Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)

This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..


Volume rendering of a brown rat skull

The skull is a bony structure found in the head of many animals. The skull supports the structures of the face and protects the head against injury.

The skull can be divided into two parts: the cranium and the mandible. A skull that is missing a mandible is only a cranium; this is the source of a very commonly made error in terminology. Those animals having skulls are called craniates.

Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to help the brain use auditory cues to judge direction and distance of sounds. In some animals, the skull also has a defensive function (e.g. horned ungulates); the frontal bone is where horns are mounted.

Human skulls

Main article: Human skull
File:Human skull front simplified (bones).svg

Human skull (front)

File:Human skull side simplified (bones).svg

Human skull (side)

In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures, rigid articulations permitting very little movement. Eight bones form the neurocranium (braincase)—including the frontal, parietals, occipital bone, sphenoid, temporals and ethmoid—a protective vault surrounding the brain. Fourteen bones form the splanchnocranium, the bones supporting the face. Encased within the temporal bones are the six ear ossicles of the middle ears, though these are not part of the skull. The hyoid bone, supporting the tongue, is usually not considered as part of the skull either, as it does not articulate with any other bones. The skull is a protector of the brain.

The skull contains the sinus cavities, which are air-filled cavities lined with respiratory epithelium, which also lines the large airways. The exact functions of the sinuses are unclear; they may contribute to decreasing the weight of the skull with a minimal decrease in strength, or they may be important in improving the resonance of the voice. In some animals, such as the elephant, the sinuses are extensive. The elephant skull needs to be very large, to form an attachment for muscles of the neck and trunk, but is also unexpectedly light; the comparatively small brain-case is surrounded by large sinuses which reduce the weight.

The meninges are the three layers, or membranes, which surround the structures of the nervous system. They are known as the dura mater, the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. Other than being classified together, they have little in common with each other.

In humans, the anatomical position for the skull is the Frankfurt plane, where the lower margins of the orbits and the upper borders of the ear canals are all in a horizontal plane. This is the position where the subject is standing and looking directly forward. For comparison, the skulls of other species, notably primates and hominids, may sometimes be studied in the Frankfurt plane. However, this does not always equate to a natural posture in life.

Other skulls

Temporal fenestra

File:Massospondylus Skull Steveoc 86.png

This Massospondylus skull shows the two temporal fenestrae typical of diapsids.

The temporal fenestra are anatomical features of the amniote skull, characterised by bilaterally symmetrical holes (fenestrae) in the temporal bone. Depending on the lineage of a given animal, two, one, or no pairs of temporal fenestrae may be present, above or below the postorbital and squamosal bones. The upper temporal fenestrae are also known as the supratemporal fenestrae, and the lower temporal fenestrae are also known as the infratemporal fenestrae. The presence and morphology of the temporal fenestra is critical for taxonomic classification of the synapsids, of which mammals are part.

Physiological speculation associates it with a rise in metabolic rates and an increase in jaw musculature. The earlier amniotes of the Carboniferous did not have temporal fenestrae but two more advanced lines did: The Synapsids (mammal-like reptiles) and the Diapsids (most reptiles and later birds). As time progressed, diapsids' and synapsids' temporal fenestrae became more modified and larger to make stronger bites and more jaw muscles. Dinosaurs, which are sauropsids, have large advanced openings and their descendants, the birds, have temporal fenestrae which have been modified. Mammals, which are synapsids, possess no fenestral openings in the skull, as the trait has been modified. They do, though, still have the temporal orbit (which resembles an opening) and the temporal muscles. It is a hole in the head and is situated to the rear of the orbit behind the eye.



Humans, despite having lost their fenestræ, are synapsids

There are four types of amniote skull, classified by the number and location of their fenestra. These are:

  • Anapsida - no openings
  • Synapsida - one low opening (beneath the postorbital and squamosal bones)
  • Euryapsida - one high opening (above the postorbital and squamosal bones); euryapsids actually evolved from a diapsid configuration, losing their lower temporal fenestra.
  • Diapsida - two openings

Evolutionary, they are related as follows:

  • Amniota
    • Class Synapsida
      • Order Therapsida
    • Class Sauropsida - reptiles
      • Subclass Anapsida
      • (unranked) Eureptilia
        • Subclass Diapsida
          • (unranked) Euryapsida
          • Class Aves - birds

