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{{SocPsy}}
'''Pornography''' ([[Greek language|Greek]] ''pornographia'' from ''porne'' , prostitute + ''grapho'' , (v.) to write + suffix ''ia'' , state of , property of , place of)
 
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{{Expert}}
, more informally referred to as '''porn''' or '''porno,''' is the explicit representation of the [[Human anatomy|human body]] or [[Human sexual behavior|sexual activity]] with the goal of [[sexual arousal]]. It is similar to, but distinct from [[erotica]], which is the use of sexually arousing imagery used for artistic purposes only. Over the past few decades, the pornographic industry has skyrocketed due to the technological convenience of VHS and DVD, and in particular the rise of the Internet.
 
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'''Pornography''' (Greek ''pornographia'' from ''porne'', prostitute + ''grapho'', (v.) to write + suffix ''ia'', state of, property of, place of), more informally referred to as '''porn''' or '''porno,''' is the explicit representation of the [[Human anatomy|human body]] or [[Human sexual behavior|sexual activity]] with the goal of [[sexual arousal]]. It is similar to, but distinct from [[erotica]], which is the use of sexually arousing imagery used for artistic purposes only. Over the past few decades, the pornographic industry has skyrocketed due to the technological convenience of VHS and DVD, and in particular the rise of the internet.
   
 
In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic or historical merit, whereas "pornography" often connotes the prurient depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value. The line between "erotica" and the term "pornography" (which is frequently considered a pejorative term) is often highly subjective. In practice, pornography can be defined merely as erotica that certain people perceive as "[[Obscenity|obscene]]." The definition of what one considers obscene can differ between persons, cultures and eras. This leaves legal actions by those who oppose pornography open to wide interpretation. It also provides lucrative employment for armies of lawyers, on several "sides."
 
In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic or historical merit, whereas "pornography" often connotes the prurient depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value. The line between "erotica" and the term "pornography" (which is frequently considered a pejorative term) is often highly subjective. In practice, pornography can be defined merely as erotica that certain people perceive as "[[Obscenity|obscene]]." The definition of what one considers obscene can differ between persons, cultures and eras. This leaves legal actions by those who oppose pornography open to wide interpretation. It also provides lucrative employment for armies of lawyers, on several "sides."
   
Pornography may use any of a variety of media — printed literature, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself.
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Pornography may use any of a variety of media — printed literature, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself.
   
Cultural historians have suggested that every art medium and publishing medium first was used for pornography: handwriting, painting, sculpture, the printing press, printed sheet music, motion pictures, videotapes, DVD's. The World Wide Web.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
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Cultural historians have suggested that every art medium and publishing medium first was used for pornography: handwriting, painting, sculpture, the printing press, printed sheet music, motion pictures, videotapes, DVD's. The World Wide Web.{{Fact|date=February 2007}} This may not be true throughout history, but it does seem to be true for recent history. The videotape and DVD media might have flourished without porn, but they have certainly flourished very well with it: the porn industry produces more titles per year than Hollywood; it even compares to Bollywood. Curiously, porn plays in few theaters, and in many countries it is difficult to rent porn videos, because Blockbuster and other large video-rental firms avoid porn; most distribution is by sale.
This may not be true throughout history, but it does seem to be true for recent history. The videotape and DVD media might have flourished without porn, but they have certainly flourished very well with it: the porn industry produces more titles per year than Hollywood; it even compares to Bollywood. Curiously, porn plays in few theaters, and in many countries it is difficult to rent porn videos, because Blockbuster and other large video-rental firms avoid porn; most distribution is by sale.
 
   
 
==Technology==
 
==Technology==
Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Indeed some claim that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion) to video, [[Satellite television|satellite TV]], [[DVD]], and the Internet.{{Fact|date=February 2007}} Calls to regulate or prohibit these technologies have often cited pornography as a concern.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
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Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Indeed some claim that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion) to video, [[Satellite television|satellite TV]], [[DVD]], and the internet.{{Fact|date=February 2007}} Calls to regulate or prohibit these technologies have often cited pornography as a concern.{{Fact|date=February 2007}}
   
 
===Photo manipulation and computer-generated images===
 
===Photo manipulation and computer-generated images===
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Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with [[fictional character]]s, such as [[Lara Croft]], is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of [[Playboy]] featured topless pictures of the title character from the [[BloodRayne]] video game.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://money.cnn.com/2004/08/25/commentary/game_over/column_gaming/ | title=Playboy undressed video game women - Aug. 25, 2004 | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
 
Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with [[fictional character]]s, such as [[Lara Croft]], is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of [[Playboy]] featured topless pictures of the title character from the [[BloodRayne]] video game.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://money.cnn.com/2004/08/25/commentary/game_over/column_gaming/ | title=Playboy undressed video game women - Aug. 25, 2004 | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
Mainstream movies containing [[Computer-generated imagery|CGI]] and other realistic [[special effect]]s show that if a director can imagine something in sufficient detail, combined with sufficient resources, it can be put on a screen. [[Pasolini]] created some gruesome images in ''[[Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma|Salo]],'' without using computers, but some of them are not really seen by the viewer. [[De Sade]] described even more gruesome images in ''[[120 Days of Sodom]]'', the book on which ''Salo'' is based: perhaps a truly fiendish director with a roomful of up-to-date computers—costing less than $1 million total—could realize de Sade's worst visions without actually torturing a person to death in front of a camera. The recent [[Lord of the Rings]] films by director [[Peter Jackson]] show what is technically possible in filmmaking: this technology has yet to be applied to pornography. Clearly, more can be done than already has been done.
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Mainstream movies containing [[Computer-generated imagery|CGI]] and other realistic [[special effect]]s show that if a director can imagine something in sufficient detail, combined with sufficient resources, it can be put on a screen.
   
 
===Internet Distribution===
 
===Internet Distribution===
 
{{Main article|Internet pornography}}
 
{{Main article|Internet pornography}}
Some internet entrepreneurs operate [[Internet pornography|pornographic internet sites]]. As well as conventional photographic or [[Pornographic film|video pornography]], some sites offer an "interactive" [[Computer and video games|video game]]-like entertainment. Due to the international character of the Internet, it provides an easy means whereby consumers residing in countries where pornography is either taboo or entirely illegal can easily acquire such material from sources in another country where it is legal or remains unprosecuted.
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Some internet entrepreneurs operate [[internet pornography|pornographic internet sites]]. As well as conventional photographic or [[Pornographic film|video pornography]], some sites offer an "interactive" [[Computer and video games|video game]] like entertainment. Due to the international character of the internet, it provides an easy means whereby consumers residing in countries where pornography is either taboo or entirely illegal can easily acquire such material from sources in another country where it is legal or remains unprosecuted.
   
The low cost of copying and delivering digital data boosted the formation of private circles of people swapping pornography. With the advent of peer-to-peer [[file sharing]] applications such as [[Kazaa]], pornography swapping has reached new heights. Prior to this, the [[Usenet]] news service was a popular place for pornography swapping. Free pornography became available en masse from other users and is no longer restricted to private groups. Large amounts of free pornography on the Internet are also distributed for marketing purposes to encourage subscriptions to paid content.
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The low cost of copying and delivering digital data boosted the formation of private circles of people swapping pornography. With the advent of peer-to-peer [[file sharing]] applications such as Kazaa, pornography swapping has reached new heights. Prior to this, the Usenet news service was a popular place for pornography swapping. Free pornography became available en masse from other users and is no longer restricted to private groups. Large amounts of free pornography on the internet are also distributed for marketing purposes to encourage subscriptions to paid content.
   
 
Since the late 1990s, "porn ''from'' the masses ''for'' the masses" seems to have become another new trend. Inexpensive digital cameras, increasingly powerful and user-friendly software, and easy access to pornographic source material have made it possible for individuals to produce and share home-made or home-altered porn for next to no cost. Such [[Amateur pornography|home-made pornographers]] are able to cater more closely to the desires of the viewers, sometimes actually playing out scenarios suggested by a particular viewer for fulfillment of their fantasy.
 
Since the late 1990s, "porn ''from'' the masses ''for'' the masses" seems to have become another new trend. Inexpensive digital cameras, increasingly powerful and user-friendly software, and easy access to pornographic source material have made it possible for individuals to produce and share home-made or home-altered porn for next to no cost. Such [[Amateur pornography|home-made pornographers]] are able to cater more closely to the desires of the viewers, sometimes actually playing out scenarios suggested by a particular viewer for fulfillment of their fantasy.
   
