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Sexual slavery is the organized coercion of unwilling people into different sexual practices. Sexual slavery may include single-owner sexual slavery, ritual slavery sometimes associated with traditional religious practices, slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common, or forced prostitution.

In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is de facto available for sexual intercourse, and ordinary social conventions and legal protections that would otherwise constrain an owner's actions are not effective. For example, extramarital sex between a married man and a slave was not considered adultery in most societies that accepted slavery.[1]

Definition of sexual slavery[]

According to the Rome Statute (Article 7(2)(c)) sexual enslavement means the exercise of any or all of the powers attached to the "right of ownership" over a person. It comprises the repeated violation or sexual abuse or forcing the victim to provide sexual services as well as the rape by the captor. The crime has the character of a continuing offence. The Rome Statute's definition of sexual slavery includes situations where persons are forced to domestic servitude, marriage or any other forced labour involving sexual activity, as well as the trafficking of persons, in particular women and children.[2]

Forced prostitution[]

Main article: Forced prostitution

Sexual slavery encompasses most, if not all, forms of forced prostitution[citation needed]. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" generally refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.[3]

In 1949 the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (the 1949 Convention). The 1949 Convention supersedes a number of earlier conventions that covered some aspects of forced prostitution. Signatories are charged with three obligations under the 1949 Convention: prohibition of trafficking, specific administrative and enforcement measures, and social measures aimed at trafficked persons. The 1949 Convention presents two shifts in perspective of the trafficking problem in that it views prostitutes as victims of the procurers, and in that it eschews the terms "white slave traffic" and "women," using for the first time race- and gender-neutral language.[4] Article 1 of the 1949 Convention provides punishment for any person who "[p]rocures, entices or leads away, for purposes of prostitution, another person" or "[e]xploits the prostitution of another person, even with the consent of that person." To fall under the provisions of the 1949 Convention, the trafficking need not cross international lines.[4]

Human trafficking[]

Main article: Human trafficking

Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a major cause of contemporary sexual slavery.

The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the US, according to a report by UNODC.[5]

The major sources of trafficked persons include Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine.[5]

Crime against humanity[]

The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, recognises rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.[6][7] Sexual slavery was first recognized as crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foca (southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape, torture and sexual enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen, and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992.[8] The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of torture and enslavement as a crime against humanity.[8] The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war.[9] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia found three Bosnian Serb men guilty of rape of Bosniac (Bosnian Muslim) women and girls (some as young as 12 and 15 years of age), in Foca, eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina. The charges were brought as crimes against humanity and war crimes. Furthermore two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centers. Many of the women subsequently disappeared.[9]

Sexual slavery during armed conflict and war[]

File:Chinese girl from one of the Japanese Army's 'comfort battalions'.jpg

Rangoon, Burma. August 8, 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman who was in one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer.

Main article: War rape

Rape and sexual violence have accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era.[10] Before the 19th Century military circles supported the notion that all persons, including unarmed women and children, were still the enemy, with the belligerent having conquering rights over them.[11] "To the victor goes the spoils" has been a war cry for centuries and women were included as part of the spoils of war.[12]

Institutionalised sexual slavery and enforced prostitution have been documented in a number of wars, most notably the Second World War. A widely publicised example are "comfort women", a euphemism for the up to 200,000 women who served in the Japanese army's brothels during World War II. Historians and researchers into the subject have stated that the majority were from Korea, China, and other occupied territories part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and were recruited by force or deception to serve as sex slaves.[13][14][15][16] Similarly forced prostitution by the Nazis for sexual gratification of German soldiers and members of other Nazi controlled organizations became prevalent in occupied Europe during World War II.[17] It is estimated that a minimum of 34,140 women from occupied states were forced to work as prostitutes during the Third Reich.[18].

