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Property dualism is a philosophy of mind, and a subbranch of emergent materialism. It asserts that when matter is organized in the appropriate way (i.e., organized in the way that living human bodies are organized), mental properties emerge. Different versions of property dualism describe this in different ways, such as epiphenomenalism and interactionism.

Epiphenomenalism asserts that while material causes give rise to sensations, volition, ideas, etc., such mental phenomena themselves cause nothing further--they are causal dead ends. Interactionism allows mental causes to produce material effects, and vice versa.

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