Despite adult filters and settings on most Internet search engines, porn sites are easily found on the Internet with Adult industry webmasters being the first and most active to optimize their pages for search engine queries. As a result, many porn-related search returns are overwhelming and often somewhat irrelevant. This has led to development of porn-specific search engines, like [[Booble]], which started as a parody of porn on the web and the business of porn for search engine giants like Google, which quickly sought to shut the parody down.
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Despite adult filters and settings on most internet search engines, porn sites are easily found on the internet with Adult industry webmasters being the first and most active to optimize their pages for search engine queries. As a result, many porn-related search returns are overwhelming and often somewhat irrelevant. This has led to development of porn-specific search engines, like [[Booble]], which started as a parody of porn on the web and the business of porn for search engine giants like Google, which quickly sought to shut the parody down.
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
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[[Image:LampArtifactDoggystyle.jpg|thumb|pix=250|Oil lamp artifact depicting [[Doggy style|coitus more ferarum]]]]
 
[[Image:LampArtifactDoggystyle.jpg|thumb|pix=250|Oil lamp artifact depicting [[Doggy style|coitus more ferarum]]]]
Pornography is as old as civilization but the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the [[Victorian era]]. Previous to that time, though some sex acts were regulated or stipulated in laws, looking at objects or images depicting them was not. In some cases, certain books, engravings or image collections were outlawed, but the trend to compose laws that restricted viewing of sexually explicit things in general was a Victorian construct. When large scale excavations of [[Pompeii]] were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the [[Ancient Rome|Roman]]s came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the [[Roman Empire]]. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of [[human sexuality|sexuality]], and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The movable objects were locked away in the [[Secret Museum, Naples|Secret Museum]] in [[Naples, Italy]] and what couldn't be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, England’s and the world's first law criminalizing pornography was enacted in the [[Obscene Publications Act]] of 1857.<ref name = history /> The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the [[Hicklin test]] stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery are common throughout history, and remain so.<ref name = libido7>{{cite web| last = Beck| first = Marianna| title = The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections| publisher = Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility| date = May 2003| url = http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/archive/europorn07.html| accessdate = 2006-08-22}}</ref>
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Pornography is as old as civilization but the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the [[Victorian era]]. Previous to that time, though some sex acts were regulated or stipulated in laws, looking at objects or images depicting them was not. In some cases, certain books, engravings or image collections were outlawed, but the trend to compose laws that restricted viewing of sexually explicit things in general was a Victorian construct. When large scale excavations of [[Pompeii]] were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the [[Ancient Rome|Roman]]s came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the [[Roman Empire]]. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of [[human sexuality|sexuality]], and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The movable objects were locked away in the [[Secret Museum, Naples|Secret Museum]] in [[Naples, Italy]] and what couldn't be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, England’s and the world's first law criminalizing pornography was enacted in the [[Obscene Publications Act]] of 1857.<ref name = history /> The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the [[Hicklin test]] stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery are common throughout history, and remain so.<ref name="libido7">{{cite web| last = Beck| first = Marianna| title = The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections| publisher = Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility| date = May 2003| url = https://web.archive.org/web/20030404161856/http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/archive/europorn07.html| accessdate = 2006-08-22}}</ref>
   
 
==Legal status==
 
==Legal status==
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The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of [[Child pornography]] is illegal in almost all countries, and most countries have restrictions on pornography involving [[Rape pornography|violence]] or [[Zoophilia|animals]].
 
The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of [[Child pornography]] is illegal in almost all countries, and most countries have restrictions on pornography involving [[Rape pornography|violence]] or [[Zoophilia|animals]].
   
Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to [[adult bookstore]]s, mail-order, via television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, [[disseminating pornography to a minor]] is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered irrelevant by widely available [[Internet pornography]].
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Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to [[adult bookstore]]s, mail-order, via television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, [[disseminating pornography to a minor]] is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered irrelevant by widely available [[internet pornography]].
   
In the United States, a person receiving unwanted [[Direct marketing|commercial mail]] he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a [[Prohibitory Order]], either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the [[United States Postal Service]].
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In the United States, a person receiving unwanted [[direct marketing|commercial mail]] he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a [[Prohibitory Order]], either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the [[United States Postal Service]].
   
 
There are recurring [[urban legend]]s of [[snuff movie]]s, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works.
 
There are recurring [[urban legend]]s of [[snuff movie]]s, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works.
   
The Internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in the UK (excluding Northern Ireland) and Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines. This material often ends up on the Internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child pornography, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material.
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The internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in the UK (excluding Northern Ireland) and Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines. This material often ends up on the internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child pornography, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material.
   
 
Some people, including pornography producer [[Larry Flynt]] and the writer [[Salman Rushdie]], have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography.<ref>[http://titusonenine.classicalanglican.net/index.php?p=1971 “Porn is vital to freedom, says [Salman] Rushdie”]</ref>
 
Some people, including pornography producer [[Larry Flynt]] and the writer [[Salman Rushdie]], have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography.<ref>[http://titusonenine.classicalanglican.net/index.php?p=1971 “Porn is vital to freedom, says [Salman] Rushdie”]</ref>
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Distribution of obscenity is a Federal crime in the United States, and also under most laws of the 50 states. There is no right to distribute obscene materials. Child pornography is illegal. The determination of what is obscene is up to a jury in a trial, which must apply the [[Miller test]].
 
Distribution of obscenity is a Federal crime in the United States, and also under most laws of the 50 states. There is no right to distribute obscene materials. Child pornography is illegal. The determination of what is obscene is up to a jury in a trial, which must apply the [[Miller test]].
   
In explaining its decision to reject claims that obscenity should be treated as speech protected by the First Amendment, in [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=413&invol=15#34 MILLER v. CALIFORNIA, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)]the US Supreme Court found that
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In explaining its decision to reject claims that obscenity should be treated as speech protected by the First Amendment, in [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=413&invol=15#34 MILLER v. CALIFORNIA, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)] the US Supreme Court found that
   
:The dissenting Justices sound the alarm of repression. But, in our view, to equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a "misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and free press . . . ." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S., at 645 .
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:The dissenting Justices sound the alarm of repression. But, in our view, to equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a "misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and free press " Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S., at 645 .
   
 
and in [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=413&invol=49#57 PARIS ADULT THEATRE I v. SLATON, 413 U.S. 49 (1973)] that
 
and in [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=413&invol=49#57 PARIS ADULT THEATRE I v. SLATON, 413 U.S. 49 (1973)] that
   
:In particular, we hold that there are legitimate state interests at stake in stemming the tide of commercialized obscenity, even assuming it is feasible to enforce effective safeguards against exposure to juveniles and to passersby. 7 [413 U.S. 49, 58] Rights and interests "other than those of the advocates are involved." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S. 622, 642 (1951). These include the interest of the public in the quality of life and the total community environment, the tone of commerce in the great city centers, and, possibly, the public safety itself... As Mr. Chief Justice Warren stated, there is a "right of the Nation and of the States to maintain a decent society . . .," [413 U.S. 49, 60] Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 199 (1964) (dissenting opinion)... The sum of experience, including that of the past two decades, affords an ample basis for legislatures to conclude that a sensitive, key relationship of human existence, central to family life, community welfare, and the development of human personality, can be debased and distorted by crass commercial exploitation of sex.
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:In particular, we hold that there are legitimate state interests at stake in stemming the tide of commercialized obscenity, even assuming it is feasible to enforce effective safeguards against exposure to juveniles and to passersby. 7 [413 U.S. 49, 58] Rights and interests "other than those of the advocates are involved." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S. 622, 642 (1951). These include the interest of the public in the quality of life and the total community environment, the tone of commerce in the great city centers, and, possibly, the public safety itself As Mr. Chief Justice Warren stated, there is a "right of the Nation and of the States to maintain a decent society " [413 U.S. 49, 60] Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 199 (1964) (dissenting opinion). The sum of experience, including that of the past two decades, affords an ample basis for legislatures to conclude that a sensitive, key relationship of human existence, central to family life, community welfare, and the development of human personality, can be debased and distorted by crass commercial exploitation of sex.
   
