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Full bibliography for the race and intelligence article series. Many of these sources are not cited in the articles in the race in intelligence series:

Race and intelligence

Research: Test data, Explanations, and Interpretations
Controversies: Utility and Potential for bias
History | Media portrayal | References

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Akey, J. M., Eberle, M. A., Rieder, M. J., Carlson, C. S., Shriver, M. D., Nickerson, D. A. and Kruglyak, L. (2004). Population History and Natural Selection Shape Patterns of Genetic Variation in 132 Genes. PLoS Biology 2 (10): e286. PMID 15361935.
    (Not cited)
  • Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M., Swayze, V., Oleary, D. S., Alliger, R., Cohen, G., Ehrhardt, J. and Yuh, W. T. C. (Jan 1993). Intelligence and Brain Structure in Normal Individuals. American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1): 130-134. PMID 8417555.
    (Cited at: Electroconvulsive therapy)


  • Backman, M. E. (1972). Patterns of Mental Abilities: Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Sex Differences. American Educational Research Journal 9: 1-12.
    (Not cited)
  • Baker, J. R. (1974). Race, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    (John Baker (biologist), Race and intelligence (Average gaps among races))
  • Bamshad, M. (August 24 2005). Genetic Influences on Health: Does Race Matter?. Jama 294 (8): 937-946.
    ( Race and intelligence (explanations))
  • Bamshad, M. J., Wooding, S., Watkins, W. S., Ostler, C. T., Batzer, M. A. and Jorde, L. B. (Mar 2003). Human Population Genetic Structure and Inference of Group Membership. American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (3): 578-589. PMID 12557124.
    (Race and intelligence (explanations))
  • Bamshad, M., Wooding, S., Salisbury, B. A. and Stephens, J. C. (2004). Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race. Nat. Rev. Genet. 5: 598-609.
    (Genetics and Archaeogenetics of South Asia, Race and multilocus allele clusters, History of the Indian caste system, White people, Genetic views on race, Human genetic variation, Genetics and Archaeogenetics of South Asia)
  • Bartley, A. J., Jones, D. W. and Weinberger, D. R. (Feb 1997). Genetic variability of human brain size and cortical gyral patterns. Brain 120: 257-269. PMID 9117373.
    (Race and intelligence)
  • Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L. and Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain Size, Cranial Morphology, Climate, and Time Machines. Current Anthropology 25 (3): 301-330.
    (Craniometry, Race and intelligence (Average gaps among races), Race and intelligence (explanations), Latitude)
  • Bean, R. B. (1906). Some Racial Peculiarities of the Negro Brain. American Journal of Anatomy 5: 353-432.
    (Race and intelligence, Race and intelligence (Average gaps among races))
  • Benedict, Ruth (1999). "Racism: the ism of the Modern World" Harris, Leonard Racism (Key Concepts in Critical Theory), 34, Amherst, NY: Humanity Books (imprint of Prometheus Books).
    (Not cited)
  • Bernstein and Nash (1999). Essentials of Psychology, Houghton Mifflin Company.
    (Not cited.)
  • Berman, S. M. and Noble, E. P. (1995). Reduced Visuospatial Performance in Children with the D2 Dopamine Receptor A1 Allele. Behavior Genetics 25: 45-58. PMID 7755518.
    (Not cited.)
  • Berry, J. W. (1966). Temne and Eskimo Perceptual Skills. International Journal of Psychology 1: 207-222.
    (Not cited.)
  • Boas, F. (1938). The Mind of Primitive Man, New York, NY: Appleton, Century, Crofts. ISBN 0-313-24004-3.
  • Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (Sum 2002). The inheritance of inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 (3): 3-30.
  • Boykin, A. W. (1994). "Harvesting Talent and Culture: African-American Children and Educational Reform" R. Eiossl Schools and Students at Risk, New York: Teachers College Press. ISBN.
  • Breslau, N., Chilcoat, H. D., Susser, E. S., Matte, T., Liang, K. Y. and Peterson, E. L. (October 15 2001). Stability and Change in Children's Intelligence Quotient Scores: A Comparison of Two Socioeconomically Disparate Communities. American Journal of Epidemiology 154 (8): 711-717. PMID 11590083.
  • Broca, P. (1873). Sur Les Crânes De La Caverne De ’Homme Mort (Loere). Revue d’Anthropologie 2: 1–53.
  • Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence, San Diego, CA: Academic.
  • Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., Shaughnessy, P. and Kennedy, W. (1987). Retardation in Young Children, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. ISBN 0-89859-989-X.
  • Brooks-Gunn, J., McCarton, C. M., Casey, P. H., McCormick, M. C., Bauer, C. R., Bernbaum, J. C., Tyson, J., Swanson, M., Bennett, F. C., Scott, D. T., Tonascia, J. and Meinert, C. L. (October 26 1994). Early Intervention in Low-Birth-Weight Premature-Infants - Results through Age 5 Years from the Infant Health and Development Program. Jama-Journal Of The American Medical Association 272 (16): 1257-1262. PMID 7933370.
  • Burchard, E. G., Ziv, E., Coyle, N., Gomez, S. L., Tang, H., Karter, A. J., Mountain, J. L., Perez-Stable, E. J., Sheppard, D. and Risch, N. (March 20 2003). The Importance of Race and Ethnic Background in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice. New England Journal of Medicine 348 (12): 1170-1175.
  • Buj, V. (1981). Average IQ Values in Various European Countries. Personality and Individual Differences 2 (2): 168–169.
  • Burrow, A. L. and Finley, G. E. (Oct 2004). Transracial, Same-Race Adoptions, and the Need for Multiple Measures of Adolescent Adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 74 (4): 577-583. PMID 15554817.