See also



  • Atkinson, W. W. (1910). The mental qualities. New York, NY: R F Fenno & Co.
  • Bell, C. (1883). Essay II.--Changes from infancy to age. New York, NY: Fowler & Wells, Publishers.
  • Berar, M., Bailly, G., Chabanas, M., Desvignes, M., Elisei, F., Odisio, M., et al. (2006). Morphing generic organs to speaker-specific anatomies. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Bostock, J. (1830). Of cranioscopy and physiognomy. London, Great Britain: Baldwin and Cradock.
  • Bridges, D., Combe, G., & Reston, A. (1824). Case of J. G., aged ten years. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Browder, J. (1940). Fracture of the Skull: Osteomyelitis of the Cranial Bones. Post-Traumatic Epidural Abscess. Septic Thrombophlebitis of the Dural Venous Sinuses. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co.
  • Butter, Combe, G., & Nicholl, W. (1824). Remarks on the faculty of perceiving colours. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Acknowledgments of indebtedness. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Active and scientific phrenologists of the United States--surviving phrenologists who wrote upon the subject from the period of 1832--Dr. Isaac Ray--Geo. H. Calvert. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Birth and education of Gall--his early observations--scientific conclusions--anatomy of the brain--first appearance as author. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Combe's visit to the United States--his motives--his arrival and reception--testimonials of respect--in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., New Haven and Hartford, Conn.--influence of his labors. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Death of Gall--his funeral. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). The dignity of truth in controversy. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Dr. Gall's lectures and works. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). First appearance before a Boston audience--his lectures in Boston and Cambridge--his engagements--health, and the events of his sickness--his death. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). First interview with Spurzheim. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Gall and Spurzheim's memoir to the French Institute--Napoleon--Cuvier--Davy--sovereigns and science. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His arrival in the United States--reception. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His character--Dr. Roberton, George and Andrew Combe. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His death announced in Edinburgh--highly respected by distinguished men of Europe. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His interest in public men, in public institutions, and in the clergy. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His interment--heart and brain. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His monument. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). His personal appearance. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Importance of mental philosophy. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Importance of phrenology to the blind, deaf and dumb, and to idiots--testimony of Dr. S. G. Howe. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Joint publication of Gall and Spurzheim. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Labors of Spurzheim alone--his visit to Great Britain--anatomy of the brain--reviews--Abernethy. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Mental philosophy. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Metaphysics before the time of Gall--physiognomy nothing without phrenology. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Organization of the Boston Phrenological Society--its members and officers--its transactions--birthday of Spurzheim annually observed--proceedings--lectures by members--close of society--reasons. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Outlines of the science of phrenology, in a letter to Jos. Fr. De Retzer. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Personal appearance of Gall--his ability and skill as a physician. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Philosophy of phrenology--the three great teachers. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Phrenology the science of human nature--testimony of Hon. James D. Green. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). The physiology of the brain. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Preparations for a public funeral--proceedings of committees--his property--proceedings of Boston Medical Society--the funeral at the "Old South Church"--Prof. Pollen's oration--Pierpont's ode--notices of the press--his character. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Progress of phrenology from 1832 to 1840--visit of Combe to the United States--birth and education of Combe--high position of Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe as philosophers--numerous testimonials respecting the ability and character of George Combe. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Progress of phrenology in Europe--reviewers. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Reminiscences of Dr. Spurzheim and George Combe; and A review of the science of phrenology from the period of its discovery by Dr. Gall to the visit of George Combe to the United States, 1838, 1840. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Results of Mr. Combe's visit to the United States. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Rev. Father Taylor. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Rev. Hosea Ballou. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Spurzheim's interest in public institutions--education. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Spurzheim's labors in Great Britain--his home in Paris--his marriage--his motives in visiting the United States--events of his voyage. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Spurzheim's visit to Dublin, Cambridge, Edinburgh--festival in honor of--speeches of Combe and Simpson--Mme. Spurzheim--replies of Dr. Spurzheim--Christianity and women. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). State of phrenology in the United States--master-mind, like that of Spurzheim, wanted--influence of his labors--attacks upon the science--its progress--character of opponents. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Testimony of Rev. Henry Ward Beecher. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Visit to "Hancock School," and "The Smith School," for colored children. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Visit to the Monitorial School. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). What should be the influence of model philosophers--Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Capen, N. (1881). Who, now, are phrenologists?--where, now, is phrenology? New York, NY: Fowler and Wells.
  • Combe, A. (1824). Observations on Dr. Barclay's objections to phrenology. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Combe, G. (1824). Report upon the cast of Miss Clara Fisher. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Combe, G., Donkin, B., Buchanan, R., & Mackenzie, G. S. (1824). On inferring natural dispositions and talents from development of brain. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Holland, H. (1852). On phrenology. London, Great Britain: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
  • Hollander, B. (1901). The relations between brain and skull; The significance of cranial contours; The brain and skull of a typical criminal; The doctrine of free will. London, Great Britain: Grant Richards.
  • Hood, A. (1824). Notice of a case in which the patient suddenly forgot the use of spoken and written languages. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Huxley, T. H. (1877). On some fossil remains of man. New York, NY: D Appleton & Company.
  • Merton, H. W. (1899). Measurements. Philadelphia, PA: David McKay Publisher.
  • Montagu, M. F. A. (1960). Craniometry. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
  • Montagu, M. F. A. (1960). Postcranial osteometry. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
  • Nisbet, J. F. (1912). Phrenology and its limitations. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Paterson, G. M. (1824). On the phrenology of Hindostan. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Pinel, P. (1806). Section III: Of malconformation of the skulls of maniacs and ideots. London, United Kingdom: Messers Cadell & Davies, Strand.
  • Poole. (1824). A view of some of Dr. Spurzheim's lectures, as delivered at Edinburgh, in the Winter of 1816. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Scott, W. (1824). On the functions of combativeness, destructiveness and secretiveness--With illustrations of the effects of different degrees of their endowment on the characters of individuals. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Scott, W. (1824). Remarks on the cerebral development of King Robert Bruce, compared with his character as appearing from history. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Simakajornboon, N., & Beckerman, R. (2001). Sleep and craniofacial syndromes. New York, NY: Cambridge University