Attorney General for Ronald Reagan, [[Edwin Meese]], also courted controversy when he appointed the "[[Meese Commission]]" to investigate pornography in the United States; their report, released in July 1986, was highly critical of pornography and itself became a target of widespread criticism. That year, Meese Commission officials contacted convenience store chains and succeeded in demanding that widespread men's magazines such as ''[[Playboy]]'' and ''[[Penthouse (magazine)|Penthouse]]'' be removed from shelves,<ref>{{cite web | url=http://home.earthlink.net/~durangodave/html/writing/Censorship.htm | title=Politics and Pornography | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>a ban which spread nationally<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.mediacoalition.org/reports/wildmon.html | title=The Rev. Donald E. Wildmon | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref> until being quashed with a [[First Amendment]] admonishment against prior restraint by the D.C. Federal Court in Meese v. Playboy (639 F.Supp. 581).
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Attorney General for Ronald Reagan, [[Edwin Meese]], also courted controversy when he appointed the "[[Meese Commission]]" to investigate pornography in the United States; their report, released in July 1986, was highly critical of pornography and itself became a target of widespread criticism. That year, Meese Commission officials contacted convenience store chains and succeeded in demanding that widespread men's magazines such as ''[[Playboy]]'' and ''[[Penthouse (magazine)|Penthouse]]'' be removed from shelves,<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20000420155958/http://home.earthlink.net/~durangodave/html/writing/Censorship.htm | title=Politics and Pornography | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref> a ban which spread nationally <ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20000819053207/http://www.mediacoalition.org/reports/wildmon.html | title=The Rev. Donald E. Wildmon | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref> until being quashed with a [[First Amendment]] admonishment against prior restraint by the D.C. Federal Court in Meese v. Playboy (639 F.Supp. 581).
   
In the United States in 2005, Attorney General Gonzales made obscenity and pornography a top prosecutorial priority of the [[United States Department of Justice|Department of Justice]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.politechbot.com/2005/08/30/attorney-general-gonzales | title=Attorney General Gonzales' priority: porn, not terrorists [Politech | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
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In the United States in 2005, Attorney General Gonzales made obscenity and pornography a top prosecutorial priority of the [[United States Department of Justice|Department of Justice]].<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050924182323/http://www.politechbot.com/2005/08/30/attorney-general-gonzales | title=<nowiki>Attorney General Gonzales' priority: porn, not terrorists [Politech</nowiki> | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
 
===Religious objections===
 
===Religious objections===
Some religious groups often discourage their members from viewing or reading pornography, and support legislation restricting its publication. These positions derive from broader religious views about sexuality. In some religious traditions, for example, sexual intercourse is limited to the express function of procreation. Thus, sexual pleasure or sex-oriented entertainment, as well as lack of modesty, are considered immoral. Other religions do not find sexual pleasure immoral, but see sex as a sacred, godly, highly-pleasurable activity that is only to be enjoyed with one's spouse. These traditions do not condemn sexual pleasure in and of itself, but they impose limitations on the circumstances under which sexual pleasure may be properly experienced. Pornography in this view is seen as the secularization of something sacred, and a violation of spouses' intimate relationship.
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Some religious groups often discourage their members from viewing or reading pornography, and support legislation that restricts its publication. These positions derive from broader religio-ideological positions regarding sexuality. In some religions, and especially Islam, sexual pleasure is limited to being between the dominant exclusivity of spouses. Thus, other sources of sexual pleasure, including sex-oriented entertainment and pornography, and even the lack of clothing coverage, are forbidden as violations of that dominance.
   
In addition to expressing concerns about violating sexual morality, some religions take an anti-pornography stance claiming that viewing pornography is addictive, leading to self-destructive behavior. Proponents of this view compare [[pornography addiction]] to [[alcoholism]], both in asserting the seriousness of the problem and in developing treatment methods.
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Some anti-pornography religious groups use the tactic of claiming that viewing pornography is addictive, leading to self-destructive behavior. Proponents of this doctrine compare [[pornography addiction]] to [[alcoholism]], both in asserting the seriousness of the problem and in developing treatment methods.
   
 
===Feminist objections===
 
===Feminist objections===
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===Effect on sex crimes===
 
===Effect on sex crimes===
A lower per capita crime rate and historically high availability of pornography in many developed European countries (e.g. [[Netherlands]], [[Sweden]]) has led a growing majority to conclude that there is an inverse relationship between the two, such that an increased availability of pornography in a society equates to a decrease in sexual crime.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Kendall%20cover%20+%20paper.pdf | title=Pornography, rape and the internet | accessdate=2006-10-25}}</ref> Moreover, there is some evidence that states within the U.S. that have lower rates of internet access have a greater incidence of rape.<ref>{{cite web | last = D'Amato | first = Anthony | title = Porn Up, Rape Down | url=http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=913013 | date = June 23, 2006| accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref>
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A lower per capita crime rate and historically high availability of pornography in many developed European countries (e.g. [[Netherlands]], [[Sweden]]) has led a growing majority to conclude that there is an inverse relationship between the two, such that an increased availability of pornography in a society equates to a decrease in sexual crime.<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061102192540/http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Kendall%20cover%20+%20paper.pdf | title=Pornography, rape and the internet | accessdate=2006-10-25}}</ref> Moreover, there is some evidence that states within the U.S. that have lower rates of internet access have a greater incidence of rape.<ref>{{cite web | last = D'Amato | first = Anthony | title = Porn Up, Rape Down | url=http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=913013 | date = June 23, 2006| accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref>
   
 
===Effect on sexual aggression===
 
===Effect on sexual aggression===
In the 70's and 80's, feminists such as Dr. [[Catharine MacKinnon]] and [[Andrea Dworkin]] criticized pornography as essentially dehumanizing women and as likely to encourage violence against them. It has been suggested that there was an alliance, tacit or explicit, between [[Anti-pornography movement#Feminist objections|anti-porn feminists]] and [[evangelical Christians|fundamentalist Christians]] to help censor the use of or production of pornography.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.ashlandfreepress.com/The_Summer_of_Love_Issue/The_Anti-Pornography_Movement | title=The Anti-Pornography Movement - Ashland Free Press | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
+
In the 1970s and 1980s, feminists such as Dr. [[Catharine MacKinnon]] and [[Andrea Dworkin]] criticized pornography as essentially dehumanizing women and as likely to encourage violence against them. It has been suggested that there was an alliance, tacit or explicit, between [[anti-pornography movement#Feminist objections|anti-porn feminists]] and [[evangelical Christians|fundamentalist Christians]] to help censor the use of or production of pornography.<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060819033342/http://www.ashlandfreepress.com/The_Summer_of_Love_Issue/The_Anti-Pornography_Movement | title=The Anti-Pornography Movement - Ashland Free Press | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
Some researchers have found that "high pornography use is not necessarily indicative of high risk for sexual aggression," but go on to say, "if a person has relatively aggressive sexual inclinations resulting from various personal and/or cultural factors, some pornography exposure may activate and reinforce associated coercive tendencies and behaviors".<ref> {{cite journal
+
Some researchers have found that "high pornography use is not necessarily indicative of high risk for sexual aggression", but go on to say, "if a person has relatively aggressive sexual inclinations resulting from various personal and/or cultural factors, some pornography exposure may activate and reinforce associated coercive tendencies and behaviors".<ref> {{cite journal
 
| last = Malamuth
 
| last = Malamuth
 
| first = NM
 
| first = NM
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===Pornography production and violence against women===
 
===Pornography production and violence against women===
 
{{NPOV-section}}
 
{{NPOV-section}}
According to Dr. [[Diana Russell]], "When addressing the question of whether or not pornography causes rape, as well as other forms of sexual assault and violence, many people fail to acknowledge that the actual making of pornography sometimes involves, or even requires, violence and sexual assault."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.dianarussell.com/pornasviolence.html | title=Porn & Violence | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
+
According to Dr. [[Diana Russell]], "When addressing the question of whether or not pornography causes rape, as well as other forms of sexual assault and violence, many people fail to acknowledge that the actual making of pornography sometimes involves, or even requires, violence and sexual assault
   
 
In 1979, [[Andrea Dworkin]] published [http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/dworkin/PornAList.html ''Pornography: Men Possessing Women''], which analyzes (and extensively cites examples drawn from) contemporary and historical pornography as an industry of woman-hating dehumanization. Dworkin argues that it is implicated in violence against women, both in its production (through the abuse of the women used to star in it), and in the social consequences of its consumption (by encouraging men to eroticize the domination, humiliation, and abuse of women).
 
In 1979, [[Andrea Dworkin]] published [http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/dworkin/PornAList.html ''Pornography: Men Possessing Women''], which analyzes (and extensively cites examples drawn from) contemporary and historical pornography as an industry of woman-hating dehumanization. Dworkin argues that it is implicated in violence against women, both in its production (through the abuse of the women used to star in it), and in the social consequences of its consumption (by encouraging men to eroticize the domination, humiliation, and abuse of women).
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In 1970, the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that ''"there was insufficient evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials played a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior."''
 
