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A teaching assistant (TA) (or paraprofessional educator, para-pros, instructional assistants or classroom assistants, is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. The role in higher education is somewhat different see: Teaching assistant in higher education





Use with different categories of children

Use in teaching in mental retardation

Use in the teaching of pupils with learning difficulties

See also



Further reading


  • Brookson, M. (2006). Working as a teaching assistant. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Mendenhall, M. E. (1996). The foreign teaching assistant as expatriate manager. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Nyquist, J. D., & Wulff, D. H. (1996). Working effectively with graduate assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Scharff, L. F. V. (2006). Using Teaching Assistants Effectively. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Scott, J. (1996). Recruiting, selecting, and training teaching assistants. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Wortman, C. B., & Smyth, J. M. (1997). Using one's own passion and undergraduate TAs to transform the large-lecture introductory psychology course. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


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  • Allen, W. H. (1975). Intellectual abilities and instructional media design: AV Communication Review Vol 23(2) Sum 1975, 139-170.
  • Baker, L. M. (2008). Finding the balance: Review of Teachers and assistants working together: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol 55(1) Mar 2008, 83-87.
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  • Cremin, H., Thomas, G., & Vincett, K. (2003). Learning zones: An evaluation of three models for improving learning through teacher/teaching assistant teamwork: Support for Learning Vol 18(4) Nov 2003, 154-161.
  • Daly, B. (2006). Review of Teachers and assistants: Working together: Educational Psychology in Practice Vol 22(2) Jun 2006, 175-176.
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  • Frith, G. H., & Kelly, P. (1981). The parent/paraprofessional relationship in programs for severely and profoundly retarded children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 16(3) Oct 1981, 231-234.
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  • Godwin, D. C. (1977). The bilingual teacher aide: Classroom asset: The Elementary School Journal Vol 77(4) Mar 1977, 265-267.
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  • Granum, R. A. (1975). Teacher study groups: Do they make a difference? : Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 9(3) Mar 1975, 210-217.
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  • Haring, K. A., Saren, D., Lovett, D. L., & Shelton, M. N. (1992). A study of the demographic and attitudinal differences between paraprofessionals and teachers in self-contained special education classrooms: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 4(1) Mar 1992, 51-73.
  • Hughes, M., & Westgate, D. (1997). Assistants as talk-partners in early-years classrooms: Some issues of support and development: Educational Review Vol 49(1) Feb 1997, 5-12.
  • Inglis, M. (1993). The communicator style measure applied to nonnative speaking teaching assistants: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 17(1) Win 1993, 89-105.
  • Jackson, W. K., & Simpson, R. D. (1983). A survey of graduate teaching assistant instructional improvement programs: College Student Journal Vol 17(3) Fal 1983, 220-224.
  • Jenkins, S. (2000). Cultural and linguistic miscues: A case study of international teaching assistant and academic faculty miscommunication: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 24(4) Jul 2000, 477-501.
  • Jensen, J. M., Parsons, M. B., & Reid, D. H. (1998). Supervisory training for teachers: Multiple, long-term effects in an education program for adults with severe disabilities: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 19(6) Nov-Dec 1998, 449-463.
  • Johnson, J. L., & Fleisher, K. (1980). Reactions of teachers of emotionally disturbed children to group relations conferences: A new application of Tavistock training: Journal of Personality & Social Systems Vol 2(2-3) Sep 1980, 11-25.
  • Jones, L. W. (1972). Determining the role of teacher aides through identification of tasks within the psycho-motor, affective, and cognitive skills domains: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Kerry, T. (2005). Towards a typology for conceptualizing the roles of teaching assistants: Educational Review Vol 57(3) Aug 2005, 373-384.
  • Knoff, H. M. (1984). Stimulus control, paraprofessionals, and appropriate playground behavior: School Psychology Review Vol 13(2) Win 1984, 249-253.
  • Lewis, K. C. (2004). Instructional aides: Colleagues or cultural brokers? : The School Community Journal Vol 14(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 91-111.
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  • Loos, F. M., Williams, K. P., & Bailey, J. S. (1977). A multi-element analysis of the effect of teacher aides in an "open style" classroom: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 10(3) Fal 1977, 437-448.
  • Martin, L., Wright, J., & Maertens, N. (1996). Introduction of a non-traditional group of students into teacher education: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 23(1) Mar 1996, 38-44.
  • Martin-Jones, M., & Saxena, M. (2003). Bilingual Resources and 'Funds of Knowledge' for Teaching and Learning in Multi-ethnic Classrooms in Britain: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Vol 6(3-4) 2003, 267-282.
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  • Barrett, S. C. (1981). An analysis of role conflict in teaching assistants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barron, J. (1980). Issues in bilingual education affecting performance needs of teacher aides with implications for teacher training programs: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bartoli, P. V. (2002). Burnout and job performance among education professionals and paraprofessionals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bower, N. J. (1978). A comparison of two models for training personnel for teaching the moderately and severely retarded: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bullerman, M. F. (1974). Parental perception of the educational program in certain selected schools: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Christenberry, M. A. (1975). An exploratory study to investigate the relationship between teaching effectiveness and level of empathic understanding of paraprofessional teachers of young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Clemons, W. H. (1973). Variations in role expectations and role realization as perceived by teacher aide trainees, teachers of teacher aide trainees, teacher aides and teachers utilizing teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dalea, I. L. (1973). Change in self-perception in student teacher-aides following a work program: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • DiBartolomeo, T. R. (1980). The effects of modeling and discrimination training with expert generated feedback or self-generated feedback on teacher performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dill, A. V. (1994). Instructional assistants in special education: An experiential study of stress arising from a gap between "what is" and "what ought to be". Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Doidge, D. A. (1975). Teacher perceptions of teacher behavior as related to paraprofessional teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ferguson, R. C. (1977). Teachers and teacher aides: A case study of innovation in an elementary school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Feuchtbaum, G. (1976). Relationships of self concept, interpersonal values, and role expectations of indigenous classroom paraprofessionals in selected elementary schools in New York City and Philadelphia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodwin, S. S. (1983). The use of global and specific items in evaluating teaching in a teaching assistant training program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Grangaard, D. R. (1977). Perceptions of the functions of paraprofessionals in the kindergarten: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harris, S. L. (1979). Health misconceptions of elementary school teachers and teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hockett, J. C. (1973). An examination of changes in teacher behaviors and learner perceptions associated with a program for teaching assistants at the Florida State University: A pilot study: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Hudson, W. L. (1975). An investigation of students' attitudes in teacher preparation: With and without the teacher aid program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Huggins, J. W. (1985). A study to determine the teaching competencies needed by instructional assistants working with special needs students in area vocational centers in Michigan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kelly, D. (1975). A study of the effects of high school students acting as instructional aides in elementary classrooms on the development of positive self-concepts in children with whom they work: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kuhirun, K. (1986). Job satisfaction of teaching assistants in the departments of mathematics in selected universities as related to their students' achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawrence, C. A. (1974). An analysis of selected presage characteristics of teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, N. I. (1984). Paraprofessionals' job satisfaction and their teachers' leadership style: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • O'Connell, C. P. (1977). Leader behaviors, leader styles, and management effectiveness of elementary teachers as related to paid teacher aides and volunteer teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ortiz, M. N. (1978). Bilingual-bicultural instructional aide roles as perceived by teachers, administrators, and instructional aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Palmer, M. F. (1987). Student teachers as aides for middle school mathematics classes: An exploration: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pekofsky, M. (1989). A comparison of perceived teaching styles in international teaching assistants receiving cross-cultural perceptiveness training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peters, R. M. (1973). A study of teacher aide impact and the economics of aide usage: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Prest, G. S. (1993). A study of instructional assistants' job satisfaction and supervising teachers' leadership behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ritzman, E. R. (1973). Identity formation and effects of volunteer work experiences in community college students: An exploratory study with implications for counseling and education: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Roberts, C. A. (1974). An analysis of role definition consensus between teacher-coordinators and teacher aides in a career opportunities program: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Robertson, M. K. (1980). An assessment of the effects of a college aide program on selected motor skills of second and fifth graders: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ryan, E. F. (1976). A comparison of the perceptions of the role of teacher aides in special education classes for trainable and severely/profoundly mentally retarded children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sears, M. H. (1982). Intellectual and creative talents in young children as perceived by teachers, teacher aides and parents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shannon, G. C. (1978). An analysis of the administration of the Education Aide Program in the Los Angeles Unified School District: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schneiman, R. S. (1973). An evaluation of structured learning and didactic learning as methods of training behavior modification skills to low and middle socioeconomic level teacher-aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sutton, G. W. (1982). The effects of behavioral and process models of consultation on the performance of professional and paraprofessional consultees: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Swartzendruber, L. (1979). Gains in moral reasoning through two discussion methods under teaching assistants varying in Socratic skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Taylor-Way, D. G. (1981). Adaptation of interpersonal process recall and a theory of educating for the conceptualization of college instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thomas, F. M. (2005). In-service for teachers and teacher aides working with children on the autistic spectrum. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Truxaw, K. O. (1974). Recidivism differences among delinquent teacher aides: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wheeler, V. R. (1976). Measuring human development activities in an individually guided education workshop: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wilson, B. J. (1972). A proposed training program for special education teacher aides in Virginia as a basis for behavioral objectives: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.

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