  • Spurzheim, J. G. (1834). Section VI. Craniology. Boston, MA: Marsh, Capen & Lyon.
  • Spurzheim, J. G. (1855). Craniology. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.
  • Talbot, E. S. (1898). The degenerate cranium. London, England: Walter Scott Publishing Co.
  • White, T.D. 1991. Human osteology. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, CA.


  • Adams, D. L., Economides, J. R., Jocson, C. M., & Horton, J. C. (2007). A biocompatible titanium headpost for stabilizing behaving monkeys: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 98(2) Aug 2007, 993-1001.
  • Alexiou, G. A., Tsiouris, S., Kyritsis, A. P., Polyzoidis, K. S., Voulgaris, S., & Fotopoulos, A. D. (2008). Rapidly progressing glioblastoma resembling brain abscess in leukemia: Acta Neurologica Belgica Vol 108(1) Mar 2008, 24-26.
  • Anonymous. (1824). Transactions of the phrenological society, instituted 22nd February 1820. Edinburgh, Great Britain: John Anderson Jr.
  • Ash, J., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2007). Paleoclimatic variation and brain expansion during human evolution: Human Nature Vol 18(2) 2007, 109-124.
  • Berhouma, M., Jemel, H., & Khaldi, M. (2008). Neglected growing skull fractures in childhood: Three case reports: Journal of Pediatric Neurology Vol 6(2) 2008, 165-169.
  • Bigler, E. D. (2007). Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: Relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome: Neuropsychology Vol 21(5) Sep 2007, 515-531.
  • Brantberg, K., & Tribukait, A. (2002). Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to laterally directed skull taps: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation Vol 12(1) 2002, 35-45.
  • Capobianco, D. J., Brazis, P. W., Rubino, F. A., & Dalton, J. N. (2002). Occipital condyle syndrome: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 42(2) Feb 2002, 142-146.
  • Carmen, J. A. (2004). Infrared images of prefrontal cortical activity: Correlates of brain states and behaviors: Journal of Neurotherapy Vol 8(2) 2004, 140-141.
  • Cernovsky, Z. Z. (1993). J. P. Rushton's aggregational errors in racial psychology: Journal of Black Psychology Vol 19(3) Aug 1993, 282-289.
  • Chauveau, N., Franceries, X., Doyon, B., Rigaud, B., Morucci, J. P., & Celsis, P. (2004). Effects of Skull Thickness, Anisotropy, and Inhomogeneity on Forward EEG/ERP Computations Using a Spherical Three-Dimensional Resistor Mesh Model: Human Brain Mapping Vol 21(2) Feb 2004, 86-97.
  • da Silva, J. A. G. (2006). "Basilar impression associated with impacted cisterna magna, spastic paraparesis and distress of balance:" Reply: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 64(4) Dec 2006, 1053.
  • Daniel, D. G., Myslobodsky, M. S., Ingraham, L. J., Coppola, R., & et al. (1989). The relationship of occipital skull asymmetry to brain parenchymal measures in schizophrenia: Schizophrenia Research Vol 2(6) Nov-Dec 1989, 465-472.
  • Davis, H. (1964). Enhancement of evoked cortical potentials in humans related to a task requiring a decision: Science 144(Whole No 3628) 1964, 182-183.
  • Dayi, E., Okuyan, M., & Tan, U. (2002). Predictability of hand skill and cognitive abilities from craniofacial width in right- and left-handed men and women: Relation of skeletal structure to cerebral function: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 112(4) Apr 2002, 383-412.
  • Deary, I. J., Ferguson, K. J., Bastin, M. E., Barrow, G. W. S., Reid, L. M., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2007). Skull size and intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ: Intelligence Vol 35(6) Nov 2007, 519-528.