In 1970, the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that ''"there was insufficient evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials played a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior."''
   
In general, with regard to adults, the Commission recommended that legislation "should not seek to interfere with the right of adults who wish to do so to read, obtain, or view explicit sexual materials." Regarding the view that these materials should be restricted for adults in order to protect young people from exposure to them, the Commission found that it is "inappropriate to adjust the level of adult communication to that considered suitable for children." The Supreme Court supported this view.<ref>President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. </ref>
+
In general, with regard to adults, the Commission recommended that legislation "should not seek to interfere with the right of adults who wish to do so to read, obtain, or view explicit sexual materials". Some proponents of the criminalization of pornography have made the argument that pornography should be forbidden to adults, so that minors have no chance of seeing it. In response to that argument, the Commission found that it is "inappropriate to adjust the level of adult communication to that considered suitable for children". The Supreme Court supported this position.<ref>President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. </ref>
   
A large portion of the Commission's budget was applied to funding original research on the effects of sexually explicit materials. One experiment is described in which repeated exposure of male college students to pornography "caused decreased interest in it, less response to it and no lasting effect," although it appears that the satiation effect does wear off eventually ("Once more"). William B. Lockhart, Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and chairman of the commission, said that before his work with the commission he had favored control of obscenity for both children and adults, but had changed his mind as a result of scientific studies done by commission researchers. In reference to dissenting commission members Keating and Rev. Morton Hill, Lockhart said, "When these men have been forgotten, the research developed by the commission will provide a factual basis for informed, intelligent policymaking by the legislators of tomorrow."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://home.earthlink.net/~durangodave/html/writing/Censorship.htm | title=Politics and Pornography | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
+
A large portion of the Commission's budget was applied to funding original research on the effects of sexually explicit materials. One experiment is described in which repeated exposure of male college students to pornography "caused decreased interest in it, less response to it and no lasting effect," although it appears that the satiation effect does wear off eventually ("Once more"). William B. Lockhart, Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and chairman of the commission, said that before his work with the commission he had favored control of obscenity for both children and adults, but had changed his mind as a result of scientific studies done by commission researchers. In reference to dissenting commission members Keating and Rev. Morton Hill, Lockhart said, "When these men have been forgotten, the research developed by the commission will provide a factual basis for informed, intelligent policymaking by the legislators of tomorrow."<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20000420155958/http://home.earthlink.net/~durangodave/html/writing/Censorship.htm | title=Politics and Pornography | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
 
President Reagan announced his intention to set up a commission to study pornography. The result was the appointment by Attorney General Edwin Meese in the spring of 1985 of a panel comprised of 11 members, the majority of whom had established records as anti-pornography crusaders.<ref>Wilcox, Brian L. "Pornography, Social Science, and Politics: When Research and Ideology Collide." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 941-943. </ref>
 
President Reagan announced his intention to set up a commission to study pornography. The result was the appointment by Attorney General Edwin Meese in the spring of 1985 of a panel comprised of 11 members, the majority of whom had established records as anti-pornography crusaders.<ref>Wilcox, Brian L. "Pornography, Social Science, and Politics: When Research and Ideology Collide." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 941-943. </ref>
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#"In laboratory studies measuring short-term effects, exposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior toward women" According to Surgeon General Koop, "Although the evidence may be slim, we nevertheless know enough to conclude that pornography does present a clear and present danger to American public health"<ref>Koop, C. Everett. "Report of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Pornography and Public Health." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 944-945.</ref>
 
#"In laboratory studies measuring short-term effects, exposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior toward women" According to Surgeon General Koop, "Although the evidence may be slim, we nevertheless know enough to conclude that pornography does present a clear and present danger to American public health"<ref>Koop, C. Everett. "Report of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Pornography and Public Health." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 944-945.</ref>
   
[[Japan]], which is noted for its large output of [[Rape pornography|rape fantasy pornography]], has the lowest reported sex crime rate in the [[industrialization|industrialized]] world, which has led some researchers to speculate that an opposite relationship may in fact exist&mdash;that wide availability of pornography may reduce crimes by giving potential offenders a socially accepted way of regulating their own sexuality. Conversely, some argue that reported sex crime rates are low in Japan because the culture (a culture that greatly emphasizes a woman's "honor") is such that victims of sex crime are less likely to report it (e.g. [[chikan (body contact)|chikan]]<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.belsona-strategic.com/hisandhers_subway.htm | title=The His and Hers Subway | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>).
+
[[Japan]], which is noted for its large output of [[Rape pornography|rape fantasy pornography]], has the lowest reported sex crime rate in the [[industrialization|industrialized]] world, which has led some researchers to speculate that an opposite relationship may in fact exist&mdash;that wide availability of pornography may reduce crimes by giving potential offenders a socially accepted way of regulating their own sexuality. Conversely, some argue that reported sex crime rates are low in Japan because the culture (a culture that greatly emphasizes a woman's "honor") is such that victims of sex crime are less likely to report it (e.g. [[chikan (body contact)|chikan]]<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20040918174740/http://www.belsona-strategic.com/hisandhers_subway.htm | title=The His and Hers Subway | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>).
   
 
===A case study: Japan===
 
===A case study: Japan===
 
{{see also|Pornography in Japan}}
 
{{see also|Pornography in Japan}}
[[Milton Diamond]] and Ayako Uchiyama write in "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan" (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22. 1999):<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/pornography/prngrphy_rape_jp.html | title=Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
+
[[Milton Diamond]] and Ayako Uchiyama write in "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan" (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22. 1999):<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20020622092109/http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/pornography/prngrphy_rape_jp.html | title=Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
: Our findings regarding sex crimes, murder and assault are in keeping with what is also known about general crime rates in Japan regarding burglary, theft and such. Japan has the lowest number of reported rape cases and the highest percentage of arrests and convictions in reported cases of any developed nation. Indeed, Japan is known as one of the safest developed countries for women in the world (Clifford, 1980). (...)
+
: Our findings regarding sex crimes, murder and assault are in keeping with what is also known about general crime rates in Japan regarding burglary, theft and such. Japan has the lowest number of reported rape cases and the highest percentage of arrests and convictions in reported cases of any developed nation. Indeed, Japan is known as one of the safest developed countries for women in the world (Clifford, 1980).
   
 
: Despite the absence of evidence, the myth persists that an abundance of sexually explicit material invariably leads to an abundance of sexual activity and eventually rape (e.g., Liebert, Neale, & Davison, 1973). Indeed, the data we report and review suggest the opposite. Christensen (1990) argues that to prove that available pornography leads to sex crimes one must at least find a positive temporal correlation between the two. The absence of any positive correlation in our findings, and from results elsewhere, between an increase in available pornography and the incidence of rape or other sex crime, is [[prima facie]] evidence that no link exists. But objectivity requires that an additional question be asked: "Does pornography use and availability prevent or reduce sex crime?" Both questions lead to hypotheses that have, over prolonged periods, been tested in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and now in Japan. Indeed, it appears from our data from Japan, as it was evident to Kutchinsky (1994), from research in Europe, that a large increase in available sexually explicit materials, over many years, has not been correlated with an increase in rape or other sexual crimes. Instead, in Japan a marked decrease in sexual crimes has occurred.
 
: Despite the absence of evidence, the myth persists that an abundance of sexually explicit material invariably leads to an abundance of sexual activity and eventually rape (e.g., Liebert, Neale, & Davison, 1973). Indeed, the data we report and review suggest the opposite. Christensen (1990) argues that to prove that available pornography leads to sex crimes one must at least find a positive temporal correlation between the two. The absence of any positive correlation in our findings, and from results elsewhere, between an increase in available pornography and the incidence of rape or other sex crime, is [[prima facie]] evidence that no link exists. But objectivity requires that an additional question be asked: "Does pornography use and availability prevent or reduce sex crime?" Both questions lead to hypotheses that have, over prolonged periods, been tested in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and now in Japan. Indeed, it appears from our data from Japan, as it was evident to Kutchinsky (1994), from research in Europe, that a large increase in available sexually explicit materials, over many years, has not been correlated with an increase in rape or other sexual crimes. Instead, in Japan a marked decrease in sexual crimes has occurred.
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"We came up with the idea for the [[Feminism|Feminist]] Porn Awards because people don't know they have a choice when it comes to porn," said Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her and the event's organizer. "Yes, there's a lot of bad porn out there. But there is also some great porn being made by and for women. We wanted to recognize and celebrate the good porn makers as well as direct people to their work."
 