Bride kidnapping and raptio[]

Main article: Bride kidnapping
File:Poussin RapeSabineLouvre.jpg

Rape of the Sabine Women, by Nicolas Poussin, Rome, 1637-38 (Louvre Museum) (Note: The Roman Architecture depicted in the background didn't come into existence until sometime after the depicted event.)

Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a form of marriage practiced in some traditional cultures, in countries spanning Central Asia, the Caucasus region, parts of Africa, and among the Hmong in southeast Asia, the Tzeltal in Mexico, and the Romani in Europe.[citation needed] Though the motivations behind bride kidnapping vary by region, the cultures with traditions of marriage by abduction are generally patriarchal with a strong social stigma on sex or pregnancy outside of marriage and illegitimate births.[19] In some cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli. In most cases, however, the men who resort to capturing a wife are often of lower social status, because of poverty, disease, poor character or criminality.[20] They are sometimes deterred from legitimately seeking a wife because of the payment the woman's family expects, the bride price (not to be confused with a dowry, paid by the woman's family).[21]

Bride kidnapping is distinguished from raptio in that the former refers to the abduction of one woman by one man (and his friends and relatives), and is still a widespread practice, whereas the latter refers to the largescale abduction of women by groups of men, possibly in a time of war (see also war rape).[citation needed] The Latin term raptio refers to abduction of women, either for marriage (e.g. kidnapping or elopement) or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery). In Roman Catholic canon law, raptio refers to the legal prohibition of matrimony if the bride was abducted forcibly (Canon 1089 CIC). The historical English term for the abduction of women is rape, see below; Frauenraub, originally from German, is still used in English in the field of art history.[citation needed] The practice is surmised to have been common since anthropological antiquity. In Neolithic Europe, excavation of the Linear Pottery culture site at Asparn-Schletz, Austria, the remains of numerous slain victims were found. Among them, young adult females and children were clearly under-represented, suggesting that the attackers had killed the men but abducted the nubile females.[22]

Contemporary sexual slavery[]


A common misconception is that sexual slavery and sex-trafficking only occur in poor countries. In fact, most countries of destination for victims of human trafficking are wealthy countries from the Western World, where customers can afford to buy sex from these victims.

Trafficking victims from Eastern Europe, as well as from Asia, Latin America and Africa, to Western Europe, for the purpose of sexual exploitation, is a serious problem.

In Netherlands, it is estimated that there are from 1,000 to 7,000 trafficking victims a year. Most police investigations relate to legal sex businesses, with all sectors of prostitution being well represented, but with window brothels being particularly overrepresented. [23][24][25] In 2008, there were 809 registered trafficking victims, 763 were women and at least 60 percent of them were forced to work in the sex industry. All victims from Hungary were female and were forced into prostitution.[26] [27] Out of all Amsterdam's 8,000 to 11,000 prostitutes, more than 75% are from Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia, according to a former prostitute who produced a report about the sex trade in Amsterdam, in 2008.[28] An article in Le Monde in 1997 found that 80% of prostitutes in the Netherlands were foreigners and 70% had no immigration papers.[29][30]

In Germany, the trafficking of women from Eastern Europe is often organized by people from that same region. The German Federal Police Office BKA reported in 2006 a total of 357 completed investigations of human trafficking, with 775 victims. Thirty-five percent of the suspects were Germans born in Germany and 8% were German citizens born outside of Germany.[31]

In Greece, according to NGO estimates, there are 13,000-14,000 trafficking victims in the country at any given time. Major countries of origin for trafficking victims include Nigeria, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Albania, Moldova, Romania, and Belarus.[32]

In Switzerland, the police estimates that there may be between 1,500 and 3,000 victims of human trafficking. The organisers and their victims generally come from Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, Lithuania, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Thailand and Cambodia, and, to a lesser extent, Africa.[33]

