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Sandra Ruth Lipsitz Bem, born on 22 June, 1944, is a Pennsylvanian psychologist known for many of her works in androgyny and gender studies, including the Bem Sex Role Inventory. She is currently a professor at Cornell University.


  • Bem, Sandra L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 42, 155-62.
  • Bem, Sandra L. and C. Watson. (1976). Scoring packet: Bem Sex Role Inventory. Unpublished Manuscript
  • Bem, S. L. (1977). On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 196-205
  • Bem, S. L. (1977). The 1977 annual handbook for group facilitators.
  • Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing source. Psychological Review, 88, 354.
  • Bem, S. L. (1981). The BSRI and gender schema theory: A reply to Spence and Helmreich. Psychological Review, 88, 369-71.
  • Bem S. L. (1989). Genital knowledge and gender constancy in preschool children. Child Development, 60, 3.
  • Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Bem, S. L. (1995). Dismantling gender polarization and compulsory heterosexuality: Should we turn the volume down or up? Journal of Sex Research, 32, 329-334.
  • Bem, S. L., Schellenberg, E. G., & Keil, J. M. (1995). "Innocent victims" of AIDS: Identifying the subtext. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1790-1800.
  • Chesler, P., Rothblum, E. D., & Cole, E. ( 1995). Feminist foremothers in women's studies, psychology, and mental health. New York: Haworth Press.
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