Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Social psychology: Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline

Persecution is a form of antisocial behavior, the persistent mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.

The most common scenario is a majority/ingroup persecuting a minority/outgroup, since the reverse is usually impractical, although Apartheid in South Africa is considered an exception. Majority groups, however, can inspire resentment where they are locally a minority and find themselves persecuted; persons of an ethnic majority who venture within a large minority neighborhood may experience or perceive a hostility towards them. See reverse discrimination.

International law

As part of the Nuremberg Principles, crimes against humanity are part of international law. Principle VI of the Nuremberg Principles states that

The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law:...

(c)Crimes against humanity:

Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.


There are various possible origins of persecutory behavior. For instance, a movement which is publicly or implicitly identified with a minority group — such as a religion, a genetic heritage, a region, or other traditional distinction — might be successful enough to disrupt the status quo or become associated with violent acts. A reflective persecutory movement might then arise within the majority, not necessarily distinguishing between those who are and are not part of the movement. This persecution might in turn radicalize the minority group, resulting in a feedback cycle.

So-called opportunistic persecution occurs when someone exploits and stirs up an existing current of resentment to enhance his own political power. This opportunism can be applied "in reverse", as where a minority orator provokes persecution in order to unify a minority movement.

Persecution and identity

Past persecutions can become important elements of a persecuted group's identity. Members of many ethnic groups and religions can name at least one time when their group was persecuted by others. Periods of persecution may include martyrdom, in which a person killed by the persecutor becomes a powerful cultural symbol for the persecuted group.

The historical memory of persecution may long outlast a group's status as an oppressed minority, becoming a symbol of group membership. For instance, Christianity's two best-known symbols -- the Christian cross and the ichthus -- are relics of persecution: the cross is the means by which Christ was martyred, while the ichthus was (according to one story) a secret symbol used by Christians to identify one another under Roman persecution. Even where Christianity is the majority religion and has had greater power, these symbols of persecution recall the oppressive past.

See also



  • Aron, A. (1996). The collective nightmare of Central American refugees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Becker, D., & Diaz, M. (1998). The social process and the transgenerational transmission of trauma in Chile. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Ghadirian, A. l.-M. (1998). Intergenerational responses to the persecution of the Baha'is of Iran. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Groen-Prakken, H., Ladan, A., & Stufkens, A. (1995). The Dutch annual of psychoanalysis 1995-1996: Traumatisation and war, Vol. 2. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
  • Hawk, D. (1988). The Cambodian genocide. New York, NY ; London, England: Facts on File; Mansell Publishing Ltd/Cassell PLC.
  • Hollander, N. C. (1997). Love in a time of hate: Liberation psychology in Latin America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Hordes, S. M. (2007). Between toleration and persecution: The relationship of the Inquisition and crypto-Jews on the northern frontier. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Kordon, D., Edelman, L., Lagos, D., Nicoletti, E., Kersner, D., & Groshaus, M. (1992). Torture in Argentina. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Miller, S. L. (2005). Victims as offenders: The paradox of women's violence in relationships. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Neiderland, W. G. (1972). Clinical observations on the survivor syndrome. Oxford, England: Stanwix House.
  • Radden, J. (2007). Defining persecutory paranoia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Simms, N. (2006). Masks in the mirror: Marranism in Jewish experience. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Simenauer, E. (1982). The return of the persecutor. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Suedfeld, P. (2001). Light from the ashes: Social science careers of young Holocaust refugees and survivors. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
  • Tas, L. M. (1995). Choice of partner in war victims. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
  • Thomas, L. K. (2007). The therapeutic needs of those fleeing persecution and violence, now and in the future. London, England: Karnac Books.


