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Rhodopsin-like receptors are the largest group of G-protein coupled receptors.

G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. GPCRs are usually described as "superfamily" because they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence.[1] The currently known superfamily members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs: http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/.

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices.[2][3][4]

Rhodopsin-like GPCRs have been classified into the following 19 subgroups (A1-A19) based on a phylogenetic analysis.[5]

Subfamily A1

  • Chemokine receptor Template:InterPro
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (CCR1, CKR1)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2, CKR2)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 (CCR3, CKR3)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (CCR4, CKR4)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5, CKR5)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8, CKR8)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2, CKRX)
  • chemokine (C motif) receptor 1 (XCR1, CXC1) Template:InterPro
  • chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1, C3X1) Template:InterPro
  • GPR137B (GPR137B, TM7SF1)

Subfamily A2

  • Chemokine receptor Template:InterPro
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 1 (CCRL1 CCRL1, CCR11)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6 (CCR6, CKR6)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7, CKR7)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 9 (CCR9, CKR9)
    • Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10 (CCR10, CKRA)
  • CXC chemokine receptors Template:InterPro
    • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (CXCR6, BONZO)
    • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7 (CXCR7, RDC1) Template:InterPro
  • Interleukin-8 Template:InterPro (IL8R)
  • Adrenomedullin receptor (GPR182)
  • Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor (DARC, DUFF)
  • G Protein-coupled Receptor 30 (GPER, CML2, GPCR estrogen receptor)

Subfamily A3

  • Angiotensin II receptor Template:InterPro
    • Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1, AG2S)
    • Angiotensin II receptor, type 2 (AGTR2, AG22)
    • Apelin receptor (AGTRL1, APJ) Template:InterPro
  • Bradykinin receptor Template:InterPro
    • Bradykinin receptor B1 (BDKRB1, BRB1)
    • Bradykinin receptor B2 (BDKRB2, BRB2)
  • GPR15 (GPR15, GPRF)
  • GPR25 (GPR25)

Subfamily A4

Subfamily A5

  • Galanin receptor Template:InterPro
    • Galanin receptor 1 (GALR1, GALR)
    • Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2, GALS)
    • Galanin receptor 3 (GALR3, GALT)
  • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor Template:InterPro
    • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1)
    • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CYSLTR2)
  • Leukotriene B4 receptor Template:InterPro
    • Leukotriene B4 receptor (LTB4R, P2Y7)
    • Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (LTB4R2)
  • Relaxin receptor Template:InterPro
    • Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1, LGR7)
    • Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2, GPR106)
    • Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3, SALPR)
    • Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4, GPR100/GPR142)
  • KiSS1-derived peptide receptor (GPR54) (KISS1R) Template:InterPro
  • Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1, GPRO) Template:InterPro
  • Urotensin-II receptor (UTS2R, UR2R) Template:InterPro

Subfamily A6

  • GPR40-related receptor Template:InterPro
    • Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1, GPR40)
    • Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, GPR43)
    • Free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3, GPR41)
    • GPR42 (GPR42, FFAR1L)
  • P2 purinoceptor Template:InterPro
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y1 (P2RY1)
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y2 (P2RY2)
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y4 (P2RY4)
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y6 (P2RY6)
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y11 (P2RY11)
  • GPR31 (GPR31, GPRV)
  • GPR81 (GPR81)
  • GPR82 (GPR82)
  • GPR109B (GPR109B, HM74)
  • Oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) receptor 1 (OXGR1, GPR80)
  • Succinate receptor 1 (SUCNR1, GPR91)

Subfamily A7

  • P2 purinoceptor Template:InterPro
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y5 (P2RY5, P2Y5) Template:InterPro
    • Purinergic receptor P2Y10 (P2RY10, P2Y10)
  • Protease-activated receptor Template:InterPro
    • Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1, PAR2)
    • Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 2 (F2RL2, PAR3)
  • Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (lymphocyte-specific G protein-coupled receptor) (EBI2)
  • GPR4 (GPR4) Template:InterPro
  • GPR17 (GPR17, GPRH)
  • GPR18 (GPR18, GPRI)
  • GPR20 (GPR20, GPRK)
  • GPR23 (GPR23, P2RY9, P2Y9)
  • GPR35 (GPR35)
  • GPR55 (GPR55)
  • GPR65 (GPR65) Template:InterPro
  • GPR68 (GPR68) Template:InterPro
  • GPR92 (GPR92)
  • GPR132 (132, G2A) Template:InterPro
  • Coagulation factor II receptor (F2R, THRR)