  • Caldwell, M. B. and Knight, D. (1970). The Effect of Negro and White Examiners on Negro Intelligence Test Performance. Journal of Negro Education 39: 177-179.
  • Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P., & Piazza, A. (1994). The history and geography of human genes, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Capron, C. and Duyme, M. (1989). Assessment of Effects of Socioeconomic Status on IQ in a Full Cross-Fostering Design. Nature 340: 552-553.
  • Carlson CS, Thomas DJ, Eberle MA, Swanson JE, Livingston RJ, et al. (2005). Genomic regions exhibiting positive selection identified from dense genotype data. Genome Res 15: 1553–1565. PMID 16251465
  • Carneiro, P., Heckman, J. J. and Masterov, D. V. (Apr 2005). Labor Market Discrimination and Racial Differences in Premarket Factors. Journal of Law & Economics 48 (1): 1-39.
  • Carretta, T. R. and Ree, M. J. (August 1995). Near Identity of Cognitive Structure in Sex and Ethnic Groups. Personality and Individual Differences 19 (2): 149-155.
  • Chan, J. and Lynn, R. (1989). The Intelligence of Six-Year-Olds in Hong Kong. Journal of Biosocial Science 21: 461-464. PMID 2808473.
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1918). Trans. E.O. Winstedt. Cicero: Letters to Atticus. 3 Vols., Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.
  • Clark, E. A. and Hanisee, J. (1982). Intellectual and Adaptive Performance of Asian Children in Adoptive American Settings. Developmental Psychology 18: 595-599.
  • Cochran, G., Hardy, J., and Harpending, H. (2005). Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence. Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (5): 659.
  • Cohen, G. L. and Sherman, D. K. (Apr 2005). Stereotype Threat and the Social and Scientific Contexts of the Race Achievement Gap. American Psychologist 60 (3): 270-271.
  • Collins, F. S. (2004). What we do and don't know about 'race', 'ethnicity', genetics and health at the dawn of the genome era. Nature Genetics.
  • Connelly, J. B. (1983). Recategorized WISC-R Score Patterns of Older and Younger Referred Tlingit Indian Children. Psychology in the Schools 20: 271-275.
  • Colom, R., Lluis-Font, J.M., and Andrés-Pueyo, A. (2005). The generational intelligence gains are caused by decreasing variance in the lower half of the distribution: Supporting evidence for the nutrition hypothesis. Intelligence 33: 83-91..
  • Cooper, R. S., Kaufman, J. S. & Ward, R. (2003). Race and genomics. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1166–1170.
  • Cross, T. and Slater, R. B. (2000). The Persistent Racial Scoring Gap on the SAT (in Special Report: The SAT as a Major Roadblock to Black Students' Aspirations to Higher Education). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 29: 85-88.