"We came up with the idea for the [[Feminism|Feminist]] Porn Awards because people don't know they have a choice when it comes to porn," said Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her and the event's organizer. "Yes, there's a lot of bad porn out there. But there is also some great porn being made by and for women. We wanted to recognize and celebrate the good porn makers as well as direct people to their work."
   
Some recent pornography has been produced under the rubric of "by and for women". According to [[Tristan Taormino]], "[[Sex-positive feminism|Feminist porn]] both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.villagevoice.com/people/0624,taormino,73480,24.html | title=village voice people Pucker Up by Tristan Taormino | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
+
Some recent pornography has been produced under the rubric of "by and for women". According to [[Tristan Taormino]], "[[Sex-positive feminism|Feminist porn]] both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."<ref>{{cite web | url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060613051851/http://www.villagevoice.com/people/0624,taormino,73480,24.html | title=village voice people Pucker Up by Tristan Taormino | accessdate=2006-08-26}}</ref>
   
 
==Production and distribution by region==
 
==Production and distribution by region==
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| url = http://www.amazon.com/Reefer-Madness-Drugs-American-Market/dp/0618334661
 
| url = http://www.amazon.com/Reefer-Madness-Drugs-American-Market/dp/0618334661
 
| doi =
 
| doi =
| id = ISBN 0618334661 }} </ref> The majority of pornographic video is shot in the [[San Fernando Valley]]{{Fact|date=February 2007}}, which acts as a center for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of porn.
+
| id = ISBN 0618334661 }} </ref> The majority of pornographic video is shot in the [[San Fernando Valley]]{{Fact|date=February 2007}}, which acts as a center for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of porn. Ok
   
In 1998, [[Forrester Research]] published a report on the online 'adult content' industry, which estimated at $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. A $10 billion aggregate figure had been estimated, and repeated in many news stories, but this was unsourced and not accurate.<ref>{{cite news
+
In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online 'adult content' industry, which estimated at $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. A $10 billion aggregate figure had been estimated, and repeated in many news stories, but this was unsourced and not accurate.<ref>{{cite news
 
| last = Richard
 
| last = Richard
 
| first = Emmanuelle
 
| first = Emmanuelle
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* [[Race-oriented pornography]] (e.g. [[Asian]], [[black]], [[Latino]], [[interracial pornography|interracial]])
 
* [[Race-oriented pornography]] (e.g. [[Asian]], [[black]], [[Latino]], [[interracial pornography|interracial]])
 
* [[Voyeurism|Voyeur pornography]] (e.g. hidden camera pornography, "upskirt" pornography)
 
* [[Voyeurism|Voyeur pornography]] (e.g. hidden camera pornography, "upskirt" pornography)
 
==Media==
 
{{multi-video start}}
 
{{multi-video item|filename=Blonde stag film.ogg|title=Silent "stag" film|description= Silent, black and white video clip featuring a topless blonde woman (6.5[[Megabyte|MB]], [[Ogg]]/[[Theora]] format).|format=[[Theora]]}}
 
{{multi-video end}}
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Lust]]
{{Portal}}
 
 
* [[Pornography addiction]]
 
* [[Pornography by region]]
 
* [[Sex in advertising]]
  +
* [[Paraphilias]]
  +
* [[Psychosexual behavior]]
 
* [[List of pornography laws by region]]
 
====Forms====
 
====Forms====
 
* [[Adult Theater]]
 
* [[Adult Theater]]
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* [[Pornographic film]]
 
* [[Pornographic film]]
   
====Lists====
 
* [[List of authors of erotic works]]
 
* [[List of gay pornographic magazines]]
 
* [[List of men's magazines]]
 
* [[List of porn stars]]
 
* [[List of pornographic book publishers]]
 
* [[List of pornographic movie studios]]
 
* [[List of pornographic magazines]]
 
* [[List of pornography industry personalities]]
 
* [[List of pornography laws by region]]
 
   
====People and groups====
 
* [[Anti-pornography movement]]
 
* [[Pornographic actor]]
 
* [[Pro-sex feminism]]
 
* [[Sex worker]]
 
 
====Others====
 
* [[Lust]]
 
* [[Pornography addiction]]
 
* [[Pornography by region]]
 
* [[Secret Museum, Naples]]
 
* [[Sex in advertising]]
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 245: Line 225:
 
===Advocacy===
 
===Advocacy===
 
*[[Susie Bright]]. "Susie Sexpert's Lesbian Sex World and Susie Bright's Sexual Reality: A Virtual Sex World Reader", San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1990 and 1992. Challenges any easy equation between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
 
*[[Susie Bright]]. "Susie Sexpert's Lesbian Sex World and Susie Bright's Sexual Reality: A Virtual Sex World Reader", San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1990 and 1992. Challenges any easy equation between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
*[[Betty Dodson]]. "Feminism and Free speech: Pornography." Feminists for Free Expression 1993. 8 May 2002 [http://www.bettydodson.com/ffe-porn.htm]
+
*[[Betty Dodson]]. "Feminism and Free speech: Pornography." Feminists for Free Expression 1993. 8 May 2002 [https://web.archive.org/web/19991010225655/http://www.bettydodson.com/ffe-porn.htm]
 
*Kate Ellis. Caught Looking: Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship. New York: Caught Looking Incorporated, 1986.
 
*Kate Ellis. Caught Looking: Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship. New York: Caught Looking Incorporated, 1986.
 
*[[Susan Griffin]]. Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
 
*[[Susan Griffin]]. Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
*Matthew Gever. "Pornography Helps Women, Society"[http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/DB/issues/98/12.03/view.gever.html], UCLA Bruin, 1998-12-03.
+
*Matthew Gever. "Pornography Helps Women, Society"[https://web.archive.org/web/20001203033400/http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/DB/issues/98/12.03/view.gever.html], UCLA Bruin, 1998-12-03.
*Jason Russell. "The Canadian Past-Time"[http://www.standlikearock.com/forums "Stand Like A Rock"]
+
*Jason Russell. "The Canadian Past-Time"[https://web.archive.org/web/20070207064134/http://www.standlikearock.com/forums "Stand Like A Rock"]
*Michele Gregory. "Pro-Sex Feminism: Redefining Pornography (or, a study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper) "[http://witsendzine.com/musings/michele/ppp.htm]
+
*Michele Gregory. "Pro-Sex Feminism: Redefining Pornography (or, a study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper) "[https://web.archive.org/web/20020809091134/http://witsendzine.com/musings/michele/ppp.htm]
 
*Andrea Juno and V. Vale. Angry Women, Re/Search # 12. San Francisco, CA: Re/Search Publications, 1991. Performance artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon's claim to speak on behalf of all women.
 
*Andrea Juno and V. Vale. Angry Women, Re/Search # 12. San Francisco, CA: Re/Search Publications, 1991. Performance artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon's claim to speak on behalf of all women.
 
*[[Michael Kimmel]]. "Men Confront Pornography". New York: Meridian--Random House, 1990. A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
 
*[[Michael Kimmel]]. "Men Confront Pornography". New York: Meridian--Random House, 1990. A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
 
*[[Wendy McElroy]] defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.[http://www.lewrockwell.com/mcelroy/mcelroy14.html]
 
*[[Wendy McElroy]] defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.[http://www.lewrockwell.com/mcelroy/mcelroy14.html]
 
**"A Feminist Overview of Pornography,Ending in a Defense Thereof"[http://www.wendymcelroy.com/freeinqu.htm]
 
**"A Feminist Overview of Pornography,Ending in a Defense Thereof"[http://www.wendymcelroy.com/freeinqu.htm]
**"A Feminist Defense of pornography"[http://www.secularhumanism.org/library/fi/mcelroy_17_4.html]
+
**"A Feminist Defense of pornography"[https://web.archive.org/web/19981201205458/http://www.secularhumanism.org/library/fi/mcelroy_17_4.html]
*Annalee Newitz. "Obscene Feminists: Why Women Are Leading the Battle Against Censorship." San Francisco Bay Guardian Online 8 May 2002. 9 May 2002[http://www.sfbg.com/36/32/news_womenvscensorship.html]
+
*Annalee Newitz. "Obscene Feminists: Why Women Are Leading the Battle Against Censorship." San Francisco Bay Guardian Online 8 May 2002. 9 May 2002[https://web.archive.org/web/20020601150027/http://www.sfbg.com/36/32/news_womenvscensorship.html]
 
*[[Nadine Strossen]]:
 
*[[Nadine Strossen]]:
 
**"Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights" (ISBN 0-8147-8149-7)
 
**"Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights" (ISBN 0-8147-8149-7)
 
**"Nadine Strossen: Pornography Must Be Tolerated"[http://www.spectacle.org/1195/strossen.html]
 
**"Nadine Strossen: Pornography Must Be Tolerated"[http://www.spectacle.org/1195/strossen.html]
 
*Scott Tucker. "Gender, Fucking, and Utopia: An Essay in Response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man."[http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0231104472&id=am37yVCaQXAC&pg=PR14&lpg=PR14&dq=Gender,+Fucking,+and+Utopia:+An+Essay+in+Response+to+John+Stoltenberg%27s+Refusing+to+Be+a+Man&sig=7ozk4FCFqIFMpHsyUp3QWORaPmQ] in Social Text 27 (1991): 3-34. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's positions on pornography and power.
 
