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Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).
|Video clips of tics|
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|From the TSA, an adult with tics|
The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, reclassified Tourette's and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category, and replaced transient tic disorder with provisional tic disorder, but made few significant other changes. Motor disorders include:
- 307.21 Provisional tic disorder
- 307.22 Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder
- 307.23 Tourette's disorder
- Transient tic disorder consisted of multiple motor and/or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks, but less than 12 months.
- Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which are present for more than a year.
- Tourette syndrome was diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics are present for more than a year.
- Tic Disorder NOS was diagnosed when tics are present, but do not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder.
Tic disorders onset in childhood (before the age of 18), and are not due to the effects of medication or another medical condition.
- 307.20 Tic Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)
- 307.21 Transient Tic Disorder
- 307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
- 307.23 Tourette's Disorder
- F95.0 Transient tic disorder
- F95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
- F95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [de la Tourette]
- F95.8 Other tic disorders
- F95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified
A large, community-based study suggested that over 19% of school-age children have tic disorders; the children with tic disorders in that study were usually undiagnosed.
As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder, usually before the onset of puberty. Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. Although a significant amount of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders, further study is needed to confirm the relationship.
Treatment of tic disorders, although not usually necessary, is similar to treatment of Tourette syndrome. Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Tourette's Disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR), ISBN 0-89042-025-4. Available at BehaveNet.com Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
- Swain JE, Scahill L, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Leckman JF. "Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a decade of progress". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;46(8):947–68
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- Neurodevelopmental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
- Moran, M. "DSM-5 provides new take on neurodevelopment disorders". Psychiatric News. January 18, 2013;48(2):6–23.
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- "Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Retrieved on June 5, 2013.
- Evidente VG. "Is it a tic or Tourette's? Clues for differentiating simple from more complex tic disorders". Postgraduate medicine108 (5): 175-6, 179-82. PMID 11043089 Retrieved on 2007-05-24
- DSM-IV-TR: numerical listing of codes and diagnoses. BehaveNet Clinical Capsule. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
- ICD Version 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
- Kurlan R, McDermott MP, Deeley C, et al. "Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren and association with placement in special education". Neurology 57 (8): 1383-8. PMID 11673576
- Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved on 2005-03-23.
- Swerdlow NR. "Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape". Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 5 (5): 329-31.
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- The Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Group. "Definitions and classification of tic disorders". Arch. Neurol. 50 (10): 1013-6. PMID 8215958. Retrieved on 2005-03-22
Topics related to Tourette syndrome
|Main||Causes and origins - History - Sociological and cultural aspects - Treatment|
|Terms||Coprolalia - Copropraxia - Echolalia - Echopraxia - Palilalia - Sensory phenomena - Tic - Tic disorder - Tourettism|
|History||Jean-Martin Charcot - Georges Gilles de la Tourette - Jean Marc Gaspard Itard - Arthur K. Shapiro|
|Organizations||Tourette Syndrome Association - Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada|
|Media||I Have Tourette's But Tourette's Doesn't Have Me - John's Not Mad|
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