  • Dawkins, R. (March 10 2000). Richard Dawkins on W. D. Hamilton (obituary). The Independent.
  • Davis, B. (1978). The Moralistic Fallacy. Nature 272: 390. PMID 11643452.
  • Deary, I. J. (2000). Looking Down on Human Intelligence: From Psychometrics to the Brain, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852417-X.
  • Degler, C. N. (1992). In Search of Human Nature:The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-415-28659-X.
  • DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D. and Mills, R. J. (2004). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003. US Census.
  • Diamond, J. (April 13 2000). The Golden Phonebook. New York Review of Books 47 (6).
  • Dickens, W. T. (Spr 2005). Genetic Differences and School Readiness. Future of Children 15 (1): 55-69. PMID 2005-04825-005.
  • Dickens, W. T. and Flynn, J. R. (2001). Heritability Estimates Versus Large Environmental Effects: The IQ Paradox Resolved. Psychological Review 108: 346-369. PMID 11381833.
  • Dickens, W. T. and Flynn, J. R. (2002). The IQ Paradox Is Still Resolved: Reply to Loehlin (2002) and Rowe and Rodgers (2002). Psychological Review 109: 764-771.
  • Dickens, W.T., and J.R. Flynn (In press). Black Americans reduce the racial IQ gap: Evidence from standardized samples. Psychological Science.
  • Dickens, W.T., and J.R. Flynn (In press). Common ground and differences. Psychological Science.
  • Diessner, R. and Walker, J. L. (January 1986). A Cognitive Pattern of the Yakima Indian Students. Journal of American Indian Education 25 (2).
  • Dolan, C. V. (1997). A Note on Scho¨Nemann's Refutation of Spearman's Hypothesis. Multivariate Behavioral Research 32: 319-325.
  • Dolan, C. V. (2000). Investigating Spearman's Hypothesis by Means of Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research 35: 21-50.
  • Dolan, C. V. and Hamaker, E. L. (2001). "Investigating Black-White Differences in Psychometric IQ: Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-R and K-Abc, and a Critique of the Method of Correlated Vectors" F. Columbus Advances in Psychological Research, Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. ISBN 1-56072-897-3.
  • Dorus S, Vallender EJ, Evans PD, Anderson JR, Gilbert SL, Mahowald M, Wyckoff GJ, Malcom CM, Lahn BT (2004). Accelerated evolution of nervous system genes in the origin of Homo sapiens. Cell 119 (7). PMID 15620360.



  • Fish, J. M. (2002). Race and intelligence: separating science from myth, Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-3757-4.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1980). Race, IQ and Jensen, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-0651-9.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1999). Searching for Justice: The Discovery of IQ Gains over Time. American Psychologist 54: 5-20.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1999b). Reply to Rushton: A gang of gs overpowers factor analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 391-393.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1984). The Mean IQ of Americans: Massive Gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin 95: 29-51.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ Gains in 14 Nations: What IQ Tests Really Measure. Psychological Bulletin 101: 171-191.
  • Flynn, J. R. (1987b). Race and IQ: Jensen's case refuted. In S. Modgil & C. Modgil (Eds.), Arthur Jensen: Consensus and controversy (pp. 221–232). Lewes, England: Falmer Press.
  • Frydman, M. and Lynn, R. (1989). The Intelligence of Korean Children Adopted in Belgium. Personality and Individual Differences 12 (12): 1323-1325.



  • Hacker, A. (1995). "Caste, Crime and Precocity" S. Fraser The Bell Curve Wars, New York: HarperCollins.
  • Hacker, Andrew (November 3 2005). The Truth About the Colleges. The New York Review of Books 52 (17).
  • Haier, R. J., Chueh, D., Touchette, P., Lott, I., Buchsbaum, M. S., Macmillan, D., Sandman, C., Lacasse, L. and Sosa, E. (Mar-Apr 1995). Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic-Rate in Nonspecific Mental-Retardation and Down-Syndrome. Intelligence 20 (2): 191-210.
  • Harvey, I., Persaud, R., Ron, M. A., Baker, G. and Murray, R. M. (Aug 1994). Volumetric MRI Measurements in Bipolars Compared with Schizophrenics and Healthy Controls. Psychological Medicine 24 (3): 689-699. PMID 7991751.
  • Hedges, L. and Nowell, A. (1998). "Black-White Test Score Convergence since 1965" A. Phillips The Black-White Test Score Gap, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. ISBN.
  • Helms, J. E. (Apr 2005). Stereotype Threat Might Explain the Black-White Test-Score Difference. American Psychologist 60 (3): 269-270.
  • Helms, J. E., Jernigan, M. and Mascher, J. (Jan 2005). The Meaning of Race in Psychology and How to Change It: A Methodological Perspective. American Psychologist 60 (1): 27-36.
  • Herrnstein, R. J. and Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-914673-9.
  • Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V. and Monroe, G. (1980a). Analysis of Brain-Weight .1. Adult Brain-Weight in Relation to Sex, Race, and Age. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104 (12): 635-639. PMID 6893659.
  • Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V. and Monroe, G. (1980b). Analysis of Brain-Weight .2. Adult Brain-Weight in Relation to Body Height, Weight, and Surface-Area. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104 (12): 640-645. PMID 6893660.
  • Hogben, Lancelot Thomas (1931). Genetic Principles in Medicine and Social Service, 213, London: Williams & Norgate.
  • Hunt, M. M. (1998). The New Know-Nothings: The Political Foes of the Scientific Study of Human Nature, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. ISBN 1-56000-393-6.


