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World Psychology: Psychology by Country · Psychology of Displaced Persons

The Six Yogas of Naropa (Tibetan language na-ro-chos-drug) describe a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric meditation practices compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic Naropa (1016-1100 CE), and conveyed to his student Marpa the translator. The Six Yogas were intended in part to help in the attainment of enlightenment in an accelerated manner.

Though variously translated, the Six Yogas generally conform to the following conceptual list:

(Tibetan language Wylie transliteration and Sanskrit in parentheses)

  1. Tummo (T:gtum-mo; S:caṇḍālī) — the Yoga of Mystic Heat
  2. Gyulu (T:sgyu-lus; S:māyākāyā) — the Yoga of the Illusory Body
  3. Milam (T:rmi-lam; S:svapnadarśana) — the Yoga of the Dream State (also Jangwa, Gyurwa, Pelwa)
  4. Ösel (T:hod-gsal; S:prabhāsvara) — the Yoga of the Clear Light
  5. Bardo (T:bar-do; S:antarābhava) — the Yoga of the Intermediate State
  6. Phowa (T:hpho-ba; S:saṃkrānti) — the Yoga of the Transference of Consciousness (expulsion of the mind from the body)

As Naropa is a Kagyu lineage holder, the six meditative practices are strongly associated with the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. The teachings of Tilopa (988-1069 CE) are the earliest known work on the Six Yogas. Naropa learned the techniques from Tilopa. Naropa's student Marpa taught the Tibetan Milarepa, renowned for his yogic skills. Milarepa in turn taught Gampopa. Gampopa's student, the future first Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa, attained enlightenment while practicing the Six Yogas.

The Karmapa, the first figure in Tibetan Buddhism to reincarnate, has been strongly associated in certain reincarnations with particular yogic attributes. Many Gelukpa practitioners, including the Dalai Lama, are expert in the Six Yogas of Naropa.

See also

  • Bardo Thodol (Tibetan Book of the Dead)
  • Tsa lung Trul khor (Tibetan Yoga)

External links

vi:Na-lạc lục pháp

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