  • Allodi, F. (1989). The children of victims of political persecution and torture: A psychological study of a Latin American refugee community: International Journal of Mental Health Vol 18(2) Sum 1989, 3-15.
  • Almqvist, K., & Brandell-Forsberg, M. (1997). Refugee children in Sweden: Post-traumatic stress disorder in Iranian preschool children exposed to organized violence: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 21(4) Apr 1997, 351-366.
  • Ammon, G. (1980). Psychic disorders caused by vocational and social discrimination following the "Nuremberg Code." Dynamische Psychiatrie Vol 13(5) 1980, 305-316.
  • Appelbaum, P. S. (2006). Review of Paranoia: The psychology of persecutory delusions: Psychiatric Services Vol 57(2) Feb 2006, 281-282.
  • Bachhofer, A. L. (2005). Review of The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 34(2) Apr 2005, 257-259.
  • Bader, A. (1971). Psychopathological discovery of Charles Filiger, symbolist painter: Confinia Psychiatrica Vol 14(1) 1971, 18-35.
  • Bar-Tal, D., & Antebi, D. (1992). Siege mentality in Israel: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 16(3) Sum 1992, 251-275.
  • Bauer, M., Priebe, S., Haring, B., & Adamczak, K. (1993). Long-term mental sequelae of political imprisonment in East Germany: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 181(4) Apr 1993, 257-262.
  • Bayraktar, H. (2006). The anti-Jewish pogrom in Eastern Thrace in 1934: New evidence for the responsibility of the Turkish government: Patterns of Prejudice Vol 40(2) May 2006, 95-111.
  • Belenkaya, I. G. (1986). The syndrome of small-scale persecutory delusion: Problems of the age specificity: Trudy Leningradskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Psikhonevrologicheskogo Instituta im V M Bekhtereva Vol 114 1986, 111-115.
  • Benedetti, G. (1976). Crucial problems in psychotherapy of schizophrenia: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 36(1) Spr 1976, 67-77.
  • Bentall, R. P., & Kaney, S. (1989). Content specific information processing and persecutory delusions: An investigation using the emotional Stroop test: British Journal of Medical Psychology Vol 62(4) Dec 1989, 355-364.
  • Bentall, R. P., Kinderman, P., & Kaney, S. (1994). The self, attributional processes and abnormal beliefs: Towards a model of persecutory delusions: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 32(3) Mar 1994, 331-341.
  • Berger, D. M. (1977). The survivor syndrome: A problem of nosology and treatment: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 31(2) Apr 1977, 238-251.
  • Boehnlein, J. K. (1987). Clinical relevance of grief and mourning among Cambodian refugees: Social Science & Medicine Vol 25(7) 1987, 765-772.
  • Boyd, T., & Gumley, A. (2007). An experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia: A grounded theory construction: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice Vol 80(1) Mar 2007, 1-22.
  • Bramsen, I., & Ploeg, H. M. v. d. (1999). Fifty years later: The long-term psychological adjustment of ageing World War II survivors: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 100(5) Nov 1999, 350-358.
  • Brenner, I. (2008). On genocidal persecution and resilience. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Brighenti, F., & Contarello, G. (1989). "Reversed" persecution delirium: Psichiatria Generale e dell'Eta Evolutiva Vol 27(2) 1989, 421-424.
  • Campo, V. (1993). The two poles of C': Depression and persecution: British Journal of Projective Psychology Vol 38(2) Dec 1993, 9-19.
  • Carli, A. (1987). Psychological consequences of political persecution: The effects on children of the imprisonment or disappearance of their parents: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 24(2) Feb 1987, 82-93.
  • Carlin, P., Gudjonsson, G., & Rutter, S. (2005). Persecutory delusions and attributions for real negative events: A study in a forensic sample: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology Vol 16(1) Mar 2005, 139-148.
  • Christenson, R., & Blazer, D. (1984). Epidemiology of persecutory ideation in an elderly population in the community: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 141(9) Sep 1984, 1088-1091.