In Belgium, in 2007, prosecutors handled 418 trafficking cases, including 219 economic exploitation and 168 sexual exploitation cases. The federal judicial police handled 196 trafficking files, compared with 184 in 2006. In 2007 the police arrested 342 persons for smuggling and trafficking-related crimes.[34] A recent report by RiskMonitor foundation found that 70% of the prostitutes who work in Belgium are from Bulgaria.[35]

In Austria, Vienna has the largest number of trafficking cases, although trafficking is also a problem in urban centers such as Graz, Linz, Salzburg, and Innsbruck. The NGO Lateinamerikanische Frauen in Oesterreich–Interventionsstelle fuer Betroffene des Frauenhandels (LEFOE-IBF) reported assisting 108 trafficking victims in 2006, down from 151 in 2005.[36]

In Spain, in 2007, officials identified 1,035 sex trafficking victims and 445 labor trafficking victims.[37]


In Africa the colonial powers abolished slavery in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but in areas outside their jurisdiction, such as the Mahdist empire in Sudan, the practice continued to thrive (see also: Slavery in modern Africa). Now, institutional slavery has been banned worldwide, but there are numerous reports of women sex slaves in areas without an effective government control, such as, Sudan,[38] Liberia,[39] Sierra Leone,[40] northern Uganda,[41] Congo,[42] Niger[43] and Mauritania.[44] In Ghana, Togo, and Benin, a form of religious prostitution known as trokosi ("ritual servitude") forcibly keeps thousands of girls and women in traditional shrines as "wives of the gods", where priests perform the sexual function in place of the gods.[45]


Over 200,000 Nepali girls have been trafficked to red light areas of India.[46]This is an exaggerated figure and the actual number is much less(according to UN's International labour organisation(ILO)the figure is 30,000)ref. ( An actual survey indicated around 25 thousand(ref Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favoured in India because of their fair skin and young looks.[47][48].They constitute 2.5% of total number of prostitutes in India(ref. )

In Pakistan, young girls (sometimes as young as 9 years old) on few instances have been sold by their families to brothels as sex slaves in big cities. Often this happens due to poverty or debt, whereby the family has no other way to raise the money than to sell the young girl[49]. Few cases have also been recorded where wives and sisters have been sold to brothels to raise money for gambling, drinking or consuming drugs. Many sex slaves are also bought by 'agents' in Afghanistan who trick young girls into coming to Pakistan for well-paying jobs. Once in Pakistan they are taken to brothels (called Kharabat) and forced into sexual slavery for many years.[50][51]

In Thailand, Thailand’s Health System Research Institute reports that children in prostitution make up 40% of prostitutes in Thailand,[52] and a proportion of prostitutes over the age of 18, including foreign nationals from Asia and Europe, are also in a state of forced sexual servitude and slavery.[53]

Sexual slavery also exists in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, where women and children are trafficked from the post-Soviet states, Eastern Europe, Far East, Africa, South Asia and other parts of the Middle East.[54][55][56]

United States[]

In the 21st Century, women, mostly from South America, Southeast Asia, and the former Soviet Union, are trafficked into the United States for sexual slavery.[57] In some cases American citizens are tricked into becoming sex slaves.[58]

Today the United States State Department estimates that 50,000 to 100,000 women and girls are trafficked each year in the United States. Many times these girls are some of the most vulnerable that are thrust into this industry. According to Girl’s Education & Mentoring Services (GEMS), an organization based in New York, the majority of girls that are thrown into this industry were abused as children. Poverty and a lack of education play major roles in the lives of the women in this industry. According to a report conducted by the University of Pennsylvania, anywhere from 100,000 up to 300,000 American children are at risk of commercial sexual exploitation at any given time.[59]

In the United States of America, the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has also been implicated in the trafficking of underage women across state and international boundaries (US/Canada). In most cases, this is for the continuation of polygamous practices, in the form of plural marriage.[60][61]

Historical sexual slavery[]


The Slave Market (c. 1884), painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

Arab slave trade[]

Further information: Arab slave trade
See also: Slavery (Ottoman Empire)