  • Dimopoulos, V. G., Robinson, J. S., III, & Fountas, K. N. (2008). The pearls and pitfalls of skull trephination as described in the Hippocratic treatise "On head wounds." Journal of the History of the Neurosciences Vol 17(2) Apr-Jun 2008, 131-140.
  • Dohrmann, P. J., & Elrick, W. L. (1982). Dementia and hydrocephalus in Paget's disease: A case report: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 45(9) Sep 1982, 835-837.
  • Donovan-Lepore, A.-M., Jaeger, J., Czobor, P., Abdelmessih, S., & Berns, S. M. (2006). Quantitative Craniofacial Anomalies in a Racially Mixed Schizophrenia Sample: Biological Psychiatry Vol 59(4) Feb 2006, 349-353.
  • Dyke, C. G. (1940). The Roentgenological Aspects of Fracture of the Skull and Injuries of the Brain. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co.
  • Eeg-Olofsson, M., Stenfelt, S., Tjellstrom, A., & Granstrom, G. (2008). Transmission of bone-conducted sound in the human skull measured by cochlear vibrations: International Journal of Audiology Vol 47(12) Dec 2008, 761-769.
  • Epstein, H. T. (1974). Phrenoblysis: Special brain and mind growth periods: I. Human brain and skull development: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 7(3) May 1974, 207-216.
  • Faglioni, P., & Scarpa, M. (1989). Skull asymmetries bear no relation to the occurrence of apraxia: A clinical and CT-scan study in patients with unilateral brain damage: Cortex Vol 25(3) Sep 1989, 449-459.
  • Falavigna, A., Borba, L. A. B., & Teles, A. R. (2006). Fibrous dysplasia of the clivus: Case report: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 64(2-A) Jun 2006, 329-333.
  • Filteau, M. J., Pourcher, E., Bouchard, R. H., Baruch, P., & et al. (1992). Midline anomalies and organic psychosis: Congenital or degenerative? A cross-sectional study of 62 patients with Andermann syndrome: European Psychiatry Vol 7(3) 1992, 109-113.
  • Focht, M. (1904). Review of Weitere Untersuchungen uber die Schallleitung im Schadel: Psychological Bulletin Vol 1(12) Nov 1904, 445-446.
  • Fowler, E. A., Becker, D. B., Pilgram, T. K., Noetzel, M., Epstein, J., & Kane, A. A. (2008). Neurologic findings in infants with deformational plagiocephaly: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 23(7) Jul 2008, 742-747.
  • Frodl, T., Meisenzahl, E. M., Muller, D., Leinsinger, G., Juckel, G., Kahn, K., et al. (2001). The effect of the skull on event-related P300: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 112(9) Sep 2001, 1773-1776.
  • Gould, S. J. (1978). Morton's ranking of races by cranial capacity: Unconscious manipulation of data may be a scientific norm: Science Vol 200(4341) May 1978, 503-509.
  • Hagemann, D., Hewig, J., Walter, C., & Naumann, E. (2008). Skull thickness and magnitude of EEG alpha activity: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 119(6) Jun 2008, 1271-1280.
  • Hakansson, B., Carlsson, P., Brandt, A., & Stenfelt, S. (1996). Linearity of sound transmission through the human skull in vivo: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol 99(4, Pt 1) Apr 1996, 2239-2243.
  • Hartmann, S. J., & Saldivia, A. (1990). ECT in an elderly patient with skull defects and shrapnel: Convulsive Therapy Vol 6(2) Jun 1990, 165-171.
  • Hertel, F. (1995). Ecomorphological indicators of feeding behavior in recent and fossil raptors: Auk Vol 112(4) Oct 1995, 890-903.
  • Jernigan, T. L., Zatz, L. M., Moses, J. A., & Cardellino, J. P. (1982). Computed tomography in schizophrenics and normal volunteers: II. Cranial asymmetry: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 39(7) Jul 1982, 771-773.
  • Kay, M. A. (1993). Fallen fontanelle: Culture-bound or cross-cultural? : Medical Anthropology Vol 15(2) Apr 1993, 137-156.