  • Jank, Wolfgang; Bruce L. Golden, Paul F. Zantek (December 2004). Old World vs. New World: Evolution of Nobel Prize Shares, Department of Decision & Information Technologies, University of Maryland.
  • Jantz, R. L. (Jul 2001). Cranial Change in Americans: 1850-1975. Journal of Forensic Sciences 46 (4): 784-787. PMID 11451056.
  • Jantz, R. L. and Jantz, L. M. (May-Jun 2000). Secular Change in Craniofacial Morphology. American Journal of Human Biology 12 (3): 327-338. PMID 11534023.
  • Jencks, C. and Phillips, M. (1998). The black-white test score gap, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-4610-5.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1969). How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement. Harvard Educational Review 39: 1-123.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1970). "Can We and Should We Study Race Differences?" J. Hellmuth Disadvantaged Child, Vol. 3: Compensatory Education: A National Debate, New York: Brunner/Mazel. ISBN.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1973). Educability and Group Differences, London: Methuen. ISBN 0-06-012194-7.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1980). Bias in Mental Testing, New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-916430-3.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1982). The Debunking of Scientific Fossils and Straw Persons. Contemporary Education Review 1: 121-135.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1992). Spearman's Hypothesis: Methodology and Evidence. Multivariate Behavioral Research 27: 225-234.
  • Jensen, A. R. (January-March 1993). Spearman's Hypothesis Tested with Chronometric Information-Processing Tasks. Intelligence 17 (1): 47-77.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1994). Psychometric g Related to Differences in Head Size. Personality and Individual Differences 17: 597-606.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1997). "The Puzzle of Nongenetic Variance" R. J. Sternberg and E. L. Grigorenko Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1998a). Adoption Data and Two g-Related Hypotheses. Intelligence 25: 1-6.
  • Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-96103-6.
  • Jensen, A. R. (2000). Testing: The Dilemma of Group Differences. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 6: 121-127.
  • Jensen, A. R. and Johnson, F. W. (1994). Race and Sex Differences in Head Size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309-333.
  • Jensen, A. R. and Reynolds, C. R. (1982). Race, Social Class and Ability Patterns on the WISC-R. Personality and Individual Differences 3 (4): 423-438.
  • Jensen, A. R. and Whang, P. A. (1994). Speed of Accessing Arithmetic Facts in Long-Term Memory: A Comparison of Chinese-American and Anglo-American Children. Contemporary Educational Psychology 19: 1-12.
  • Jerison, H. J. (1973). Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence, New York: Academic Press.
  • Jerison, H. J. (2000). "The Evolution of Intelligence" R. J. Sternberg Handbook of Intelligence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN.
  • (2004). "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners," Accessed December 2005.



