Glans penis|glans]] of the penis is [[homology (biology)|homologous]] to the [[clitoral glans]]; the corpora cavernosa are homologous to the body of the clitoris; the corpus spongiosum is homologous to the [[vestibular bulbs]] beneath the labia minora; the scrotum, homologous to the [[labia minora]] and [[labia majora]]; and the foreskin, homologous to the [[clitoral hood]]. The raphe does not exist in females, because there, the two halves are not connected.
<!--PLEASE do not add or remove images on this page without first consulting the talk page; otherwise your edit is likely to be reverted. Thank you for your cooperation.-->
An erection is the stiffening and rising (see [[Penis#Erection Angle|Erection Angle]]) of the penis, which occurs during [[sexual arousal]], though it can also happen in non-sexual situations. The primary physiological mechanism that brings about erection is the autonomic [[Vasodilation|dilation]] of [[arteries]] supplying [[blood]] to the penis, which allows more blood to fill the three spongy erectile tissue chambers in the penis, causing it to lengthen and stiffen. The now-engorged erectile tissue presses against and constricts the veins that carry blood away from the penis. More blood enters than leaves the penis until an equilibrium is reached where an equal volume of blood flows into the dilated arteries and out of the constricted veins; a constant erectile size is achieved at this equilibrium.
Erection facilitates [[sexual intercourse]] though it is not essential for various other [[sexual activities]].
===Erection Angle===
Although many erect penises point upwards (see illustration), it is common and normal for the erect penis to point nearly vertically upwards or nearly vertically downwards or even horizontally straight forward, all depending on the tension of the [[Suspensory ligament of the penis|suspensory ligament]] that holds it in position. The following table shows how common various erection angles are for a standing male. In the table, zero degrees is pointing straight up against the abdomen, 90 degrees is horizontal and pointing straight forward, while 180 degrees would be pointing straight down to the feet. An upward pointing angle is most common. <ref>Penile Erections: Shape, Angle and Length. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 1997 Fall;23(3):195-207</ref>
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
|+ Occurrence of Erection Angles
! Angle (degrees)
! Percent
| 0-30
| 5
| 30-60
| 30
| 60-85
| 31
| 85-95
| 10
| 95-120
| 20
| 120-180
| 5
Ejaculation is the ejecting of [[semen]] from the penis, and is usually accompanied by [[orgasm]]. A series of muscular contractions delivers semen, containing male [[gametes]] known as sperm cells or [[spermatozoa]], from the penis (and into the [[vagina]], if for reproductive intention via sexual intercourse). It is usually the result of [[sexual stimulation]], which may include [[prostate]] stimulation. Rarely, it is due to prostatic disease. Ejaculation may occur spontaneously during [[sleep]] (a [[nocturnal emission]] or '[[wet dream]]'). '''Anejaculation''' is the condition of being unable to ejaculate.
Ejaculation has two phases: ''emission'' and ''ejaculation proper''. The emission phase of the ejaculatory reflex is under control of the [[sympathetic nervous system]], while the ejaculatory phase is under control of a [[spinal reflex]] at the level of the [[spinal nerve]]s S2–4 via the [[pudendal nerve]]. A refractory period succeeds the ejaculation, and sexual stimulation precedes it.
===Normal variations===
*[[Hirsuties papillaris genitalis|Pearly penile papules]] are raised bumps of somewhat paler color around the base of the glans and are normal.
*[[Fordyce's spot]]s are small, raised, yellowish-white spots 1–2 mm in diameter that may appear on the penis.
*''Sebaceous prominences'' are raised bumps similar to Fordyce's spots on the shaft of the penis, located at the [[sebaceous gland]]s and are normal.
*[[Phimosis]] is an inability to retract the foreskin fully, is harmless in infancy and pre-pubescence, occurring in about 8% of boys at age 10. According to the British Medical Association, treatment (steroid cream, manual stretching) does not need to be considered until age 19.
*Curvature: few penises are completely straight, with curves commonly seen in all directions (up, down, left, right). Sometimes the curve is very prominent but it rarely inhibits sexual intercourse. Curvature as great as 30° is considered normal and medical treatment is rarely considered unless the angle exceeds 45°. Changes to the curvature of a penis may be caused by [[Peyronie's disease]].
[[Edema]] (swelling) of the foreskin or tearing of the [[Epidermis (skin)|epidermis]] can result from sexual activity, including [[masturbation]]{{Fact|date=June 2008}}.
[[Paraphimosis]] is an inability to move the foreskin forward, over the glans. It can result from fluid trapped in a foreskin which is left retracted, perhaps following a medical procedure, or accumulation of fluid in the foreskin because of [[friction]] during vigorous sexual activity.