  • Craig, J. S., Hatton, C., Craig, F. B., & Bentall, R. P. (2004). Persecutory beliefs, attributions and theory of mind: Comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls: Schizophrenia Research Vol 69(1) Jul 2004, 29-33.
  • Czaja, I. (2001). Sense of coherence and delayed consequences of post-traumatic stress in persons persecuted for political reasons in Poland in the years 1944-56: Psychiatria Polska Vol 35(6) Nov-Dec 2001, 921-935.
  • Dervin, D. (2008). Review of No place to hide: Joseph Stalin's childhood: Journal of Psychohistory Vol 36(1) Sum 2008, 89-93.
  • Dippel, B., Kemper, J., & Berger, M. (1991). Folie a six: A case report on induced psychotic disorder: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 83(2) Feb 1991, 137-141.
  • Domfnguez, R., & Weinstein, E. (1987). Aiding victims of political repression in Chile: A psychological and psychotherapeutic approach: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 24(2) Feb 1987, 75-81.
  • Douet, B. (1988). Experimenting with Professor Feuerstein's instrumental enrichment program for children with major school performance difficulties: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 42(388) Nov-Dec 1988, 121-129.
  • Dreifuss, G. (1988). Persecution: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 33(4) Oct 1988, 395-398.
  • Dudley, R. (2005). Review of Paranoia: The psychology of persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 44(2) Jun 2005, 302-303.
  • Einspruch, B. C. (2005). Review of Why We Hate: Psychiatric Services Vol 56(6) Jun 2005, 763-764.
  • Engestrom, Y. (1988). The cultural-historical theory of activity and the study of political repression: International Journal of Mental Health Vol 17(4) Win 1988-1989, 29-41.
  • Felthous, A. R., Stanislaus, A., Hempel, A. G., & Gleyzer, R. (2001). Are persecutory delusions amenable to treatment? : Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Vol 29(4) 2001, 461-468.
  • Fernyhough, C., Jones, S. R., Whittle, C., Waterhouse, J., & Bentall, R. P. (2008). Theory of mind, schizotypy, and persecutory ideation in young adults: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 13(3) May 2008, 233-249.
  • Freeman, D. (2007). Suspicious minds: The psychology of persecutory delusions: Clinical Psychology Review Vol 27(4) May 2007, 425-457.
  • Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., et al. (2005). The Psychology of Persecutory Ideation I: A Questionnaire Survey: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 193(5) May 2005, 302-308.
  • Freeman, D., Garety, P., Fowler, D., Kuipers, E., Dunn, G., Bebbington, P., et al. (1998). The London-East Anglia randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for psychosis IV: Self-esteem and persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 37(4) Nov 1998, 415-430.
  • Freeman, D., & Garety, P. A. (2002). Cognitive therapy for an individual with a long-standing persecutory delusion: Incorporating emotional processes into a multi-factorial perspective on delusional beliefs. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). The Psychology of Persecutory Ideation II: A Virtual Reality Experimental Study: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 193(5) May 2005, 309-315.
  • Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., & Kuipers, E. (2001). Persecutory delusions: Developing the understanding of belief maintenance and emotional distress: Psychological Medicine Vol 31(7) Oct 2001, 1293-1306.
  • Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 41(4) Nov 2002, 331-347.
  • Freeman, D., Slater, M., Bebbington, P. E., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2003). Can Virtual Reality be Used to Investigate Persecutory Ideation? : Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 191(8) Aug 2003, 509-514.
  • Freeman, T. (1981). On the psychopathology of persecutory delusions: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 139 Dec 1981, 529-532.
  • Gay, M., Fuchs, J., & Blittner, M. (1974). Characteristics of the offspring of Holocaust survivors in Israel: Mental Health & Society Vol 1(5-6) 1974, 302-312.