  • Lamason, R. L., Mohideen, M. A., Mest, J. R., Wong, A. C., Norton, H. L., Aros, M. C., Jurynec, M. J., Mao, X., Humphreville, V. R., Humbert, J. E., Sinha, S., Moore, J. L., Jagadeeswaran, P., Zhao, W., Ning, G., Makalowska, I., McKeigue, P. M., O'Donnell, D., Kittles, R., Parra, E. J., Mangini, N. J., Grunwald, D. J., Shriver, M. D., Canfield, V. A. and Cheng, K. C. (December 16 2005). SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. Science 310 (5755): 1782-1786. PMID 16357253.
  • Leary, W. E. (April 7, 1988 1988). Why Fewer Blacks Choose to Breast-Feed Than Do Whites. New York Times: B6.
  • Levin, M. E. (1997). Why race matters: race differences and what they mean, Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95789-6 (alk. paper).
  • Levinson, B. (1959). A Comparison of the Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Native-Born Jewish Preschool Children of Traditional Parentage on Four Intelligence Tests. Journal of Clinical Psychology 15: 74-76. PMID 13611073.
  • Lewontin, R. C. (1972). The apportionment of human diversity. Evolutionary Biology 6: 391-398.
  • Lieberman, Hampton, Littlefield, and Hallead (1992) "Race in Biology and Anthropology: A Study of College Texts and Professors." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 29:301-321
  • Loehlin, J. C., Lindzey, G. and Spuhler, J. N. (1975). Race Differences in Intelligence, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0754-3...
  • Lieberman, L. (Feb 2001). How "Caucasoids" got such big crania and why they shrank - From Morton to Rushton. Current Anthropology 42 (1): 69-95.
  • Lilienfeld, Scott O. (March 1 2002). When Worlds Collide: Social Science, Politics, and the Rind et al. (1998) Child Sexual Abuse Meta-Analysis. American Psychologist 57 (3).
  • Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Should We Do Research on Race Differences in Intelligence?. Intelligence 16: 1-4.
  • Loehlin, J. C. (in press 2006). Book review: Richard Lynn, Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis. Intelligence.
  • Lombardo, P. A. (2002). "The American Breed": Nazi Eugenics and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund. Albany Law Review 65 (3): 743-830. PMID 11998853.
  • Lucas, A., Morley, R., Cole, T. J., Lister, G. and Leeson-Payne, C. (February 1 1992). Breast Milk and Subsequent Intelligence Quotient in Children Born Preterm. Lancet 339 (8788): 261-264. PMID 1346280.
  • Lynn, R. (1977a). The Intelligence of the Chinese and Malays in Singapore. Mankind Quarterly 18: 125-128.
  • Lynn, R. (1977b). The Intelligence of the Japanese. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 30: 69-72.
  • Lynn, R. (1978). "Ethnic and Racial Differences in Intelligence: International Comparisons" R. T. Osborne, C. E. Noble and N. Weyl Human Variation: The Biopsychology of Age, Race, and Sex, New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-529050-0.
  • Lynn, R. (1982). IQ in Japan and the United States Shows a Growing Disparity. Nature 297: 222-223.
  • Lynn, R. (1987). The Intelligence of the Mongoloids: A Psychometric, Evolutionary and Neurological Theory. Personality and Individual Differences 8 (6): 813-844.
  • Lynn, R. (1990). The Role of Nutrition in Secular Increase in Intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences 11: 273-285.
  • Lynn, R. (1991a). Race Differences in Intelligence: A Global Perspective. Mankind Quarterly 31: 255-296.
  • Lynn, R. (1991b). The Evolution of Racial Differences in Intelligence. Mankind Quarterly 32: 99-173.
  • Lynn, R. (1994). Some Reinterpretations of the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study. Intelligence 19: 21-27.
  • Lynn, R. (1996). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Intelligence in the United States on the Differential Ability Scale. Personality and Individual Differences 20: 271-273.
  • Lynn, R. (1997). Direct Evidence for a Genetic Basis for Black-White Differences in IQ. American Psychologist 52: 73.
  • Lynn, R. (2001). The Science of Human Diversity: A History of the Pioneer Fund, Lanham, MD: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-2041-8.
  • Lynn, R. (2002). Skin Color and Intelligence in African Americans. Population and Environment 23: 365-375.
  • Lynn, R. (2004). The Intelligence of American Jews. Personality and Individual Differences 26: 201–206.
  • Lynn, R. (In press 2006). Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis, Washington Summit Books. 1593680201.
  • Lynn, R., Hampson, S., and Magee, M. (1984). Home Background, Intelligence, Personality and Education as Predictors of Unemployment in Young People. Personality and Individual Differences 5: 549-57.
  • Lynn, R., Hampson, S. L. and Bingham, R. (1987). Japanese, British and American Adolescents Compared for Spearman's g and for the Verbal, Numerical, and Visuo-Spatial Abilities. Psychologia 30: 137-144.
  • Lynn, R., Hampson, S. L. and Iwawaki, S. (Sum 1987). Abstract Reasoning and Spatial Abilities among American, British and Japanese Adolescents. Mankind Quarterly 27 (4): 397-405.
  • Lynn, R., Hampson, S., and Lee, M. (1988). The intelligence of Chinese children in Hong Kong. School Psychology International, 9, 29–32.
  • Lynn, R., and Hampson, S. (1986). The structure of Japanese abilities: an analysis in terms of the hierarchical model of intelligence. Current Pychological Research and Reviews, 4, 309–322.
  • Lynn, R., and Hampson, S. (1986). Intellectual abilities of Japanese children: an assessment of 2-8 year olds derived from the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. Intelligence, 10, 41–58.
  • Lynn, R. and Hattori, K. (1990). The Heritability of Intelligence in Japan. Behavior Genetics 20: 545-546. PMID 2256894.
  • Lynn, R. and Holmshaw, M. (1990). Black-White Differences in Reaction Times and Intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality 18: 299-308.
  • Lynn, R. and Owen, K. (1994). Spearman's Hypothesis and Test Score Differences between Whites, Indians, and Blacks in South Africa. Journal of General Psychology 121: 27-36. PMID 8021630.
  • Lynn, R. and Shigehasa, T. (1991). Reaction Times and Intelligence: A Comparison of Japanese and British Children. Journal of Biosocial Science 23: 409-416. PMID 1939289.
  • Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X.
  • Lynn, R., Backhoff, E. and Contreras, L. A. (Jan 2005). Ethnic and Racial Differences on the Standard Progressive Matrices in Mexico. Journal of Biosocial Science 37 (1): 107-113. PMID 15688574.