*Scott Tucker. "Gender, Fucking, and Utopia: An Essay in Response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man."[http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0231104472&id=am37yVCaQXAC&pg=PR14&lpg=PR14&dq=Gender,+Fucking,+and+Utopia:+An+Essay+in+Response+to+John+Stoltenberg%27s+Refusing+to+Be+a+Man&sig=7ozk4FCFqIFMpHsyUp3QWORaPmQ] in Social Text 27 (1991): 3-34. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's positions on pornography and power.
*Carole Vance, Editor. "Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality". Boston: Routledge, 1984. Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.
+
*Carole Vance, Editor. "Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality". Boston: Routledge, 1984. Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
Line 267: Line 247:
 
* [http://www.forbes.com/2001/05/25/0524porn.html "How Big is Porn?"] Forbes, May 25, 2001
 
* [http://www.forbes.com/2001/05/25/0524porn.html "How Big is Porn?"] Forbes, May 25, 2001
 
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/porn/ American Porn] Interactive web site companion to a Frontline documentary exploring the pornography industry within the United States.
 
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/porn/ American Porn] Interactive web site companion to a Frontline documentary exploring the pornography industry within the United States.
* [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FH18Df03.html Rushdie Turns India's Air Blue] Discussion of the debate over pornography within Indian society.
+
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20040818045055/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/FH18Df03.html Rushdie Turns India's Air Blue] Discussion of the debate over pornography within Indian society.
* [http://www.methodsreporter.com/2006/11/13/chicago-campus-crusade-michael-leahy-porn/ "Who wants to live in a Porn Nation?"] Discussion of pornography on college campuses
+
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061208214617/http://www.methodsreporter.com/2006/11/13/chicago-campus-crusade-michael-leahy-porn/ "Who wants to live in a Porn Nation?"] Discussion of pornography on college campuses
* [http://www.quotationsbook.com/subjects/919/Pornography Famous quotations about pornography]
+
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20051013064541/http://www.quotationsbook.com/subjects/919/Pornography Famous quotations about pornography]
   
 
;Government
 
;Government
* Kutchinsky, Berl, Professor of Criminology: [http://www.fanny-hill.net/html/o1a_danish_pornography_laws.htm The first law that legalized pornography] (Denmark)
+
* Kutchinsky, Berl, Professor of Criminology: [https://web.archive.org/web/20051108034758/http://www.fanny-hill.net/html/o1a_danish_pornography_laws.htm The first law that legalized pornography] (Denmark)
   
 
;History
 
;History
* [http://www.xyclopedia.net/Main_Page xyclopedia: the history of pornography and sexual expression]
+
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061028213301/http://www.xyclopedia.net/Main_Page xyclopedia: the history of pornography and sexual expression]
* Perkins, Michael. (1992) [http://www.eroticauthorsassociation.com/eaa_history.html The Secret Record: A History of Erotic Literature]
+
* Perkins, Michael. (1992) [https://web.archive.org/web/20051202114112/http://www.eroticauthorsassociation.com/eaa_history.html The Secret Record: A History of Erotic Literature]
   
 
;Sociology
 
;Sociology
*Beck, Marianna Ph.D., "[http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/europorn01.html The Roots of Western Pornography]", [http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/europorn02.html part 2], history of pornography in the West.
+
*Beck, Marianna Ph.D., "[https://web.archive.org/web/20020204211913/http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/europorn01.html The Roots of Western Pornography]", [https://web.archive.org/web/20011206105332/http://www.libidomag.com/nakedbrunch/europorn02.html part 2], history of pornography in the West.
*Diamond, M. and Uchiyama, A. (1999), [http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/pornography/prngrphy_rape_jp.html Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan], International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22.
+
*Diamond, M. and Uchiyama, A. (1999), [https://web.archive.org/web/20020622092109/http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/pornography/prngrphy_rape_jp.html Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan], International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22.
 
*[http://www.science.uva.nl/~seop/entries/pornography-censorship/index.html#1 ''Pornography and Censorship'' in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
 
*[http://www.science.uva.nl/~seop/entries/pornography-censorship/index.html#1 ''Pornography and Censorship'' in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
   

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Pornography (Greek pornographia from porne, prostitute + grapho, (v.) to write + suffix ia, state of, property of, place of), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. It is similar to, but distinct from erotica, which is the use of sexually arousing imagery used for artistic purposes only. Over the past few decades, the pornographic industry has skyrocketed due to the technological convenience of VHS and DVD, and in particular the rise of the internet.

In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic or historical merit, whereas "pornography" often connotes the prurient depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value. The line between "erotica" and the term "pornography" (which is frequently considered a pejorative term) is often highly subjective. In practice, pornography can be defined merely as erotica that certain people perceive as "obscene." The definition of what one considers obscene can differ between persons, cultures and eras. This leaves legal actions by those who oppose pornography open to wide interpretation. It also provides lucrative employment for armies of lawyers, on several "sides."

Pornography may use any of a variety of media — printed literature, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not pornography, as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself.

Cultural historians have suggested that every art medium and publishing medium first was used for pornography: handwriting, painting, sculpture, the printing press, printed sheet music, motion pictures, videotapes, DVD's. The World Wide Web.[How to reference and link to summary or text] This may not be true throughout history, but it does seem to be true for recent history. The videotape and DVD media might have flourished without porn, but they have certainly flourished very well with it: the porn industry produces more titles per year than Hollywood; it even compares to Bollywood. Curiously, porn plays in few theaters, and in many countries it is difficult to rent porn videos, because Blockbuster and other large video-rental firms avoid porn; most distribution is by sale.

Technology

Mass-distributed pornography is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Indeed some claim that pornography has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion) to video, satellite TV, DVD, and the internet.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Calls to regulate or prohibit these technologies have often cited pornography as a concern.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Photo manipulation and computer-generated images

Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering.

The creation of highly realistic computer-generated images creates new ethical dilemmas. If illusionistic images of torture or rape become widely distributed, law enforcement faces additional difficulties prosecuting authentic images of criminal acts, due to the possibility that they are synthetic. The existence of faked pornographic photos of celebrities shows the possibility of using fake images to blackmail or humiliate any individual who has been photographed or filmed, although as such cases become more common, this effect will likely diminish. Finally, the generation of entirely synthetic images, which do not record actual events, challenges some of the conventional criticism of pornography. It also challenges the traditional notion of evidence, where at present, in the United States it is possible to prosecute producers of child pornography without violating the First Amendment, because the film is evidence that an adult has had sex with a child. However, it may be possible to film things that were imagined but never done: the film would not be evidence of a crime. Perhaps it wouldn't be a crime to make such a film.

Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game.[1]

Mainstream movies containing CGI and other realistic special effects show that if a director can imagine something in sufficient detail, combined with sufficient resources, it can be put on a screen.

Internet Distribution

Main article: Internet pornography

Some internet entrepreneurs operate pornographic internet sites. As well as conventional photographic or video pornography, some sites offer an "interactive" video game like entertainment. Due to the international character of the internet, it provides an easy means whereby consumers residing in countries where pornography is either taboo or entirely illegal can easily acquire such material from sources in another country where it is legal or remains unprosecuted.

The low cost of copying and delivering digital data boosted the formation of private circles of people swapping pornography. With the advent of peer-to-peer file sharing applications such as Kazaa, pornography swapping has reached new heights. Prior to this, the Usenet news service was a popular place for pornography swapping. Free pornography became available en masse from other users and is no longer restricted to private groups. Large amounts of free pornography on the internet are also distributed for marketing purposes to encourage subscriptions to paid content.

Since the late 1990s, "porn from the masses for the masses" seems to have become another new trend. Inexpensive digital cameras, increasingly powerful and user-friendly software, and easy access to pornographic source material have made it possible for individuals to produce and share home-made or home-altered porn for next to no cost. Such home-made pornographers are able to cater more closely to the desires of the viewers, sometimes actually playing out scenarios suggested by a particular viewer for fulfillment of their fantasy.