Subfamily A8

  • P2 purinoceptor Template:InterPro
  • GPR34 (GPR34)
  • GPR87 (GPR87)
  • GPR171 (GPR171, H963)
  • Platelet-activating factor receptor (PTAFR, PAFR) Template:InterPro

Subfamily A9

  • Cannabinoid receptor Template:InterPro
    • Cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) (CNR1, CB1R)
    • Cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) (CNR2, CB2R)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid receptor Template:InterPro
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 2 (EDG2)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 4 (EDG4)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 7 (EDG7)
  • Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor Template:InterPro
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG1)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 3 (EDG3)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 5 (EDG5)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 6 (EDG6)
    • Endothelial differentiation gene 8 (EDG8)
  • Melanocortin/ACTH receptor Template:InterPro
  • GPR3 (GPR3)
  • GPR6 (GPR6)
  • GPR12 (GPR12, GPRC)

Subfamily A10

  • Opsins Template:InterPro[6]
    • Rhodopsin (RHO, OPSD)
    • Opsin 1 (cone pigments), short-wave-sensitive (color blindness, tritan) (OPN1SW, OPSB) (blue-sensitive opsin)
    • Opsin 1 (cone pigments), medium-wave-sensitive (color blindness, deutan) (OPN1MW, OPSG) (green-sensitive opsin)
    • Opsin 1 (cone pigments), long-wave-sensitive (color blindness, protan) (OPN1LW, OPSR) (red-sensitive opsin)
    • Retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR)
    • Retinal pigment epithelium-derived rhodopsin homolog (RRH, OPSX) (visual pigment-like receptor opsin) Template:InterPro

Subfamily A11

  • Eicosanoid receptor Template:InterPro
    • Prostaglandin D2 receptor (PTGDR, PD2R)
    • Prostaglandin E1 receptor (PTGER1, PE21)
    • Prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER2, PE22)
    • Prostaglandin E3 receptor (PTGER3, PE23)
    • Prostaglandin E4 receptor (PTGER4, PE24)
    • Prostaglandin F receptor (PTGFR, PF2R)
    • Prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) receptor (PTGIR, PI2R)
    • Thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R, TA2R)

Subfamily A12

Subfamily A13

Subfamily A14

Subfamily A15

Subfamily A16

Subfamily A17

Subfamily A18

  • Anaphylatoxin receptors Template:InterPro
    • C3a receptor (C3AR1, C3AR)
    • C5a receptor (C5AR1, C5AR)
    • Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1, CML1)
  • Formyl peptide receptor Template:InterPro
    • Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, FMLR)
    • Formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1, FML2)
    • Formyl peptide receptor-like 2 (FPRL2, FML1)
  • MAS1 oncogene Template:InterPro
  • GPR1 (GPR1)
  • GPR32 (GPR32, GPRW)
  • GPR44 (GPR44)
  • GPR77 (GPR77, C5L2)

Subfamily A19

  • Glycoprotein hormone receptor Template:InterPro
  • Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4 , GPR48)
  • Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR5 , GPR49)

Unclassified

References

  1. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1994). Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 7 (2): 195-203.
  2. Birnbaumer L (1990). G proteins in signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30: 675-705.
  3. Gilman AG, Casey PJ (1988). G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (6): 2577-2580.
  4. Attwood TK, Findlay JB (1993). Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G-protein-coupled receptors. Protein Eng. 6 (2): 167-176.
  5. Joost P, Methner A (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands. Genome Biol 3 (11): research0063.1-0063.16.
  6. Terakita A (2005). The opsins. Genome Biol. 6 (3): 213.

External links

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
  1. Horn F, Bettler E, Oliveira L, Campagne F, Cohen FE, Vriend G (2003). GPCRDB information system for G protein-coupled receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (1): 294–7.
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