In [[Peyronie's disease]], anomalous scar tissue grows in the soft tissue of the penis, causing curvature. Severe cases can benefit from surgical correction.
A [[thrombosis]] can occur during periods of frequent and prolonged sexual activity, especially [[fellatio]]. It is usually harmless and self-corrects within a few weeks.
Infection with the [[herpes]] virus can occur after sexual contact with an infected carrier; this may lead to the development of herpes sores.
[[Pudendal nerve entrapment]] is a condition characterized by pain on sitting and loss of penile (or clitoral) sensation and orgasm. Occasionally there is a total loss of sensation and orgasm. The [[pudendal nerve]] can be damaged by narrow, hard bicycle seats and accidents.
[[Penile fracture]] can occur if the erect penis is bent excessively. A popping or cracking sound and pain is normally associated with this event. Emergency medical assistance should be obtained. Prompt medical attention lowers likelihood of permanent penile curvature.
In [[diabetes]], [[peripheral neuropathy]] can cause tingling in the penile skin and possibly reduced or completely absent sensation. The reduced sensations can lead to injuries for either partner and their absence can make it impossible to have sexual pleasure through stimulation of the penis. Since the problems are caused by permanent nerve damage, preventive treatment through good control of the diabetes is the primary treatment. Some limited recovery may be possible through improved diabetes control.
[[Erectile dysfunction]] or ''impotence'' is the inability to have and maintain an erection sufficiently firm for satisfactory sexual performance. Diabetes is a leading cause, as is natural aging. A variety of treatments exist, including drugs, such as ''[[sildenafil]] citrate'' (marketed as [[Viagra]]) which works by [[vasodilation]].
[[Priapism]] is a painful and potentially harmful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state. The causative mechanisms are poorly understood but involve complex neurological and vascular factors. Potential complications include ischaemia, thrombosis, and impotence. In serious cases the condition may result in [[gangrene]], which may necessitate [[amputation]]. The condition has been associated with a variety of drugs including [[prostaglandin]] but not [[sildenafil]] (Viagra).<ref>Goldenberg M,Safety and Efficacy of sildenafil citrate in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Clin Ther. 1998,20(6):1033–48. </ref>
[[Lymphangiosclerosis]] is a hardened [[lymph vessel]], although it can feel like a hardened, almost calcified or fibrous, vein. It tends not to share the common blue tint with a vein however. It can be felt as a hardened lump or "vein" even when the penis is flaccid, and is even more prominent during an erection. It is considered a [[benign]] physical condition. It is fairly common and can follow a particularly vigorous sexual activity for men and tend to go away if given rest and more gentle care, for example by use of lubricants.
[[Carcinoma of the penis]] is rare with a reported rate of 1 person in 100,000 in developed countries. Circumcision is said to protect against this disease but this notion remains controversial.<ref>Boczko S & Freed S, Penile Carcinoma in Circumcised Males. 1979, NY State Journal of Medicine, 79(12), 1903–1904.</ref>
====Developmental disorders====
[[Hypospadias]] is a [[developmental disorder]] where the [[Urinary meatus|meatus]] is positioned wrongly at birth. Hypospadias can also occur [[iatrogenic]]ally by the downward pressure of an indwelling urethral catheter.<ref>[ Iatrogenic hypospadias--a preventable injury?]</ref> It is usually corrected by surgery. The [[Intersex Society of North America]] classifies hypospadias as an intersex condition. They believe in halting all medically unnecessary surgeries, including many of those done on people with hypospadias.
A [[micropenis]] is a very small penis caused by developmental or congenital problems. [[Diphallia]], or penile duplication (PD), is the condition of having two penises. However, this disorder is exceedingly rare.
====Alleged and observed psychological disorders====
*[[Penis panic]] (''koro'' in [[Malay language|Malaysian]]/[[Indonesian language|Indonesian]])—[[delusion]] of shrinkage of the penis and retraction into the body. This appears to be culturally conditioned and largely limited to [[Ghana]], [[Sudan]], [[China]], [[Japan]], [[Southeast Asia]], and [[West Africa]]
* In April, 2008, [[Kinshasa]], [[Democratic Republic of Congo]], [[West Africa]]'s 'Police arrested 14 suspected victims (of penis snatching) and [[sorcerers]] accused of using black magic or [[witchcraft]] to steal (make disappear) or shrink men's penises to extort cash for cure, amid a wave of panic. Arrests were made in an effort to avoid bloodshed seen in [[Ghana]] a decade before, when 12 penis snatchers were beaten to death by mobs.<ref>[ Reuters, Lynchings in Congo as penis theft panic hits capital]</ref>
*[[Penis envy]]—the contested [[Freud]]ian belief of a woman [[envy]]ing men for having a penis.