Despite adult filters and settings on most internet search engines, porn sites are easily found on the internet with Adult industry webmasters being the first and most active to optimize their pages for search engine queries. As a result, many porn-related search returns are overwhelming and often somewhat irrelevant. This has led to development of porn-specific search engines, like Booble, which started as a parody of porn on the web and the business of porn for search engine giants like Google, which quickly sought to shut the parody down.

History

For more details on this topic, see History of erotic depictions.

Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum

Pornography is as old as civilization but the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until the Victorian era. Previous to that time, though some sex acts were regulated or stipulated in laws, looking at objects or images depicting them was not. In some cases, certain books, engravings or image collections were outlawed, but the trend to compose laws that restricted viewing of sexually explicit things in general was a Victorian construct. When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality, and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The movable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples, Italy and what couldn't be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, England’s and the world's first law criminalizing pornography was enacted in the Obscene Publications Act of 1857.[2] The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery are common throughout history, and remain so.[3]

Legal status

See List of pornography laws by region for detailed list

The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of pornography. In some countries, softcore pornography is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore pornography, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of Child pornography is illegal in almost all countries, and most countries have restrictions on pornography involving violence or animals.

Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to adult bookstores, mail-order, via television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating pornography to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered irrelevant by widely available internet pornography.

In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service.

There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works.

The internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in the UK (excluding Northern Ireland) and Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines. This material often ends up on the internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child pornography, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material.

Some people, including pornography producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie, have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography.[4]

Anti-pornography movement

Main article: Anti-pornography movement

Opposition to pornography comes generally, though not exclusively, from several sources: law, religion and feminism. Some critics from the latter two camps have expressed belief in the existence of "pornography addiction."

Legal objections

Distribution of obscenity is a Federal crime in the United States, and also under most laws of the 50 states. There is no right to distribute obscene materials. Child pornography is illegal. The determination of what is obscene is up to a jury in a trial, which must apply the Miller test.

In explaining its decision to reject claims that obscenity should be treated as speech protected by the First Amendment, in MILLER v. CALIFORNIA, 413 U.S. 15 (1973) the US Supreme Court found that

The dissenting Justices sound the alarm of repression. But, in our view, to equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a "misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and free press " Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S., at 645 .

and in PARIS ADULT THEATRE I v. SLATON, 413 U.S. 49 (1973) that

In particular, we hold that there are legitimate state interests at stake in stemming the tide of commercialized obscenity, even assuming it is feasible to enforce effective safeguards against exposure to juveniles and to passersby. 7 [413 U.S. 49, 58] Rights and interests "other than those of the advocates are involved." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S. 622, 642 (1951). These include the interest of the public in the quality of life and the total community environment, the tone of commerce in the great city centers, and, possibly, the public safety itself As Mr. Chief Justice Warren stated, there is a "right of the Nation and of the States to maintain a decent society " [413 U.S. 49, 60] Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 199 (1964) (dissenting opinion). The sum of experience, including that of the past two decades, affords an ample basis for legislatures to conclude that a sensitive, key relationship of human existence, central to family life, community welfare, and the development of human personality, can be debased and distorted by crass commercial exploitation of sex.

Attorney General for Ronald Reagan, Edwin Meese, also courted controversy when he appointed the "Meese Commission" to investigate pornography in the United States; their report, released in July 1986, was highly critical of pornography and itself became a target of widespread criticism. That year, Meese Commission officials contacted convenience store chains and succeeded in demanding that widespread men's magazines such as Playboy and Penthouse be removed from shelves,[5] a ban which spread nationally [6] until being quashed with a First Amendment admonishment against prior restraint by the D.C. Federal Court in Meese v. Playboy (639 F.Supp. 581).

In the United States in 2005, Attorney General Gonzales made obscenity and pornography a top prosecutorial priority of the Department of Justice.[7]

Religious objections

Some religious groups often discourage their members from viewing or reading pornography, and support legislation that restricts its publication. These positions derive from broader religio-ideological positions regarding sexuality. In some religions, and especially Islam, sexual pleasure is limited to being between the dominant exclusivity of spouses. Thus, other sources of sexual pleasure, including sex-oriented entertainment and pornography, and even the lack of clothing coverage, are forbidden as violations of that dominance.

Some anti-pornography religious groups use the tactic of claiming that viewing pornography is addictive, leading to self-destructive behavior. Proponents of this doctrine compare pornography addiction to alcoholism, both in asserting the seriousness of the problem and in developing treatment methods.

Feminist objections

Feminist critics of pornography, such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, generally consider it demeaning to women. They believe that most pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment, and contributes to the male-centered objectification of women. Some feminists distinguish between pornography and erotica, which they say does not have the same negative effects of pornography. However, many Third-wave feminists and postmodern feminists disagree with this critique of porn, claiming that appearing in or using pornography can be explained as each individual woman's choice, and is not guided by socialization in a capitalist patriarchy.

Effect on sex crimes

A lower per capita crime rate and historically high availability of pornography in many developed European countries (e.g. Netherlands, Sweden) has led a growing majority to conclude that there is an inverse relationship between the two, such that an increased availability of pornography in a society equates to a decrease in sexual crime.[8] Moreover, there is some evidence that states within the U.S. that have lower rates of internet access have a greater incidence of rape.[9]

Effect on sexual aggression

In the 1970s and 1980s, feminists such as Dr. Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin criticized pornography as essentially dehumanizing women and as likely to encourage violence against them. It has been suggested that there was an alliance, tacit or explicit, between anti-porn feminists and fundamentalist Christians to help censor the use of or production of pornography.[10]

Some researchers have found that "high pornography use is not necessarily indicative of high risk for sexual aggression", but go on to say, "if a person has relatively aggressive sexual inclinations resulting from various personal and/or cultural factors, some pornography exposure may activate and reinforce associated coercive tendencies and behaviors".[11]

Pornography production and violence against women

  1. REDIRECT Template:POV-section

According to Dr. Diana Russell, "When addressing the question of whether or not pornography causes rape, as well as other forms of sexual assault and violence, many people fail to acknowledge that the actual making of pornography sometimes involves, or even requires, violence and sexual assault

In 1979, Andrea Dworkin published Pornography: Men Possessing Women, which analyzes (and extensively cites examples drawn from) contemporary and historical pornography as an industry of woman-hating dehumanization. Dworkin argues that it is implicated in violence against women, both in its production (through the abuse of the women used to star in it), and in the social consequences of its consumption (by encouraging men to eroticize the domination, humiliation, and abuse of women).

U.S. Government Commissions

Meese Report cover.gif

The then available evidence as to the influence of pornography was assessed by two major Commissions established in 1970 and 1986, respectively.

In 1970, the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that "there was insufficient evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials played a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior."

In general, with regard to adults, the Commission recommended that legislation "should not seek to interfere with the right of adults who wish to do so to read, obtain, or view explicit sexual materials". Some proponents of the criminalization of pornography have made the argument that pornography should be forbidden to adults, so that minors have no chance of seeing it. In response to that argument, the Commission found that it is "inappropriate to adjust the level of adult communication to that considered suitable for children". The Supreme Court supported this position.[12]

A large portion of the Commission's budget was applied to funding original research on the effects of sexually explicit materials. One experiment is described in which repeated exposure of male college students to pornography "caused decreased interest in it, less response to it and no lasting effect," although it appears that the satiation effect does wear off eventually ("Once more"). William B. Lockhart, Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and chairman of the commission, said that before his work with the commission he had favored control of obscenity for both children and adults, but had changed his mind as a result of scientific studies done by commission researchers. In reference to dissenting commission members Keating and Rev. Morton Hill, Lockhart said, "When these men have been forgotten, the research developed by the commission will provide a factual basis for informed, intelligent policymaking by the legislators of tomorrow."[13]

President Reagan announced his intention to set up a commission to study pornography. The result was the appointment by Attorney General Edwin Meese in the spring of 1985 of a panel comprised of 11 members, the majority of whom had established records as anti-pornography crusaders.[14]

In 1986, the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, reached the opposite conclusion, advising that pornography was in varying degrees harmful. A workshop headed by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop provided essentially the only original research done by the Meese Commission. Given very little time and money to "develop something of substance" to include in the Meese Commission's report, it was decided to conduct a closed, weekend workshop of "recognized authorities" in the field. All but one of the invited participants attended. At the end of the workshop, the participants expressed consensus in five areas:

  1. "Children and adolescents who participate in the production of pornography experience adverse, enduring effects,"
  2. "Prolonged use of pornography increases beliefs that less common sexual practices are more common,"
  3. "Pornography that portrays sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim increases the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations,"
  4. "Acceptance of coercive sexuality appears to be related to sexual aggression,"
  5. "In laboratory studies measuring short-term effects, exposure to violent pornography increases punitive behavior toward women" According to Surgeon General Koop, "Although the evidence may be slim, we nevertheless know enough to conclude that pornography does present a clear and present danger to American public health"[15]

Japan, which is noted for its large output of rape fantasy pornography, has the lowest reported sex crime rate in the industrialized world, which has led some researchers to speculate that an opposite relationship may in fact exist—that wide availability of pornography may reduce crimes by giving potential offenders a socially accepted way of regulating their own sexuality. Conversely, some argue that reported sex crime rates are low in Japan because the culture (a culture that greatly emphasizes a woman's "honor") is such that victims of sex crime are less likely to report it (e.g. chikan[16]).