  • Gay, N. W., & Combs, D. R. (2005). Social behaviors in persons with and without persecutory delusions: Schizophrenia Research Vol 80(2-3) Dec 2005, 361-362.
  • Goldstein, R. (2006). Betraying Spinoza: The renegade Jew gave us modernity. New York, NY: Schocken Books.
  • Gottwaldt, A. (2004). Sigmund Freud's sisters and death. Notes on their fate in deportation and mass-murder: Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 58(6) Jun 2004, 533-543.
  • Graaf, T. D. (1975). Pathological patterns of identification in families of survivors of the Holocaust: Israel Annals of Psychiatry & Related Disciplines Vol 13(4) Dec 1975, 335-363.
  • Grau, G. (2002). Liberalization and repression: The legal debate in East Germany concerning Paragraph 175: Zeitschrift fur Sexualforschung Vol 15(4) Dec 2002, 323-340.
  • Green, C., Garety, P. A., Freeman, D., Fowler, D., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G., et al. (2006). Content and affect in persecutory delusions: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 45(4) Nov 2006, 561-577.
  • Green, C. E. L., Freeman, D., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G., et al. (2008). Measuring ideas of persecution and social reference: The Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales (GPTS): Psychological Medicine Vol 38(1) Jan 2008, 101-111.
  • Haans, T. (1988). Group Psychotherapy with Survivors of World War II Persecution: Group Analysis Vol 21(3) Sep 1988, 267-280.
  • Harrington, L., Langdon, R., Siegert, R. J., & McClure, J. (2005). Schizophrenia, theory of mind, and persecutory delusions: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 10(2) 2005, 87-104.
  • Hearst, L. (2005). Review of Die Schwere Erinnerung: Deutscher Widerstandskaempfer ueber die Verfolgung und Vernichtung der Juden: Group Analysis Vol 38(3) Sep 2005, 468-470.
  • Heinemann, E. (2000). Witches: A psychoanalytical exploration of the killing of women. London, England: Free Association Books.
  • Hernandez, P. (2002). Trauma in war and political persecution: Expanding the concept: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 72(1) Jan 2002, 16-25.
  • Hill, M. B., & Brack, G. (2004). The Killing and Burning of Witches in South Africa: A Model of Community Rebuilding and Reconciliation. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Hjern, A., Angel, B., & Hojer, B. (1991). Persecution and behavior: A report of refugee children from Chile: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 15(3) 1991, 239-248.
  • Hodes, M. (2000). Psychological distressed refugee children in the United Kingdom: Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review Vol 5(2) 2000, 57-68.
  • Hodge, D. R. (2007). Advocating for persecuted people of faith: A social justice imperative: Families in Society Vol 88(2) Apr-Jun 2007, 255-262.
  • Hollander, N. C. (1989). Psychoanalysis confronts the politics of repression: The case of Argentina: Social Science & Medicine Vol 28(7) 1989, 751-758.
  • Holter, R. (2003). Shattered time--Analytical psychotherapy after political persecution and imprisonment: Analytische Psychologie Vol 34(131) Mar 2003, 1-18.
  • Holter, R. (2005). Shadowed reality or the 'Prometheus-complex': Analytical psychotherapy after political imprisonment and persecution: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 50(4) Sep 2005, 521-537.
  • Ingleby, D. (1988). Critical psychology in relation to political repression and violence: International Journal of Mental Health Vol 17(4) Win 1988-1989, 16-28.
  • Jaques, E. (1971). Social systems as defence against persecutory and depressive anxiety: A contribution to the psycho-analytical study of social processes. Oxford, England: Tavistock.
  • Kanter, I. (1976). Social psychiatry and the holocaust: Journal of Psychology & Judaism Vol 1(1) Fal 1976, 55-66.
  • Katan, M. (1974). The development of the influencing apparatus: A study of Freud's article "A case of paranoia running counter to the psycho-analytic theory of the disease." The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 29 47 1974, 3-510.