*[[Small Penis Syndrome|Small penis syndrome]]—disorder when men believe that their penis is smaller than average
===Altering the genitalia===
{{main|Genital modification and mutilation}}
The most common form of genital alteration is [[circumcision]]: removal of part or all of the foreskin for various cultural, religious, and more rarely medical reasons. In many cases, such as in some [[United States]] hospitals, the [[frenulum of prepuce of penis|frenulum]] and part of the shaft skin is also removed.{{Fact|date=January 2009}}
Less commonly, the penis is sometimes [[body piercing|pierced]] or decorated by other [[body art]]. Other than circumcision, genital alterations are almost universally elective and usually for the purpose of aesthetics or increased sensitivity. Piercings of the penis include the [[Prince Albert piercing|Prince Albert]], the [[apadravya piercing|apadravya]], the [[ampallang piercing|ampallang]], the [[dydoe piercing|dydoe]], and the [[frenum piercing]]. [[Foreskin restoration]] or stretching is a further form of [[body modification]], as well as [[implant (body modification)|implants]] under the shaft of the penis.
Male to female [[transsexual]]s who undergo [[sex reassignment surgery]], have their penis surgically modified into a [[Vaginoplasty|neovagina]]. Female to male transsexuals may have a [[phalloplasty]].
Other practices which alter the penis are also performed, although they are rare in Western societies without a diagnosed medical condition. Apart from a [[penectomy]], perhaps the most radical of these is [[subincision]], in which the urethra is split along the underside of the penis. Subincision originated among [[Australian Aborigine]]s, although it is now done by some in the U.S. and Europe.
===Surgical replacement===
The first successful penis [[allotransplant]] surgery was done on September 2005 in a military hospital in [[Guangzhou]], China.<ref>[ Guangzhou Daily]</ref> A man at 44 sustained an injury after an accident and his penis was severed; [[urination]] became difficult as his urethra was partly blocked. A newly [[brain-dead]] man, age 23, was selected for the transplant. Despite [[atrophy]] of blood vessels and nerves, the [[arteries]], [[veins]], nerves and the corpora spongiosa were successfully matched. But, on 19 September, the surgery was reversed because of a severe [[psychological]] problem (rejection) by the recipient and his wife.<ref>[ Man rejects first penis transplant | Science | The Guardian<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
{{main|Human penis size}}
While results vary across studies, the consensus is that the average [[erection|erect]] human penis is approximately {{convert|12.9|-|15|cm|in|1|abbr=on}} in length with a 95% [[confidence interval]] of (10.7 cm, 19.1 cm) or (4.23 in, 7.53 in).<ref name="Wessells">{{cite web
| url =
| title = Penile Length in the Flaccid and Erect States: Guidelines for Penile Augmentation
| accessdate = 2007-06-05
| author = Wessels, H
| date = 1996-9-1
}}</ref><ref name="Chen">{{cite web
| url =
| title = Predicting penile size during erection
| accessdate = 2006-09-23
| author = Chen, J
| date = 2000-12-1
}}</ref><ref name="lifestyles_condoms">{{cite web
| url =
| title = ANSELL RESEARCH - The Penis Size Survey
| accessdate = 2006-07-13
| year = 2001
| month = March
}}</ref> The typical girth or [[circumference]] is approximately {{convert|12.3|cm|in|2|abbr=on}} when fully erect. The [[arithmetic mean|average]] penis size is slightly larger than the [[median]] size (i.e. most penises are ''below'' average in size).
A research project, summarizing dozens of published studies conducted by physicians of different nationalities, shows that worldwide, erect-penis size averages vary between {{convert|9.6|and|16|cm|in|abbr=on}}. It has been suggested that this difference is caused not only by [[genetics]], but also by environmental factors such as [[culture]], [[diet (nutrition)|diet]], chemical/pollution exposure,<ref>{{cite web | url = | work = ehp | title = Size decrease in Male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure | accessdate = 2006-11-08 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = PCBs DIMINISH PENIS SIZE | accessdate = 2007-04-09 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | work = DISCOVER | title = Hormone Hell | accessdate = 2008-04-05 }}</ref> etc. [[Endocrine disruption]] resulting from chemical exposure has been linked to genital deformation in both sexes (among many other problems).
The longest officially documented human penis was a find by Doctor [[Robert L. Dickinson]]. It was {{convert|34.3|cm|in|abbr=on}} long and {{convert|15.9|cm|in|2|abbr=on}} around.<ref>Dickinson, R.L., 1940. ''The Sex Life of the Unmarried Adult.'' New York: Vanguard Press</ref>
==Species morphology==
As a general rule, an [[animal]]'s penis is proportional to its body size, but this varies greatly between [[species]] &mdash; even between closely related species. For example, an adult [[gorilla]]'s erect penis is about 4 cm (1.5 in) in length; an adult [[chimpanzee]], significantly smaller (in body size) than a gorilla, has a penis size about double that of the gorilla. In comparison, the [[human]] penis is larger than that of any other [[primate]], both in proportion to body size and in absolute terms. For this reason, [[sexual selection]] of penis size has almost certainly played an [[evolution]]ary role in ''[[Homo sapiens]]'' and its predecessors.