A case study: Japan

See also: Pornography in Japan

Milton Diamond and Ayako Uchiyama write in "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan" (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22. 1999):[17]

Our findings regarding sex crimes, murder and assault are in keeping with what is also known about general crime rates in Japan regarding burglary, theft and such. Japan has the lowest number of reported rape cases and the highest percentage of arrests and convictions in reported cases of any developed nation. Indeed, Japan is known as one of the safest developed countries for women in the world (Clifford, 1980).
Despite the absence of evidence, the myth persists that an abundance of sexually explicit material invariably leads to an abundance of sexual activity and eventually rape (e.g., Liebert, Neale, & Davison, 1973). Indeed, the data we report and review suggest the opposite. Christensen (1990) argues that to prove that available pornography leads to sex crimes one must at least find a positive temporal correlation between the two. The absence of any positive correlation in our findings, and from results elsewhere, between an increase in available pornography and the incidence of rape or other sex crime, is prima facie evidence that no link exists. But objectivity requires that an additional question be asked: "Does pornography use and availability prevent or reduce sex crime?" Both questions lead to hypotheses that have, over prolonged periods, been tested in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and now in Japan. Indeed, it appears from our data from Japan, as it was evident to Kutchinsky (1994), from research in Europe, that a large increase in available sexually explicit materials, over many years, has not been correlated with an increase in rape or other sexual crimes. Instead, in Japan a marked decrease in sexual crimes has occurred.

Stereotypes

Pornographic work contains a number of stereotypes. Although pornography targeted at heterosexual males often includes interaction between females, interaction between males is rarely seen, with the exception of double-penetration scenes. In hardcore materials, a male generally ejaculates outside his partner's body, in full view: the so-called "cum shot". Penises are almost always shown fully erect. In heterosexual pornography, the choice of position is naturally geared to giving the viewer the fullest view of the woman, making the reverse cowgirl position and the man holding the woman in a "dog-and-lamp-post" (doggy) position among the most popular. Fellatio scenes usually involve the woman looking into the camera or at the man, for similar reasons. Especially in American and Japanese porn, women tend to be vocal and loud during hardcore scenes. Racial stereotypes are often played up in American pornography involving ethnic minorities. Additionally, male pornographic actors are percieved to have incredable holding power.

None of these seterotypes are true of "softcore" pornography, as usually the male and females genetillia are hidden.

Pornography by and for women

"We came up with the idea for the Feminist Porn Awards because people don't know they have a choice when it comes to porn," said Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her and the event's organizer. "Yes, there's a lot of bad porn out there. But there is also some great porn being made by and for women. We wanted to recognize and celebrate the good porn makers as well as direct people to their work."

Some recent pornography has been produced under the rubric of "by and for women". According to Tristan Taormino, "Feminist porn both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."[18]

Production and distribution by region

Main article: Pornography by region

The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy.

Economics

United States: In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of all the hard-core porn in the United States was no more than $10 million[19] Although the revenues of the adult industry are difficult to determine, by 2003, Americans were estimated to spend as much as $8 to $10 billion on pornography.[20] The majority of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley[How to reference and link to summary or text], which acts as a center for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of porn. Ok

In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online 'adult content' industry, which estimated at $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. A $10 billion aggregate figure had been estimated, and repeated in many news stories, but this was unsourced and not accurate.[21]

Sub-genres

Main article: List of pornographic sub-genres

In general, softcore refers to pornography that does not depict penetration, and hardcore refers to pornography that depicts penetration.

Some popular genres of pornography:

See also

Forms

  • Adult Theater
  • Carnography
  • Cartoon Pornography
  • Erotic art
  • Erotica
  • Glamour photography
  • Internet pornography
  • Non-nude pornography
  • Pornographic film


References

  1. Playboy undressed video game women - Aug. 25, 2004. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named history
  3. Beck, Marianna The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections. Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility. URL accessed on 2006-08-22.
  4. “Porn is vital to freedom, says [Salman Rushdie”]
  5. Politics and Pornography. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  6. The Rev. Donald E. Wildmon. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  7. Attorney General Gonzales' priority: porn, not terrorists [Politech. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  8. Pornography, rape and the internet. URL accessed on 2006-10-25.
  9. D'Amato, Anthony Porn Up, Rape Down. URL accessed on 2006-12-19.
  10. The Anti-Pornography Movement - Ashland Free Press. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  11. Malamuth, NM, Addison T, Koss M (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: are there reliable effects and can we understand them?. Annual Review of Sex Research 2000 (11): 26-91. PMID: 11351835. (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000, p. 79-81)
  12. President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
  13. Politics and Pornography. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  14. Wilcox, Brian L. "Pornography, Social Science, and Politics: When Research and Ideology Collide." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 941-943.
  15. Koop, C. Everett. "Report of the Surgeon General's Workshop on Pornography and Public Health." American Psychologist. 42 (October 1987) : 944-945.
  16. The His and Hers Subway. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  17. Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  18. village voice people Pucker Up by Tristan Taormino. URL accessed on 2006-08-26.
  19. President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. 1970. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
  20. Schlosser, Eric (2003-5-08). Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market., Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618334661.
  21. includeonly>Richard, Emmanuelle. "The Naked Untruth", Alternet, 2002-23-05. Retrieved on 2006-09-08. (in English)

Further reading

Advocacy

  • Susie Bright. "Susie Sexpert's Lesbian Sex World and Susie Bright's Sexual Reality: A Virtual Sex World Reader", San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press, 1990 and 1992. Challenges any easy equation between feminism and anti-pornography positions.
  • Betty Dodson. "Feminism and Free speech: Pornography." Feminists for Free Expression 1993. 8 May 2002 [1]
  • Kate Ellis. Caught Looking: Feminism, Pornography, and Censorship. New York: Caught Looking Incorporated, 1986.
  • Susan Griffin. Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature. New York: Harper, 1981.
  • Matthew Gever. "Pornography Helps Women, Society"[2], UCLA Bruin, 1998-12-03.
  • Jason Russell. "The Canadian Past-Time""Stand Like A Rock"
  • Michele Gregory. "Pro-Sex Feminism: Redefining Pornography (or, a study in alliteration: the pro pornography position paper) "[3]
  • Andrea Juno and V. Vale. Angry Women, Re/Search # 12. San Francisco, CA: Re/Search Publications, 1991. Performance artists and literary theorists who challenge Dworkin and MacKinnon's claim to speak on behalf of all women.
  • Michael Kimmel. "Men Confront Pornography". New York: Meridian--Random House, 1990. A variety of essays that try to assess ways that pornography may take advantage of men.
  • Wendy McElroy defends the availability of pornography, and condemns feminist anti-pornography campaigns.[4]
    • "A Feminist Overview of Pornography,Ending in a Defense Thereof"[5]
    • "A Feminist Defense of pornography"[6]
  • Annalee Newitz. "Obscene Feminists: Why Women Are Leading the Battle Against Censorship." San Francisco Bay Guardian Online 8 May 2002. 9 May 2002[7]
  • Nadine Strossen:
    • "Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights" (ISBN 0-8147-8149-7)
    • "Nadine Strossen: Pornography Must Be Tolerated"[8]
  • Scott Tucker. "Gender, Fucking, and Utopia: An Essay in Response to John Stoltenberg's Refusing to Be a Man."[9] in Social Text 27 (1991): 3-34. Critique of Stoltenberg and Dworkin's positions on pornography and power.
  • Carole Vance, Editor. "Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality". Boston: Routledge, 1984. Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.

External links

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