Slave trade, including trade of sex slaves,[62] fluctuated in certain regions in the Middle East up until the twentieth century (see also Arab slave trade).[63] These slaves came largely from Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj), the Caucasus (mainly Circassians),[64] Central Asia (mainly Tartars), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba).[65] The Barbary pirates also captured 1.25 million slaves from Western Europe and North Africa between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.[66][67]

In contrast to the Atlantic slave trade where the male-female ratio was 2:1 or 3:1, the Arab slave trade usually had a higher female:male ratio instead, suggesting a general preference for female slaves. Concubinage and reproduction served as incentives for importing female slaves (often from the Caucasus), though many were also imported mainly for performing household tasks (usually when the owner was female).[68]

White slavery[]

File:The White Slave statue.jpg

Statue entitled "The White Slave" by Abastenia St. Leger Eberle

In English-speaking countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries, sexual slavery was referred to as "white slavery," not so much because of the race of the victims but to distinguish it from the full-scale, hereditary system of slavery that had been imposed on black people in the Americas.

In Victorian Britain, campaigning journalist William Thomas Stead, (editor of the Pall Mall Gazette) procured a 13 year-old girl for £5, an amount then equal to a labourer's monthly wage (see the Eliza Armstrong case). Panic over the "traffic in women" rose to a peak in England in the 1880s. At the time, "white slavery" was a natural target for defenders of public morality and crusading journalists. The ensuing outcry led to the passage of antislavery legislation in Parliament.

Parliament passed the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act, raising the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen in that year.[69]

A subsequent scare occurred in the United States in the early twentieth century, peaking in 1910, when Chicago's U.S. attorney announced (without giving details) that an international crime ring was abducting young girls in Europe, importing them, and forcing them to work in Chicago brothels. These claims, and the panic they inflamed, led to the passage of the United States White-Slave Traffic Act of 1910. It also banned the interstate transport of females for immoral purposes. Its primary intent was to address prostitution and immorality. The act is better known as the Mann Act, after James Robert Mann, an American lawmaker.[70]

Chinese immigrants in the U.S. were singled out as white slavers, although any such activity was restricted to the criminal segment of the Chinese community. As an example of this in American culture, the musical comedy Thoroughly Modern Millie features a Chinese-run prostitution ring, which is specifically referred to as "white slavery." The gangster movie Prime Cut has mid-West white slaves sold like cattle.

In Christian Europe, on the other hand, the predominant image linked the term "white slavery" to the Ottoman harems and Arab slave traders, particularly the Barbary pirates who captured more than a million slaves from Western Europe and North Africa.[66][67]


In the 16th and 17th centuries, Portuguese visitors and their South Asian lascar (and sometimes African) crewmembers often engaged in slavery in Japan, where they bought or captured young Japanese women and girls, who were either used as sexual slaves on their ships or taken to Macau and other Portuguese colonies in Southeast Asia, the Americas,[71] and India.[72] For example, in Goa, a Portuguese colony in India, there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders during the late 16th and 17th centuries.[71][72]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a network of Chinese and Japanese prostitutes being trafficked across Asia, in countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and British India, in what was then known as the ’Yellow Slave Traffic’. There was also a network of prostitutes from continental Europe being trafficked to India, Ceylon, Singapore, China and Japan at around the same time, in what was then known as the ’White Slave Traffic’.[73]

During World War II, Japanese soldiers engaged in sexual slavery during their invasions across East Asia and Southeast Asia. The term "comfort women" is a euphemism for the estimated 200,000, mostly Korean, Chinese, and Filipino women who were forced into prostitution in Japanese military brothels during World War II.[13]

Sexual slavery in the United States[]

See also: Slavery in the United States#Treatment of slaves

Paramour rights[]

The term paramour rights refers to the American practice of a white man taking a black woman to whom he was not married as his concubine. The term "paramour rights" was first used by Zora Neale Hurston. The practice, she claimed, began prior to the Civil War and was reinforced afterward by anti-miscegenation laws, which prohibited interracial marriage between whites and non-whites. Hurston first wrote about the practice in her anthropological studies of the turpentine camps of North Florida in the 1930s, though support for her conclusions is weak or non-existent. She believed that the death knell of paramour rights was sounded by the trial of Ruby McCollum, a black woman who murdered her white lover, Dr. C. Leroy Adams, in Live Oak, Florida, in 1952. McCollum's trial, which Hurston covered for the Pittsburgh Courier.