As with any other bodily attribute, the length and girth of the penis can be highly variable between individuals of the same species. In many animals, especially [[mammal]]s, the size of a flaccid penis is much smaller than its erect size. In humans and some other species, flaccid vs. erect penis size varies greatly between individuals, such that penis size when flaccid is not a reliable indicator of size when erect.{{Fact|date=March 2008}}
Most [[marsupialia|marsupials]], except for the two largest species of [[kangaroo]]s, have a [[Bifurcation|bifurcated]] penis. That is, it separates into two columns, and so the penis has two ends. [[Urban legends]] allege that the [[dolphin]] has [[prehensile]] control over his penis (it is true, however, that whales and dolphins can move and to a certain degree bend their penis tips to facilitate mating).{{Fact|date=June 2008}}
In the realm of absolute size, the smallest vertebrate penis belongs to the [[common shrew]] (5 mm or 0.2 inches). The largest penis belongs to the [[blue whale]] estimated at over 2 m (more than 6½ feet){{Fact|date=January 2008}}. Accurate measurements are difficult to take because the whale's erect length can only be observed during mating.
The [[Iceland]]ic [[Icelandic Phallological Museum|Phallological Museum]] is devoted entirely to collecting penis specimens from all sorts of land and sea mammals. The mu[[File:Jtyjyj.png|thumb]][[File:Jtyjyj.png|right]]seum has received a legally certified gift token for a future specimen belonging to ''Homo sapiens''.
[[Echidna]]s have a four-headed penis, but only two of the heads are used during mating. The other two heads "shut down" and do not grow in size. The heads used are swapped each time the mammal has sex.<ref>{{cite web | author = Shultz, N. | date = [[2007-10-26]] | url = | title = Exhibitionist spiny anteater reveals bizarre penis | work = [[New Scientist]] [ website] | accessdate = 2006-10-27}}</ref>
Among birds, [[paleognathes]] ([[tinamous]] and [[ratites]]), [[Anatidae]] (ducks, geese and swans), and a very few other species (including [[ostrich]]es and [[flamingo]]es) possess a penis. It is different in structure from mammal penises, being an erectile expansion of the [[cloaca]]l wall and being erected by [[lymph]], not blood. It is usually partially feathered and in some species features spines and brush-like filaments, and in flaccid state curled up inside the cloaca. The [[Argentine Blue-bill]] has the largest penis in relation to body size of all vertebrates; while usually about half the body size (20 cm), a specimen with a remarkable 42.5 cm-long penis is documented.
Male specimens of the ''[[Squamata]]'' order of reptiles have two paired organs called [[hemipenis|hemipenes]]. In fish, the [[gonopodium]], [[andropodium]], and [[clasper]]s are various organs developed from modified fins. In male [[insect]]s, the structure analogous to a penis is known as [[aedeagus]]. The male copulatory organ of various lower invertebrate animals is often called the ''cirrus''.
The record for the largest penis to body size ratio is held by the [[barnacle]]. The barnacle's penis can grow to up to forty times its own body length. This enables them to reach the nearest female.<ref>[ The Largest Penis in the World - Both for humans and animals, size does matter! - Softpedia<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
==Cultural aspects==
===Uses of animal penises===
*Culinary, e.g., in Chinese gastronomy
*Magical and therapeutic, in medicine and/or superstition, especially as an alleged aphrodisiac or even cure for impotence
*Punitive implements, such as the [[bull pizzle]]
*Dog chew toys, such as the [[bull pizzle]]
===Uses of human penises in cultural traditions===
*Aesthetic, e.g., [[Body modification]]
*For the symbolic and artistic use, see under [[phallus]]; in heraldry, the term is [[pizzle]]
*In humor, considered indecent or completely taboo in various cultures
*Religious veneration, see [[St. Priapus Church]]
==See also==
*[[Erogenous zone]]
*[[Penis enlargement]]
*[[Penis envy]]
*[[Penis removal]]
== References ==
{{Refimprove|date=June 2008}}
*S.A. Buechner (2002) [ Common skin disorders of the penis] BJU International 90 (5), 498–506. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02962.x
==External links==
*[ Kinsey Institute on the penis]
*[ How to get a bigger penis]
{{Male reproductive system}}
{{human anatomical features}}
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Revision as of 04:37, 15 August 2020