  • Kinze, W., Barchmann, H., Damaschke, P., & Caruso, M. (1986). The value of "suture bones" in diagnosing minimal brain damage in children: Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie Vol 38(10) Oct 1986, 592-596.
  • Krizek, J. (1965). Prehistoric and later trepanations of the skull on Czechoslovak territory and their relation to psychiatry: Cesko-Slovenska Psychiatrie 61(5) 1965, 331-338.
  • Lee, A. C. W., Ou, Y., & Fong, D. (2003). Depressed skull fractures: A pattern of abusive head injury in three older children: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 27(11) Nov 2003, 1323-1329.
  • Li, J., Goldberg, G., Munin, M. C., Wagner, A., & Zafonte, R. (2004). Post-traumatic bilateral facial palsy: A case report and literature review: Brain Injury Vol 18(3) Mar 2004, 315-320.
  • Magalhaes, C. P., de Lima, L. O., da Silva, M. C., Marinho, S. M. O. C., do Nascimento, E., da Silva, C. M., et al. (2006). Neonatal treatment effect with selective inibitor of 5-HT recapture over the cranium-encephalic anatomic development: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 64(4) Dec 2006, 990-993.
  • Marsh, N. V., & Whitehead, G. (2005). Skull Fracture During Infancy: A Five-Year Follow-Up: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 27(3) Apr 2005, 352-366.
  • McGarry, A., Dixon, M. T., Greig, R. J., Hamilton, D. R. L., Sexton, S., & Smart, H. (2008). Head shape measurement standards and cranial orthoses in the treatment of infants with deformational plagiocephaly: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 50(8) Aug 2008, 568-576.
  • McGreevy, P., Grassi, T. D., & Harman, A. M. (2004). A strong correlation exists between the distribution of retinal ganglion cells and nose length in the dog: Brain, Behavior and Evolution Vol 63(1) Jan 2004, 13-22.
  • Michejda, M., & Menolascino, F. J. (1975). Skull base abnormalities in Down's syndrome: Mental Retardation Vol 13(1) Feb 1975, 24-26.
  • Munoz-Sanchez, M. A., Murillo-Cabezas, F., Cayuela-Dominguez, A., Rincon-Ferrari, M. D., Amaya-Villar, R., & Leon-Carrion, J. (2009). Skull fracture, with or without clinical signs, in mTBI is an independent risk marker for neurosurgically relevant intracranial lesion: A cohort study: Brain Injury Vol 23(1) Jan 2009, 39-44.
  • Nakazato, Y., & Hirato, J. (2005). A 29-year-old woman who presented with personality change and a tumor in the frontal skull base: Neuropathology Vol 25(4) Dec 2005, 395-397.
  • Nischal, K. (2007). Is non-syndromic single suture craniosynostosis purely an aesthetic problem? : Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 49(8) Aug 2007, 565.
  • No authorship, i. (1912). New Phrenology: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 3(4) Apr 1912, 227-228.
  • No authorship, i. (1912). Review of Phrenology: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 3(4) Apr 1912, 227.
  • Pearce, J. M. S. (2008). Cranial percussion: European Neurology Vol 59(5) Apr 2008, 280-282.
  • Pfefferbaum, A. (1990). Model estimates of CSF and skull influences on scalp-recorded ERPs: Alcohol Vol 7(5) Sep-Oct 1990, 479-482.
  • Ricci, D., Vasco, G., Baranello, G., Salerni, A., Amante, R., Tamburrini, G., et al. (2007). Visual function in infants with non-syndromic craniosynostosis: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 49(8) Aug 2007, 574-576.
  • Rizzo, A., Neves, C., de Queiroz, A. C., & Abensur, S. (1976). Giant-cell tumor of the sphenoid bone: Report of a case with clinical, angiographic and pathological data: Neurobiologia Vol 39(4) Oct-Dec 1976, 249-256.
  • Rubin, R. T., & Rubin, L. E. (1966). Skull roentgenography in hospitalized psychiatric patients: American Journal of Psychiatry 122(9) 1966, 1028-1032.