  • Kendler, K. S. (1980). Are there delusions specific for paranoid disorders vs schizophrenia? : Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 6(1) 1980, 1-3.
  • Kestenberg, J. S. (1992). Children under the Nazi yoke: British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 8(4) Sum 1992, 374-390.
  • Kestenberg, M. (1985). Legal aspects of child persecution during the Holocaust: Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry Vol 24(4) Jul 1985, 381-384.
  • Kirchhoff, R. M., Kirchhoff, G. M., & Schacke, G. (2003). Expert opinion about psychiatric long term damages by imprisonment in concentration camp in case of applications for worsening of persecution damages: Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fur interdisziplinaere Fortbildung Vol 22(1) 2003, 47-53.
  • Kitron, D. (2001). Secluded lives: The shelter of false selves in sociocultural contexts: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 24(1) Win 2001, 67-79.
  • Klein, H. (1972). Holocaust survivors in kibbutzim: Readaptation and reintegration: Israel Annals of Psychiatry & Related Disciplines Vol 10(1) Mar 1972, 78-91.
  • Koryagin, A. (1989). The involvement of Soviet psychiatry in the persecution of dissenters: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 154 Mar 1989, 336-340.
  • Kraus, J. (1998). Psychoanalysis in exile: Fate? : Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 52(11) Nov 1998, 1093-1101.
  • Lamontagne, Y., Audet, N., & Elie, R. (1983). Thought-stopping for delusions and hallucinations: A pilot study: Behavioural Psychotherapy Vol 11(2) Apr 1983, 177-184.
  • Langone, M. D. (2007). The PRC and Falun Gong: Cultic Studies Review Vol 6(3) 2007, 235-285.
  • Langone, M. D. (2007). Reply to Xie: Cultic Studies Review Vol 6(3) 2007, 295-297.
  • Laplanche, J. (1993). Seduction, persecution, revelation: Psychanalyse a l'Universite Vol 18(72) Oct 1993, 3-34.
  • Laplanche, J. (1993). Thematic elaborations: Seduction, persecution and revelation: Revista Brasileira de Psicanalise Vol 27(4) 1993, 751-782.
  • Lavik, N. J., Hauff, E., Skrondal, A., & Solberg, O. (1996). Mental disorder among refugees and the impact of persecution and exile: Some findings from an out-patient population: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 169(6) Dec 1996, 726-732.
  • Lessl, T. M. (1999). The Galileo legend as scientific folklore: Quarterly Journal of Speech Vol 85(2) May 1999, 146-168.
  • Lindbom-Jakobson, M., & Lindgren, L. (2001). Integration or sealing-over. A pilot study of coping strategies of severely traumatised patients: International Forum of Psychoanalysis Vol 10(1) Feb 2001, 27-34.
  • Looi, J. C. L., & Drew, L. R. H. (1996). Homeless, helpless and hospitalised: The travails of a Chinese refugee: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 30(5) Oct 1996, 694-697.
  • Lyon, H. M., Kaney, S., & Bentall, R. P. (1994). The defensive function of persecutory delusions: Evidence from attribution tasks: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(5) May 1994, 637-646.
  • McKay, R., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2005). Paranoia, persecutory delusions and attributional biases: Psychiatry Research Vol 136(2-3) Sep 2005, 233-245.
  • McKay, R., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2006). The Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 194(8) Aug 2006, 628-631.
  • McKay, R., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2007). The defensive function of persecutory delusions: An investigation using the Implicit Association Test: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 12(1) Jan 2007, 1-24.
  • Melges, F. T., & Freeman, A. M. (1975). Persecutory delusions: A cybernetic model: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(10) Oct 1975, 1038-1044.
  • Melo, S. S., Taylor, J. L., & Bentall, R. P. (2006). 'Poor me' versus 'bad me' paranoia and the instability of persecutory ideation: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice Vol 79(2) Jun 2006, 271-287.
  • Menuck, M. N. (1992). Differentiating paranoia and legitimate fears: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 149(1) Jan 1992, 140-141.