See also[]


  1. Love and Sex and Women in the Art of Ancient Greece
  2. pg.29-30
  3. Report of the Special Rapporteur on systemic rape. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights. URL accessed on 10 November 2009.
  4. 4.0 4.1[dead link]
  5. 5.0 5.1 [1]
  6. As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360
  7. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
  8. 8.0 8.1 Rape as a Crime Against Humanity
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bosnia-Herzegovina : Foca verdict - rape and sexual enslavement are crimes against humanity. 22 February 2001. Amnesty International.
  10. Levinson, Bernard M. [2004]. Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East, 203.
  11. Askin, Kelly Dawn [1997]. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals, 26–27, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  12. Askin, Kelly Dawn [1997]. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals, 10–21, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  14. includeonly>Fackler, Martin. "No Apology for Sex Slavery, Japan’s Prime Minister Says", The New York Times, 6 March 2007. Retrieved on 23 March 2007.
  15. includeonly>"Abe questions sex slave 'coercion'", BBC News, 2007-03-02. Retrieved on 23 March 2007.
  16. includeonly>"Japan party probes sex slave use", BBC News, 2007-03-08. Retrieved on 23 March 2007.
  17. (German) Thomas Gaevert, Martin Hilbert. Frauen als Beute: Wehrmacht und Prostitution - über den Missbrauch von Frauen in deutschen Militärbordellen (Women as Booty: Wehrmacht and Prostitution...) [documentary]. Cologne: Aquinofilm, ARD-WDR.
  18. The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbruck Concentration Prison for Women by Nanda Herbermann
  19. See Brian Stross, Tzeltal Marriage by Capture, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 3, Kidnapping and Elopement as Alternative Systems of Marriage (Special Issue) (July 1974), pp. 328-346 (describing Tzeltal culture as patriarchal with a few opportunities for "pre-marital cross-sex interaction")[hereinafter Stross, Tzeltal Marriage by Capture]; Sabina Kiryashova, Azeri Bride Kidnappers Risk Heavy Sentences, (discussing the shame brought on Azeri kidnap victims who spend a night outside of the house); Gulo Kokhodze & Tamuna Uchidze, Bride Theft Rampant in Southern Georgia, (discussing the Georgian case, where "great social stigma attaches to the suspicion of lost virginity.". Compare with Barbara Ayres, Bride Theft and Raiding for Wives in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 3, Kidnapping and Elopement as Alternative Systems of Marriage (Special Issue) (July 1974), pp. 245. ("There is no relationship between bride theft and status distinctions, bride price, or attitudes toward premarital virginity. The absence of strong associations in these areas suggests the need for a new hypothesis.".)
  20. See Stross, Tzeltal Marriage by Capture (Tzeltal culture); George Scott, The Migrants Without Mountains: The Sociocultural Adjustment Among the Lao Hmong Refugees In San Diego (Ann Arbor, MI: A Bell And Howell Company, 1986), pp. 82-85 (Hmong culture); Alex Rodriguez, Kidnapping a Bride Practice Embraced in Kyrgyzstan, Augusta Chronicle, 24 July 2005 (Kyrgyz culture);
  21. See Stross, Tzeltal Marriage by Capture, pp. 342-343; Craig S. Smith, Abduction, Often Violent, a Kyrgyz Wedding Rite, N.Y. Times, 30 April 2005.
  22. Eisenhauer, U., Kulturwandel und Innovationsprozess: Die fünf grossen 'W' und die Verbreitung des Mittelneolithikums in Südwestdeutschland. Archäologische Informationen 22, 1999, 215-239; an alternative interpretation is the focus of abduction of children rather than women, a suggestion also made for the mass grave excavated at Thalheim. See E Biermann, Überlegungen zur Bevölkerungsgrösse in Siedlungen der Bandkeramik (2001) [2]