  • MacArthur, R. S. (1968). Some Differential Abilities of Northern Canadian Native Youth. International Journal of Psychology 3: 43-51.
  • Mackintosh, N. J. (1998). IQ and human intelligence, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852368-8.
  • Mall, F. P. (1909). On Several Anatomical Characters of the Human Brain, Said to Vary According to Race and Sex, with Special Reference to the Weight of the Frontal Lobe. American Journal of Anatomy 9: 1-32.
  • Masters, R. (1997). "Brain Biochemistry and Social Status: The Neurotoxity Hypothesis" E. White Intelligence, Political Inequality, and Public Policy, Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN.
  • McGue, M., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Iacono, W. G. and Lykken, D. T. (1993). "Behavioral Genetics of Cognitive Ability: A Life-Span Perspective" R. Plomin and G. E. McClearn Nature, Nurture, & Psychology, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN.
  • McGurk, F. C. F. (1953). On white and Negro test performance and socio-economic factors. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 37: 484-450.
  • McShane, D. (1983). Neurocranial Form: Differentiating Four Ethnic Populations Using a Simple Ct Scan Measure. International Journal of Neuroscience 21: 137-144. PMID 6671869.
  • McShane, D. A. and Plas, J. M. (1982). Wechsler Scale Performance Patterns of American Indian Children. Psychology in the Schools 19: 8-17.
  • McShane, D. A. and Plas, J. M. (1984). The Cognitive Functioning of American Indian Children: Moving from the Wisc to the WISC-R. The School Psychology Review 13: 61-73.
  • Mekel-Bobrov, N., Gilbert, S. L., Evans, P. D., Vallender, E. J., Anderson, J. R., Hudson, R. R., Tishkoff, S. A. and Lahn, B. T. (September 9 2005). Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens. Science 309 (5741): 1720-1722. PMID 16151010.
  • Mercer, J. R. (1973). Labeling the retarded. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  • Michael, J. S. (1988). A New Look at Morton's Craniological Research. Current Anthropology 29: 349-354.
  • Miller, A. (1994). Professors of Hate. Rolling Stone Oct. 20: 106-114.
  • Mingroni, M. A. (2004). The Secular Rise in IQ: Giving Heterosis a Closer Look. Intelligence 32: 65-83.
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    (Race and intelligence)


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(Philip E. Vernon, Pioneer Fund, Eugenics, Richard Lynn)

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    (Not cited.)

Race and intelligence

Research: Test data, Explanations, and Interpretations
Controversies: Utility and Potential for bias
History | Media portrayal | References

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