  • Mills, A., Gilbert, P., Bellew, R., McEwan, K., & Gale, C. (2007). Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy Vol 14(5) Sep-Oct 2007, 358-364.
  • Minkoff, K., Stefan, S., & Goldman, H. H. (2005). Patient Prosecution: Protection or Persecution? : Psychiatric Services Vol 56(7) Jul 2005, 872.
  • Moore, R., Blackwood, N., Corcoran, R., Rowse, G., Kinderman, P., Bentall, R., et al. (2006). Misunderstanding the Intentions of Others: An Exploratory Study of the Cognitive Etiology of Persecutory Delusions in Very Late-Onset Schizophrenia-Like Psychosis: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 14(5) May 2006, 410-418.
  • Moore, W. H., & Shellman, S. M. (2004). Fear of Persecution: Forced migration, 1952-1995: Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 48(5) Oct 2004, 723-745.
  • Moussaoui, D., Chihabeddine, K., & Touhami, M. (1984). Delusional persecutory and sthenic depressions: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 142(8) Sep-Oct 1984, 1118-1124.
  • Mynard, H., & Joseph, S. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck's personality dimensions in 8 to 13 year-olds: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 67(1) Mar 1997, 51-54.
  • Naidoo, J. C., & Rajab, D. M. (2005). The Dynamics of Oppression: A Psycho-Political Analysis of the Traumatic Experiences of Minority Asian Indians in Apartheid South Africa: Psychology and Developing Societies Vol 17(2) Sep 2005, 139-159.
  • Panayi, P. (2003). The persecution of German Romanies: The case of Osnabruck, 1933-46: Patterns of Prejudice Vol 37(4) Dec 2003, 377-399.
  • Pani, R. (2007). Persecution and shame: At the boundaries of delirium: Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica Vol 14(2) Jul-Dec 2007, 49-60.
  • Parens, H. (2001). On society's crimes against itself: Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies Vol 3(3) Jul 2001, 221-229.
  • Payton, C. (2008). Review of The danger of change--The Kleinian approach with patients who experience progress as trauma: Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations Vol 14(3) Aug 2008, 337-340.
  • Pepper, C. (2004). Gay men as victims of violence. Psychotherapy and asylum seeking: Zeitschrift fur Sexualforschung Vol 17(2) Jun 2004, 134-151.
  • Philibert, R., & Baumstimler, Y. (1977). Persecution paradox and countertransference in relaxation: Perspectives Psychiatriques Vol 15(62) 1977, 209-221.
  • Pinto, J. M. (2006). Change of paradigm: Relational psychoanalysis: Intersubjetivo Vol 8(1) Jun 2006, 67-98.
  • Priebe, S., Bolze, K., & Rudolf, H. (1994). Persisting mental sequelae of harassment because of an application to leave the GDR: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Vol 62(11) Nov 1994, 433-437.
  • Prince, R. (2007). Present and past in sonata form: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 43(3) Sum 2007, 484-492.
  • Puri, B. K., El-Dosoky, A., & Barrett, J. S. (1994). Self-inflicted intracranial injury: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(6) Jun 1994, 841-842.
  • Quitkin, F., Rifkin, A., McKay, L., & Klein, D. F. (1973). Scapegoating in hospitalized adolescents: A behavioral phenomenon associated with schizophrenia with premorbid asociality: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 28(5) May 1973, 680-682.
  • Rath, F., & Achte, K. (1974). Hexing in Finland: Attempt at a psychiatric-psychodynamic interpretation: Psychiatria Fennica 1974, 57-63.
  • Reulbach, U., Bleich, S., Biermann, T., Pfahlberg, A., & Sperling, W. (2007). Late-onset schizophrenia in child survivors of the Holocaust: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 195(4) Apr 2007, 315-319.
  • Revell, E. S. (2005). Editorial: Gestalt Review Vol 9(3) 2005, 241-244.
  • Rhodes, J. (2006). Review of Paranoia: The Psychology of Persecutory Delusions: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy Vol 34(4) Oct 2006, 511.
  • Robinson, S. (1979). Late effects of persecution in persons who--as children or young adolescents--survived Nazi occupation in Europe: Israel Annals of Psychiatry & Related Disciplines Vol 17(3) Sep 1979, 209-214.