  23. [3]
  24. [4]
  25. [5]
  26. [6]
  27. [7]
  29. [8]
  30. [9]
  31. Reports on human trafficking, by the BKA. (German)
  32. [10]
  33. [11]
  34. [12]
  35. [13]
  36. [14]
  37. [15]
  38. Sudan: Darfur: Rape as a weapon of war: sexual violence and its consequences
  39. Liberia's Taylor appears in court
  40. Sierra Leone: Sexual Violence Widespread in War
  41. Uganda: No Amnesty for Atrocities
  42. Girls at U.N. meeting urge action against sex slavery, trafficking, child labor, AIDS
  43. Born to be a slave in Niger
  44. Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law
  45. Ghana's trapped slaves, By Humphrey Hawksley in eastern Ghana, 8 February 2001. BBC News
  46. [16]
  47. Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery
  48. Fair skin and young looks: Nepalese victims of human trafficking languish in Indian brothels
  49. BUSHELL, ANDREW PAKISTAN'S SLAVE TRADE:Afghan refugees sold into prostitution; indentured servitude flourishes;scenes from a slave auction.
  50. Sex Slave Jihad
  51. New York Times: Sex Slaves Returning Home Raise AIDS Risks, Study Says
  52. [17]
  53. UNICRI Trafficking in Minors, Report on Thailand 2005
  54. United Arab Emirates, US Department of State
  55. Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report 2007, US Department of State
  56. Country Narratives: Near East, US Department of State
  57. May, Meredith. "Sex Trafficking FIRST OF A FOUR PART SPECIAL REPORT." San Francisco Chronicle. Friday October 6, 2006. Retrieved on August 23, 2009.
  58. includeonly>"Teen Girls' Stories of Sex Trafficking in U.S.", ABC News, 9 February 2006. Retrieved on 19 September 2009.
  62. Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery
  63. Mauritania made slavery illegal last month
  64. "Horrible Traffic in Circassian Women—Infanticide in Turkey," New York Daily Times, August 6 1856
  65. Soldier Khan
  66. 66.0 66.1 When europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  67. 67.0 67.1 Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800.Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt, "Transatlantic Slave Trade", Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999), ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  68. Ehud R. Toledano (1998), Slavery and abolition in the Ottoman Middle East, University of Washington Press, pp. 13–4, ISBN 029597642X 
  69. Cecil Adeams, "The Straight Dope: Was there really such a thing as "white slavery"?" January 15, 1999.
  70. Cecil Adams, op. cit.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Leupp, Gary P. (2003), Interracial Intimacy in Japan, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 49, ISBN 0826460747 
  72. 72.0 72.1 Leupp, Gary P. (2003), Interracial Intimacy in Japan, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 52, ISBN 0826460747 
  73. Fischer-Tiné, Harald (2003), "'White women degrading themselves to the lowest depths': European networks of prostitution and colonial anxieties in British India and Ceylon ca. 1880-1914", Indian Economic Social History Review 40: 163–90 [175-81], doi:10.1177/001946460304000202

  • Davies, Nick Guardian newspaper “Prostitution and trafficking – the anatomy of a moral panic” 20 October 2009

Further reading[]

  • Davis, Robert Murray (2003). Christian slaves, Muslim masters: white slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.$
  • Walsh, Michael J.; Don Jordan (2008). White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britains White Slaves in America, NYU PRESS.
  • Lal, Kishori Saran (1994). Muslim Slave System in Medieval India, Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books.

External links[]

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