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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test


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Retention measures are psychometric measures of memory retention

Memory is a very broad function which includes several distinct abilities, all of which can be selectively impaired and require individual testing. There is disagreement as to the number of memory systems, depending on the psychological perspective taken. From a clinical perspective, a view of five distinct types of memory, is in most cases sufficient.[1] Semantic memory and episodic memory (collectively called declarative memory or explicit memory); procedural memory and priming or perceptual learning (collectively called non-declarative memory or implicit memory) all four of which are long term memory systems; and working memory or short term memory.[2] Semantic memory is memory for facts, episodic memory is autobiographical memory, procedural memory is memory for the performance of skills, priming is memory facilitated by prior exposure to a stimulus and working memory is a form or short term memory for information manipulation.[3][4]

There are different neuropsychological assessment measures for each aspect of memory


General memory measures


Short term memory assessment

Long term memory assessment

Autobiographical memory

  • Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI)

Implicit Memory Testing

Implicit memory tests indirectly measure the retention of information that has not been consciously attended to.

  • Implicit Association Test (IAT)
  • Lexical Decision Task (LDT)
  • Word Stem Completion (WSC)
  • Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL)
  • Word Fragment Completion (WFC)


Episodic memory measures

  • Gröber & Buschke (verbal)
  • DMS48 (visual)

Prospective memory measures

Verbal memory measures


Visual memory tests

Semantic memory measures


Indirect tests of memory

  • Implicit Association Test,
  • Lexical Decision Task,
  • Word Stem Completion task,
  • Artificial Grammar Learning,
  • Word Fragment Completion

Recognition

  • Warrington Recognition Memory Test

Tests of malingering

Memory tests for children

For sorting

  • Babcock Story Recall test
  • Biber Figure Learning Test (BFLT)
  • Complex Figure Test (copy, recall, recognition)
  • Dead or Alive Test
  • Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ)
  • Doors and People
  • MCI Screen
  • Portland Digit Recognition Test (PDRT)
  • Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test
  • Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test
  • Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test Extended (RBMT-E)



  • Wechsler Memory Scale Revised (WMS-R)
  • Wechsler Memory Scale—III (WMS-III)
  • Wechsler Memory Scale – 4th UK Edition (WMS-IV)


See also

References & Bibliography

Key texts

Books

Papers

Additional material

Books

Papers

External links


Memory
Types of memory
Articulatory suppression‎ | Auditory memory | Autobiographical memory | Collective memory | Early memories | Echoic Memory | Eidetic memory | Episodic memory | Episodic-like memory  | Explicit memory  |Exosomatic memory | False memory |Flashbulb memory | Iconic memory | Implicit memory | Institutional memory | Long term memory | Music-related memory | Procedural memory | Prospective memory | Repressed memory | Retrospective memory | Semantic memory | Sensory memory | Short term memory | Spatial memory | State-dependent memory | Tonal memory | Transactive memory | Transsaccadic memory | Verbal memory  | Visual memory  | Visuospatial memory  | Working memory  |
Aspects of memory
Childhood amnesia | Cryptomnesia |Cued recall | Eye-witness testimony | Memory and emotion | Forgetting |Forgetting curve | Free recall | Levels-of-processing effect | Memory consolidation |Memory decay | Memory distrust syndrome |Memory inhibition | Memory and smell | Memory for the future | Memory loss | Memory optimization | Memory trace | Mnemonic | Memory biases  | Modality effect | Tip of the tongue | Lethologica | Memory loss |Priming | Primacy effect | Reconstruction | Proactive interference | Prompting | Recency effect | Recall (learning) | Recognition (learning) | Reminiscence | Retention | Retroactive interference | Serial position effect | Serial recall | Source amnesia |
Memory theory
Atkinson-Shiffrin | Baddeley | CLARION | Decay theory | Dual-coding theory | Interference theory |Memory consolidation | Memory encoding | Memory-prediction framework | Forgetting | Recall | Recognition |
Mnemonics
Method of loci | Mnemonic room system | Mnemonic dominic system | Mnemonic learning | Mnemonic link system |Mnemonic major system | Mnemonic peg system | [[]] |[[]] |
Neuroanatomy of memory
Amygdala | Hippocampus | prefrontal cortex  | Neurobiology of working memory | Neurophysiology of memory | Rhinal cortex | Synapses |[[]] |
Neurochemistry of memory
Glutamatergic system  | of short term memory | [[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |[[]] |
Developmental aspects of memory
Prenatal memory | |Childhood memory | Memory and aging | [[]] | [[]] |
Memory in clinical settings
Alcohol amnestic disorder | Amnesia | Dissociative fugue | False memory syndrome | False memory | Hyperthymesia | Memory and aging | Memory disorders | Memory distrust syndrome  Repressed memory  Traumatic memory |
Retention measures
Benton | CAMPROMPT | Implicit memory testing | Indirect tests of memory | MAS | Memory tests for children | MERMER | Rey-15 | Rivermead | TOMM | Wechsler | WMT | WRAML2 |
Treating memory problems
CBT | EMDR | Psychotherapy | Recovered memory therapy |Reminiscence therapy | Memory clinic | Memory training | Rewind technique |
Prominant workers in memory|-
Baddeley | Broadbent |Ebbinghaus  | Kandel |McGaugh | Schacter  | Treisman | Tulving  |
Philosophy and historical views of memory
Aristotle | [[]] |[[]] |[[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
Miscellaneous
Journals | Learning, Memory, and Cognition |Journal of Memory and Language |Memory |Memory and Cognition | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |


  1. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B. & Loring D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment, 4th, 25, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Mayes, A. R. (2000). "The neuropsychology of memory" Berrios, G. E. & Hodges, J. R Memory disorders in psychiatric practice, 506, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Mayes, A.R. (1988). Human organic memory disorders, 300, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Baddeley, A. (1992). Working Memory. Science 255 (5044): 556–559.
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