  • Rushton, J. P., & Osborne, R. T. (1995). Genetic and environmental contributions to cranial capacity in Black and White adolescents: Intelligence Vol 20(1) Jan-Feb 1995, 1-13.
  • Sagalovich, B. M., & Melkumova, G. G. (1964). On the propagation of ultrasonic vibrations, causing auditory sensations through the bones of the skull: Biofizika 9(4) 1964, 477-483.
  • Schiff, A. J. (1974). An improved electrode system for recording EEG from the skull: Physiology & Behavior Vol 13(4) Oct 1974, 595-597.
  • Schmitt, H. P. (1976). Significance of skull hyperostosis in neurological-psychiatric diagnostics: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie Vol 119(2) 1976, 281-297.
  • Smith, E. R., Loeffler, J., Misra, M., Pomerantz, S. R., Stemmer-Rachamimov, A., & Post, M. D. (2008). A boy with a pituitary tumor and skull abnormalities: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 359(22) Nov 2008, 2367-2377.
  • Smith, K. R. (1943). Bone conduction during experimental fixation of the stapes: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 33(2) Aug 1943, 96-107.
  • Smith-Seemiller, L., Lovell, M. R., Smith, S., Markosian, N., & Townsend, R. N. (1997). Impact of skull fracture on neuropsychological functioning following closed head injury: Brain Injury Vol 11(3) Mar 1997, 191-196.
  • Speltz, M. L., Kapp-Simon, K. A., Cunningham, M., Marsh, J., & Dawson, G. (2004). Single-suture craniosynostosis: A review of neurobehavioral research and theory: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 29(8) Dec 2004, 651-668.
  • Tan, U., Kutlu, N., Bakan, E., Bakan, N., & et al. (1992). Relationship of serum zinc levels to hand preference, skull length and serum gonadal hormone levels in right-handed young adults: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 66(1-2) Sep 1992, 17-24.
  • Teive, H. A. G. (2006). "Basilar impression associated with impacted cisterna magna, spastic paraparesis and distress of balance:" Comment: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 64(4) Dec 2006, 1053.
  • Teixeira, R. A., M. Li, L., Santos, S. L. M., Amorim, B. J., Etchebehere, E. C. S. C., Zanardi, V. A., et al. (2004). Lateralization of epileptiform discharges in patients with epilepsy and precocious destructive brain insults: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria Vol 62(1) Mar 2004, 1-8.
  • Theeler, B. J., Keylock, J. B., & Yoest, S. M. (2008). Teaching NeuroImage: Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking a meningioma: Neurology Vol 70(13) Mar 2008, e42.
  • Villani, R., & et al. (1976). Skull changes and intellectual status in hydrocephalic children following CSF shunting: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 18(6, Suppl 37) 1976, 78-81.
  • Wepman, J. (1965). View from the Inside: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 10 (7), Jul, 1965.
  • Wolpaw, J. R. (1979). Gyral impressions in the skull as a guide to cortical topography in chronic transdural unit recording: Brain Research Vol 160(3) Jan 1979, 505-508.
  • Zhao, X., Rizzo, A., Malek, B., Fakhry, S., & Watson, J. (2008). Basilar skull fracture: A risk factor for transverse/sigmoid venous sinus obstruction: Journal of Neurotrauma Vol 25(2) Feb 2008, 104-111.


  • Donovan, A.-M. (2004). Minor physical anomalies and neuropsychological performance in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Masterson, T. J., Jr. (1996). Cranial form in "cebus": An ontogenetic analysis of cranial form and sexual dimorphism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Mavis, K. K. (2001). Behavioral outcome in children diagnosed with craniofacial anomalies: The role of the mother-child relationship. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External links

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).