  • Rogow, S. M. (1998). Persecution and genocide of children and young people with disabilities in Nazi Germany: Developmental Disabilities Bulletin Vol 26(2) 1998, 40-49.
  • Ryan, J. (2007). The four P-words of militant Islamist radicalization and recruitment: Persecution, precedent, piety, and perseverence: Studies in Conflict & Terrorism Vol 30(11) Nov 2007, 985-1011.
  • Salerian, A. J., Tuglaci, P., Salerian, G., Edwards, J. B., Baum, A., & Mendelsohn, B. (2007). Review of mass homicides of intelligentsia as a marker for genocide: The Forensic Examiner Vol 16(3) Fal 2007, 34-41.
  • Schirmbeck, F., Georgi, A., Strohmaier, J., Schmael, C., Knorr, C., Jamra, R. A., et al. (2007). No association between the serine racemase gene (SRR) and bipolar disorder in a German case-control sample: Psychiatric Genetics Vol 17(2) Apr 2007, 127.
  • Schoeneman, T. J. (1975). The witch hunt as a culture change phenomenon: Ethos Vol 3(4) Win 1975, 529-554.
  • Schreuder, B. J. N. (2001). The violation of inner and outer boundaries in political persecution: Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies Vol 3(3) Jul 2001, 231-242.
  • Seibel, W., & Raab, J. (2003). Networks of Persecution: On the Measurement of Division of Labor and Differentiation of Power within the Persecution Apparatus During the Holocaust: Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie Vol 55(2) Jun 2003, 197-230.
  • Startup, H., Freeman, D., & Garety, P. A. (2007). Persecutory delusions and catastrophic worry in psychosis: Developing the understanding of delusion distress and persistence: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 45(3) Mar 2007, 523-537.
  • Startup, M., Owen, D. M., Parsonage, R. K., & Jackson, M. C. (2003). Anomalous experiences and the contents of persecutory delusions during acute psychotic episodes: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice Vol 76(3) Sep 2003, 315-322.
  • Sullivan, G. (1999). Political opportunism and the harassment of homosexuals in Flordia, 1952-1965: Journal of Homosexuality Vol 37(4) 1999, 57-81.
  • Swartz, L., & Levett, A. (1989). Political repression and children in South Africa: The social construction of damaging effects: Social Science & Medicine Vol 28(7) 1989, 741-750.
  • Tikoo, M. (1994). The 1989-90 migration of Kashmiri Pandits: Focus on children: Psychological Reports Vol 75(1, Pt 1) Aug 1994, 259-263.
  • Ting, R. S.-K., & Watson, T. (2007). Is suffering good? An explorative study on the religious persecution among Chinese pastors: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 35(3) Fal 2007, 202-210.
  • Tolle, R. (1999). Persecution in Nazi everyday life: Pathic aspects of extreme distress: Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie Vol 67(8) Aug 1999, 348-358.
  • Tonnellier, H., & Jatteau, O. (1983). Repression, disappearance, torture: L'Information Psychiatrique Vol 59(1) Jan 1983, 9-21.
  • Trapanese, G. (2004). Idealization and persecution within transgenerational transmission of maternal fantasy: Le Divan Familial No 13 Fal 2004, 151-159.
  • Treplin, V. (2001). Two Kinds of Past-Two Kinds of Remembering: Analytische Psychologie Vol 32(124) May 2001, 84-106.
  • Triandis, H. C. (2007). Restoring the mental health of millions of persecuted persons: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 52 (34), 2007.
  • Tucker, S., & Price, D. (2007). Finding a home: Group psychotherapy for traumatized refugees and asylum seekers: European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling Vol 9(3) Sep 2007, 277-287.
  • van der Meer, T. (1997). Sodom's seed in the Netherlands: The emergence of homosexuality in the early modern period: Journal of Homosexuality Vol 34(1) 1997, 1-16.
  • Vasquez, A., & Rodriguez, G. (1983). Survey of a three-year research on torture: Methodological problems: L'Information Psychiatrique Vol 59(1) Jan 1983, 25-32.
  • Vieytes-Schmitt, C. (1992). Cinderella's children: Forbidden time: Therapie Familiale Vol 13(3) 1992, 267-274.
  • Virag, T. (1987). The historical background of neurotic states and conduct disorders in childhood: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 44(3) 1987-1988, 227-244.
  • Walinski-Kiehl, R. (2004). Males, "Masculine Honor," and Witch Hunting in Seventeenth-Century Germany: Men and Masculinities Vol 6(3) Jan 2004, 254-271.
  • Walston, F., Blennerhassett, R. C., & Charlton, B. G. (2000). "Theory of mind", persecutory delusions and the somatic marker mechanism: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 5(3) Aug 2000, 161-174.
  • Walston, F., David, A. S., & Charlton, B. G. (1998). Sex differences in the content of persecutory delusions: A reflection of hostile threats in the ancestral environment? : Evolution and Human Behavior Vol 19(4) Jul 1998, 257-260.
  • Wangh, M. (1973). Psychiatric misjudgments in German restitution proceedings: Blindness or spite? : Journal of Psychiatry & Law Vol 1(1) Spr 1973, 39-48.
  • Waska, R. (2002). Fragmentation, persecution and primitive guilt: Clinical and theoretical issues with psychotic patients: Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations Vol 8(2) May 2002, 147-162.
  • Waska, R. (2003). Fragmented attachments: The paranoid-schizoid experience of loss and persecution: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 67(1) Mar 2003, 50-64.
  • White, J. D., & Marsella, A. J. (2007). Fear of persecution: Global human rights, international law, and human well-being. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Xie, F. T. (2007). Falun Gong and the world: How many eight-years do we need? -- Comment on Langone (2007): Cultic Studies Review Vol 6(3) 2007, 286-294.
  • Yakushko, O. (2008). The impact of social and political changes on survivors of political persecutions in rural Russia and Ukraine: Political Psychology Vol 29(1) Feb 2008, 119-130.
  • Young, S. (1998). The support group approach to bullying in schools: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 14(1) Apr 1998, 32-39.
  • Yung, A. R., Buckby, J. A., Cotton, S. M., Cosgrave, E. M., Killackey, E. J., Stanford, C., et al. (2006). Psychotic-like experiences in nonpsychotic help-seekers: Associations with distress, depression, and disability: Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 32(2) Apr 2006, 352-359.
  • Zolotova, J., & Brune, M. (2006). Persecutory delusions: Reminiscence of ancestral hostile threats? : Evolution and Human Behavior Vol 27(3) May 2006, 185-192.
  • Zuk, G. H. (1990). Murder in the family: An analysis of two Poe short stories: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 12(6) Dec 1990, 467-476.


  • Adam, B. D. (1979). Social psychology of inferiorized peoples: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chin, T. L. (2004). An investigation of the effects of political persecution in Chinese immigrant women and their daughters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Davoudi, M. (2004). Spiritual dimension of adaptation to persecution and torture among Iranian Bahai women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Grinkis, C. M. (2001). Delusions of persecution: An existential-phenomenological study of persons diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Jackson, K. A. (1992). Trauma survivors: Adult children of McCarthyism and the Smith Act: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Karr, S. D. (1973). Second-generation effects of the Nazi holocaust: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Key, F. A. (2001). Using fear-reduction techniques to treat paranoid ideations and persecutory delusions in schizophrenic patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Murati, S. G. (2003). A cultural psychological study of the narratives of the ex-politically persecuted people of Albania: Toward a national narrative. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ogunyemi, E. S. (1977). A content analysis of selected documents dealing with some relationships between Christians and Romans during the first three centuries: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tausend, S. A. (1980). Determinants of undesirability: Development and expansion of the stigma process model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).